A two-modulator generalized ellipsometer is described that is capable of
measuring all 16 elements of a sample Mueller matrix with four measurements
made at different azimuthal orientations of the polarization state generator
and polarization state detector. If the sample can be described with a
Mueller–Jones matrix, only a single measurement is needed. Only two
calibration steps are needed to determine the fundamental operating parameters
of the instrument. A reflection measurement from silicon is presented as an
example, which illustrates that the elements of the Mueller–Jones matrix
can be measured to an accuracy of ∼0.1–0.2%.
© 1997 Optical Society of America
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