Abstract

A review is made of present possibilities in the design of large refracting telescope objectives intended for visual or detector-aided studies of the planets from ground-based observatories. The great progress in the technology of optical glass achieved during the past several decades makes it worthwhile now for one to re-examine the question of whether the performance of any large refractor made in the future can be improved. On the whole the answer is affirmative but with reservations as to the importance of such an accomplishment in modern astronomy. A comprehensive discussion is given of the optical and environmental problems encountered, and several examples are given to demonstrate the degree of improvement to be expected from both semiapochromatic and fully apochromatic objectives.*

© 1963 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. de Vaucouleurs, J. G. Baker, A Study of the Optical System for a Mars Probe. Final Report under NASA Contract, Harvard College Observatory for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (June30, 1961).
  2. G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, eds., Telescopes (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960).
  3. R. Riekher, Fernrohre und Ihre Meister (Veb Verlag Technik, Berlin, 1957), Chap. 9, pp. 213–250.
  4. Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Gen., Catalog 350 E, p. 13.
  5. Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Gen., Catalog 350 E, pp. 8–10.
  6. Publ. Lick Obs., Vol. I, 1887, pp. 7–8.
  7. H. C. King, History of the Telescope (Charles Griffin, London, 1955), pp. 158–159, 176–180.
  8. H. D. Taylor, The Adjustment and Testing of Telescope Objectives (Grubb-Parsons, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1946), pp. 61–77.
  9. H. Naumann, Abhandl. Braunschweig. Wiss. Ges. 6, 107–112 (1954); M. Herzberger, Optica Acta 6, 197 (1959); N. v. d. W. Lessing, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 955 (1957); R. E. Stephens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 398 (1959); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1016 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Z. Dimitroff, J. G. Baker, Telescopes and Accessories (The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, 1945), pp. 88–92.
  11. L. Bell, The Telescope (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1922), pp. 91–92.
  12. M. von Rohr, The Formation of Images in Optical Instruments (His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1920), pp. 364–375; M. Herzberger, Modern Geometrical Optics (Interscience, New York, 1958), pp. 108–146.
  13. G. de Vaucouleurs, The Planet Mars (Faber & Faber, London, 1950), p. 75.
  14. G. Newkirk, D. Bohlin, Appl. Opt. 2, 131 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Maréchal, M. Françon, Diffraction Structure des Images, Traité d’Optique Instrumentale, Première Section, Tome 2, Revue d’Optique, 1960, Chap. 8, pp. 105–119.
  16. H. Hovestadt, Jenaer Glas (Verlag v. Gustaf Fischer, 1900), pp. 35–38; H. Naumann, Optik 16. 743 (1959).
  17. H. D. Taylor, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 54, 328–337 (1894).
  18. L. Schupmann, Die Medial-Fernrohre, Leipzig, 1899.
  19. K. Schwarzschild, Abhandl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 3–4, 21 (1904–1906).
  20. J. G. Baker, Astron. J. 59, 74–83 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Jarry-Desloges, Pub. Observatoire Jarry-Desloges 3, 297 (1912).
  22. J. G. Baker, Fundamental Formulas of Mathematical Physics, D. H. Menzel, ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1955), Chap. 16, pp. 365–408.
  23. A. König, H. Köhler, Die Fernrohre und Entfernungsmesser (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1959), pp. 59–63, 128–144.
  24. P. van de Kamp, Appl. Opt. 2, 9 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. E. Conrady, Applied Optics and Optical Design (Oxford Univ. Press, 1929), pp. 155–166, particularly 159–166; see ref. 12, pp. 367–369.
  26. R. E. Hopkins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1222 (1962).
  27. P. A. Ianna, Astron. J. 67, 273 (1962). The Sproul Brashear objective with flint leading has residual outward coma. There appears to be coma in Clark’s earlier objectives, though not of large amount.
    [CrossRef]
  28. See ref. 10, pp. 210–215;G. Newkirk, D. Bohlin, Appl. Opt. 2, 131 (1963); G. Miczaika, W. Sinton, Tools of the Astronomer (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1961), pp. 248–252.
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. van de Kamp, Photogrammetric Eng. 22, No. 2 (1956); K. Aa. Strand, Appl. Opt. 2, 1 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Schroeder, Optica Acta 9, 249 (1962).
    [CrossRef]

1963 (2)

1962 (3)

R. E. Hopkins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1222 (1962).

P. A. Ianna, Astron. J. 67, 273 (1962). The Sproul Brashear objective with flint leading has residual outward coma. There appears to be coma in Clark’s earlier objectives, though not of large amount.
[CrossRef]

H. Schroeder, Optica Acta 9, 249 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

P. van de Kamp, Photogrammetric Eng. 22, No. 2 (1956); K. Aa. Strand, Appl. Opt. 2, 1 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1954 (2)

