Abstract

The mechanical and optical arrangement of the 160-cm aperture, 90-m focal length, McMath Solar Telescope is described. Efforts have been made to obtain good images by thermal control of the optical paths and by selection of fused quartz or metal-based mirrors for the optical components. The optical paths and performances of a vacuum double-pass spectrometer and single-pass spectrograph are illustrated. Resolution of 600,000 and a total scattered light of 3% are obtained in double-pass.

© 1964 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. S. Richardson, M. Schwarzschild, Astrophys. J. 111, 351 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, Astrophys. J. 122, 565 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, L. Goldberg, Astrophys. J. 124, 1 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. B. Leighton, R. W. Noyes, G. W. Simon, Astrophys. J. 135, 474 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. W. Noyes, R. B. Leighton, Astrophys. J. 138, 631 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. E. Moreton, Sky & Telescope 21, 145 (1961).
  7. J. M. Beckers, Astrophys. J. 138, 648 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Howard, J. W. Harvey, Astrophys. J. 139, 1328 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. B. Leighton, Astrophys. J. 130, 366 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. W. Babcock, Astrophys. J. 118, 387 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  11. I. S. Bowen, Astrophys. J. 116, 1 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. R. McMath, A. K. Pierce, Sky & Telescope 20, 64, 132 (1960).
  13. R. B. Leighton, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 69, 497 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. J. Roark, Formulas for Stress and Strain (McGraw-Hill, New York, N. Y., 1954).
  15. A. Beer, ed., Vistas in Astronomy (Pergamon, London and New York, 1955), Vol. 1, p. 372.
    [Crossref]
  16. ASTM Special Technical Problem No. 265, Symp. on Electrodeless Nickel Plating (Amer. Soc. for Testing Material, Philadelphia, Pa., 1959).
  17. A. K. Pierce, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 6 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  18. Rayleigh, Scientific Papers (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1902), Vol. III.
  19. C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-Rays and Material Particles (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1934).
  20. D. H. Rank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 213 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. N. Shearer, T. A. Wiggins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 133 (1955).
    [Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. Howard, J. W. Harvey, Astrophys. J. 139, 1328 (1964).
[Crossref]

1963 (2)

R. W. Noyes, R. B. Leighton, Astrophys. J. 138, 631 (1963).
[Crossref]

J. M. Beckers, Astrophys. J. 138, 648 (1963).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

R. B. Leighton, R. W. Noyes, G. W. Simon, Astrophys. J. 135, 474 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

G. E. Moreton, Sky & Telescope 21, 145 (1961).

1960 (1)

R. R. McMath, A. K. Pierce, Sky & Telescope 20, 64, 132 (1960).

1959 (1)

R. B. Leighton, Astrophys. J. 130, 366 (1959).
[Crossref]

1957 (2)

R. B. Leighton, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 69, 497 (1957).
[Crossref]

A. K. Pierce, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 6 (1957).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, L. Goldberg, Astrophys. J. 124, 1 (1956).
[Crossref]

1955 (2)

R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, Astrophys. J. 122, 565 (1955).
[Crossref]

J. N. Shearer, T. A. Wiggins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 133 (1955).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

H. W. Babcock, Astrophys. J. 118, 387 (1953).
[Crossref]

1952 (2)

I. S. Bowen, Astrophys. J. 116, 1 (1952).
[Crossref]

D. H. Rank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 213 (1952).
[Crossref]

1950 (1)

R. S. Richardson, M. Schwarzschild, Astrophys. J. 111, 351 (1950).
[Crossref]

Babcock, H. W.

H. W. Babcock, Astrophys. J. 118, 387 (1953).
[Crossref]

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, Astrophys. J. 138, 648 (1963).
[Crossref]

Bowen, I. S.

I. S. Bowen, Astrophys. J. 116, 1 (1952).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, L.

R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, L. Goldberg, Astrophys. J. 124, 1 (1956).
[Crossref]

Harvey, J. W.

R. Howard, J. W. Harvey, Astrophys. J. 139, 1328 (1964).
[Crossref]

Howard, R.

R. Howard, J. W. Harvey, Astrophys. J. 139, 1328 (1964).
[Crossref]

Leighton, R. B.

R. W. Noyes, R. B. Leighton, Astrophys. J. 138, 631 (1963).
[Crossref]

R. B. Leighton, R. W. Noyes, G. W. Simon, Astrophys. J. 135, 474 (1962).
[Crossref]

R. B. Leighton, Astrophys. J. 130, 366 (1959).
[Crossref]

R. B. Leighton, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 69, 497 (1957).
[Crossref]

McMath, R. R.

R. R. McMath, A. K. Pierce, Sky & Telescope 20, 64, 132 (1960).

R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, L. Goldberg, Astrophys. J. 124, 1 (1956).
[Crossref]

R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, Astrophys. J. 122, 565 (1955).
[Crossref]

Meyer, C. F.

C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-Rays and Material Particles (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1934).

Mohler, O. C.

R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, L. Goldberg, Astrophys. J. 124, 1 (1956).
[Crossref]

R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, Astrophys. J. 122, 565 (1955).
[Crossref]

Moreton, G. E.

G. E. Moreton, Sky & Telescope 21, 145 (1961).

Noyes, R. W.

R. W. Noyes, R. B. Leighton, Astrophys. J. 138, 631 (1963).
[Crossref]

R. B. Leighton, R. W. Noyes, G. W. Simon, Astrophys. J. 135, 474 (1962).
[Crossref]

Pierce, A. K.