J. G. Baker, Astron. J. 59, 74–83 (1954).
[CrossRef]

H. Naumann, Abhandl. Braunschweig. Wiss. Ges. 6, 107–112 (1954); M. Herzberger, Optica Acta 6, 197 (1959); N. v. d. W. Lessing, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 955 (1957); R. E. Stephens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 398 (1959); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1016 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1912 (1)

R. Jarry-Desloges, Pub. Observatoire Jarry-Desloges 3, 297 (1912).

1899 (1)

L. Schupmann, Die Medial-Fernrohre, Leipzig, 1899.

1894 (1)

H. D. Taylor, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 54, 328–337 (1894).

1887 (1)

Publ. Lick Obs., Vol. I, 1887, pp. 7–8.

Baker, J. G.

J. G. Baker, Astron. J. 59, 74–83 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Baker, Fundamental Formulas of Mathematical Physics, D. H. Menzel, ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1955), Chap. 16, pp. 365–408.

G. de Vaucouleurs, J. G. Baker, A Study of the Optical System for a Mars Probe. Final Report under NASA Contract, Harvard College Observatory for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (June30, 1961).

G. Z. Dimitroff, J. G. Baker, Telescopes and Accessories (The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, 1945), pp. 88–92.

Bell, L.

L. Bell, The Telescope (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1922), pp. 91–92.

Bohlin, D.

Conrady, A. E.

A. E. Conrady, Applied Optics and Optical Design (Oxford Univ. Press, 1929), pp. 155–166, particularly 159–166; see ref. 12, pp. 367–369.

de Vaucouleurs, G.

G. de Vaucouleurs, The Planet Mars (Faber & Faber, London, 1950), p. 75.

G. de Vaucouleurs, J. G. Baker, A Study of the Optical System for a Mars Probe. Final Report under NASA Contract, Harvard College Observatory for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (June30, 1961).

Dimitroff, G. Z.

G. Z. Dimitroff, J. G. Baker, Telescopes and Accessories (The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, 1945), pp. 88–92.

Françon, M.

A. Maréchal, M. Françon, Diffraction Structure des Images, Traité d’Optique Instrumentale, Première Section, Tome 2, Revue d’Optique, 1960, Chap. 8, pp. 105–119.

Hopkins, R. E.

R. E. Hopkins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1222 (1962).

Hovestadt, H.

H. Hovestadt, Jenaer Glas (Verlag v. Gustaf Fischer, 1900), pp. 35–38; H. Naumann, Optik 16. 743 (1959).

Ianna, P. A.

P. A. Ianna, Astron. J. 67, 273 (1962). The Sproul Brashear objective with flint leading has residual outward coma. There appears to be coma in Clark’s earlier objectives, though not of large amount.
[CrossRef]

Jarry-Desloges, R.

R. Jarry-Desloges, Pub. Observatoire Jarry-Desloges 3, 297 (1912).

King, H. C.

H. C. King, History of the Telescope (Charles Griffin, London, 1955), pp. 158–159, 176–180.

Köhler, H.

A. König, H. Köhler, Die Fernrohre und Entfernungsmesser (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1959), pp. 59–63, 128–144.

König, A.

A. König, H. Köhler, Die Fernrohre und Entfernungsmesser (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1959), pp. 59–63, 128–144.

Maréchal, A.

A. Maréchal, M. Françon, Diffraction Structure des Images, Traité d’Optique Instrumentale, Première Section, Tome 2, Revue d’Optique, 1960, Chap. 8, pp. 105–119.

Naumann, H.

H. Naumann, Abhandl. Braunschweig. Wiss. Ges. 6, 107–112 (1954); M. Herzberger, Optica Acta 6, 197 (1959); N. v. d. W. Lessing, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 955 (1957); R. E. Stephens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 398 (1959); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1016 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Newkirk, G.

Riekher, R.

R. Riekher, Fernrohre und Ihre Meister (Veb Verlag Technik, Berlin, 1957), Chap. 9, pp. 213–250.

Schroeder, H.

H. Schroeder, Optica Acta 9, 249 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Schupmann, L.

L. Schupmann, Die Medial-Fernrohre, Leipzig, 1899.

Schwarzschild, K.

K. Schwarzschild, Abhandl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 3–4, 21 (1904–1906).

Taylor, H. D.

H. D. Taylor, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 54, 328–337 (1894).

H. D. Taylor, The Adjustment and Testing of Telescope Objectives (Grubb-Parsons, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1946), pp. 61–77.

van de Kamp, P.

P. van de Kamp, Appl. Opt. 2, 9 (1963).
[CrossRef]

P. van de Kamp, Photogrammetric Eng. 22, No. 2 (1956); K. Aa. Strand, Appl. Opt. 2, 1 (1963).
[CrossRef]

von Rohr, M.

M. von Rohr, The Formation of Images in Optical Instruments (His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1920), pp. 364–375; M. Herzberger, Modern Geometrical Optics (Interscience, New York, 1958), pp. 108–146.

Abhandl. Braunschweig. Wiss. Ges. (1)

H. Naumann, Abhandl. Braunschweig. Wiss. Ges. 6, 107–112 (1954); M. Herzberger, Optica Acta 6, 197 (1959); N. v. d. W. Lessing, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 955 (1957); R. E. Stephens, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 398 (1959); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1016 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Abhandl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen (1)

K. Schwarzschild, Abhandl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 3–4, 21 (1904–1906).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. J. (2)

P. A. Ianna, Astron. J. 67, 273 (1962). The Sproul Brashear objective with flint leading has residual outward coma. There appears to be coma in Clark’s earlier objectives, though not of large amount.
[CrossRef]

J. G. Baker, Astron. J. 59, 74–83 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Die Medial-Fernrohre, Leipzig (1)

L. Schupmann, Die Medial-Fernrohre, Leipzig, 1899.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

R. E. Hopkins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1222 (1962).

Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. (1)

H. D. Taylor, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 54, 328–337 (1894).

Optica Acta (1)

H. Schroeder, Optica Acta 9, 249 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Photogrammetric Eng. (1)

P. van de Kamp, Photogrammetric Eng. 22, No. 2 (1956); K. Aa. Strand, Appl. Opt. 2, 1 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Pub. Observatoire Jarry-Desloges (1)

R. Jarry-Desloges, Pub. Observatoire Jarry-Desloges 3, 297 (1912).

Publ. Lick Obs. (1)

Publ. Lick Obs., Vol. I, 1887, pp. 7–8.

Other (17)

H. C. King, History of the Telescope (Charles Griffin, London, 1955), pp. 158–159, 176–180.

H. D. Taylor, The Adjustment and Testing of Telescope Objectives (Grubb-Parsons, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1946), pp. 61–77.

J. G. Baker, Fundamental Formulas of Mathematical Physics, D. H. Menzel, ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1955), Chap. 16, pp. 365–408.

A. König, H. Köhler, Die Fernrohre und Entfernungsmesser (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1959), pp. 59–63, 128–144.

A. E. Conrady, Applied Optics and Optical Design (Oxford Univ. Press, 1929), pp. 155–166, particularly 159–166; see ref. 12, pp. 367–369.

G. Z. Dimitroff, J. G. Baker, Telescopes and Accessories (The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, 1945), pp. 88–92.

L. Bell, The Telescope (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1922), pp. 91–92.

M. von Rohr, The Formation of Images in Optical Instruments (His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1920), pp. 364–375; M. Herzberger, Modern Geometrical Optics (Interscience, New York, 1958), pp. 108–146.

G. de Vaucouleurs, The Planet Mars (Faber & Faber, London, 1950), p. 75.

A. Maréchal, M. Françon, Diffraction Structure des Images, Traité d’Optique Instrumentale, Première Section, Tome 2, Revue d’Optique, 1960, Chap. 8, pp. 105–119.

H. Hovestadt, Jenaer Glas (Verlag v. Gustaf Fischer, 1900), pp. 35–38; H. Naumann, Optik 16. 743 (1959).

G. de Vaucouleurs, J. G. Baker, A Study of the Optical System for a Mars Probe. Final Report under NASA Contract, Harvard College Observatory for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (June30, 1961).

G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, eds., Telescopes (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960).

R. Riekher, Fernrohre und Ihre Meister (Veb Verlag Technik, Berlin, 1957), Chap. 9, pp. 213–250.

Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Gen., Catalog 350 E, p. 13.

Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Gen., Catalog 350 E, pp. 8–10.

See ref. 10, pp. 210–215;G. Newkirk, D. Bohlin, Appl. Opt. 2, 131 (1963); G. Miczaika, W. Sinton, Tools of the Astronomer (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1961), pp. 248–252.
[CrossRef]

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Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table I Maximum Volume List (as of April 1962)

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Table II Maximum Volume List for Selected Types as of November 1961

Tables Icon

Table III Color Curves of Selected Combinations

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Table IV Color Curves in Terms of Focal Displacement

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Table V Comparison of Selected Glass Combinations in Terms of Focal Ratio for Similar Performance

Tables Icon

Table VIa Transmission Data for a 25-cm Thickness (Surface Reflections Excluded)

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Table VIb Transmission Data for a 10-cm Thickness (Surface Reflections Excluded)

Tables Icon

Table VII Transverse Intercepts in the Gaussian Focal Plane for a 15-cm f/10 Fluorite Triplet (with Aspheric Figuring)

Metrics