R. R. McMath, A. K. Pierce, Sky & Telescope 20, 64, 132 (1960).

A. K. Pierce, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 6 (1957).
[Crossref]

R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, L. Goldberg, Astrophys. J. 124, 1 (1956).
[Crossref]

R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, Astrophys. J. 122, 565 (1955).
[Crossref]

Rank, D. H.

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Scientific Papers (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1902), Vol. III.

Richardson, R. S.

R. S. Richardson, M. Schwarzschild, Astrophys. J. 111, 351 (1950).
[Crossref]

Roark, R. J.

R. J. Roark, Formulas for Stress and Strain (McGraw-Hill, New York, N. Y., 1954).

Schwarzschild, M.

R. S. Richardson, M. Schwarzschild, Astrophys. J. 111, 351 (1950).
[Crossref]

Shearer, J. N.

Simon, G. W.

R. B. Leighton, R. W. Noyes, G. W. Simon, Astrophys. J. 135, 474 (1962).
[Crossref]

Wiggins, T. A.

Astrophys. J. (10)

R. S. Richardson, M. Schwarzschild, Astrophys. J. 111, 351 (1950).
[Crossref]

R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, Astrophys. J. 122, 565 (1955).
[Crossref]

R. R. McMath, O. C. Mohler, A. K. Pierce, L. Goldberg, Astrophys. J. 124, 1 (1956).
[Crossref]

R. B. Leighton, R. W. Noyes, G. W. Simon, Astrophys. J. 135, 474 (1962).
[Crossref]

R. W. Noyes, R. B. Leighton, Astrophys. J. 138, 631 (1963).
[Crossref]

J. M. Beckers, Astrophys. J. 138, 648 (1963).
[Crossref]

R. Howard, J. W. Harvey, Astrophys. J. 139, 1328 (1964).
[Crossref]

R. B. Leighton, Astrophys. J. 130, 366 (1959).
[Crossref]

H. W. Babcock, Astrophys. J. 118, 387 (1953).
[Crossref]

I. S. Bowen, Astrophys. J. 116, 1 (1952).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific (1)

R. B. Leighton, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 69, 497 (1957).
[Crossref]

Sky & Telescope (2)

R. R. McMath, A. K. Pierce, Sky & Telescope 20, 64, 132 (1960).

G. E. Moreton, Sky & Telescope 21, 145 (1961).

Other (5)

R. J. Roark, Formulas for Stress and Strain (McGraw-Hill, New York, N. Y., 1954).

A. Beer, ed., Vistas in Astronomy (Pergamon, London and New York, 1955), Vol. 1, p. 372.
[Crossref]

ASTM Special Technical Problem No. 265, Symp. on Electrodeless Nickel Plating (Amer. Soc. for Testing Material, Philadelphia, Pa., 1959).

Rayleigh, Scientific Papers (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1902), Vol. III.

C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-Rays and Material Particles (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1934).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Doppler shifts of Fraunhofer lines produced by rising and falling currents in the solar atmosphere. The vertical scale of the figure is 100 sec of arc, the horizontal wavelength interval λλ5260–5268. Fifth order, 1-sec exposure, on Shellburst Linagraphic 70-mm film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section of the McMath Solar Telescope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The predisperser and vacuum spectrograph. The predisperser is a 1-m focal length prismatic spectrograph with a 15° quartz prism. W1 and W2 are quartz windows. The 10 cm × 25 cm plate is introduced into the spectrograph through an air lock. Mirrors M1, M2, and M3 are 30-cm, 30-cm, and 40-cm diam and 13.7-m focal length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The double-pass optical system of the Kitt Peak vacuum spectrograph.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The McMath Solar Telescope. The heliostat is carried at the north end on a 30 m high, 9 m diam, concrete column, surrounded by a water-cooled windshield. The water-cooled incline carries the track for the mirrors and shields the optical path. The entrance to the offices and observing room is to the left; the entrance to the aluminizing room is on the right.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The heliostat and auxiliary 1-m heliostats. This photograph, looking north, shows the temporary mirror, 160 cm, in its cell, counterbalanced by weights at the ends of declination axes. The oil-pressure-pad bearing and worm wheel are under the 4-m diam cover at the near (south) end.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Back of the aluminum casting, 160-cm diam, 25.4 cm thick. This photograph shows the mirror in its test-rig, held by a stainless-steel band. The small, sponge-rubber pads cemented to each triangular intersection are for support of the mirror on the polishing machine.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

First attempt at double pass, which failed because of scattered light from the grating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The blaze of the grating as observed in double pass in different orders. These curves were made as constant slit width, and include the response of the EMI 9558 cell and the energy distribution of the sun, which peaks at λ5000.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

I2 absorption lines superimposed on the Fraunhofer spectrum. A is the fifth-order spectrum in single pass; B is the fifth order in double pass. Components a of mean wavelength λ5328.904 have a measured separation of 0.0090 Å, b = 0.0104 Å, and c = 0.0100 Å. Film: contrast process ortho. Slit: 30 μ, 10 sec exposure. 5 cm long iodine absorption cell at 310°K.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Astigmatic behavior of the grating in different orders.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The grating support and drive hang from the heavily braced top plate of the spectrograph. For slew, the Bodine motor drives the inner spool with respect to the tape-driven wheels. Slow scan is from the tapes attached to the equalizer arm and screw driven by a shaft through the top of the tank.

Tables (1)

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Table I Values of K

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