Abstract

Circularly polarized light (CPL) reflections are rare in nature. Only a few animal groups—most notably certain stomatopod crustaceans and certain beetles in the family Scarabaeidae—are known to reflect CPL from incident unpolarized light. Here, we examine five species of metallic scarabs in the genus Chrysina that, to the naked human eye, look remarkably similar. Using a spectropolarimetric reflectometer to characterize the complete Mueller matrix elements of the beetles’ elytral surfaces, we found that four of the five species were strongly left-handed circularly polarized (LHCP), and only one scarab species, Chrysina resplendens, had an overall lower degree of polarization and switched from LHCP to right-handed circularly polarized reflectance depending on wavelength.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  38. E. Muñoz-Pineda, K. Järrendahl, H. Arwin, and A. Mendoza-Galván, “Symmetries and relationships between elements of the Mueller matrix spectra of the cuticle of the beetle Cotinis mutabilis,” Thin Solid Films 571, 660–665 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  43. J. Miao, Y. Wu, K. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Gong, Y. X. Duan, and T. Li, “Evidence for visually mediated copulation frequency in the scarab beetle Anomala corpulenta,” J. Insect Behav. 28, 175–182 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  44. M. Blahó, A. Egri, R. Hegedüs, J. Jósvai, M. Tóth, K. Kertész, L. Biro, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “No evidence for behavioral responses to circularly polarized light in four scarab beetle species with circularly polarizing exocuticle,” Physiol. Behav. 105, 1067–1075 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  46. K. D. Feller, T. M. Jordan, D. Wilby, and N. W. Roberts, “Selection of the intrinsic polarization properties of animal optical materials creates enhanced structural reflectivity and camouflage,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372:20160336 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

K. Kjernsmo, H. M. Whitney, N. E. Scott-Samuel, J. R. Hall, H. Knowles, L. Talas, and I. C. Cuthill, “Iridescence as camouflage,” Curr. Biol. 30, 551–555 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (2)

P. Bouchal, J. Kapitán, M. Konečný, M. Zbončák, and Z. Bouchal, “Non-diffracting light in nature: anomalously reflected self-healing Bessel beams from jewel scarabs,” APL Photon. 4, 126102 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Mendoza-Galván, K. Järrendahl, and H. Arwin, “Mueller matrix modeling of the architecture in the cuticle of the beetle Chrysina resplendens,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 37, 062904 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

W. E. Vargas, E. Avendaño, M. Hernández-Jiménez, D. E. Azofeifa, E. Libby, Á. G. Solís, and C. Barboza-Aguilar, “Photonic crystal characterization of the cuticles of Chrysina chrysargyrea and Chrysina optima jewel scarab beetles,” Biomimetics 3, 30 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

L. T. McDonald, E. D. Finlayson, B. D. Wilts, and P. Vukusic, “Circularly polarized reflection from the scarab beetle Chalcothea smaragdina: light scattering by a dual photonic structure,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7, 20160129 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. D. Finlayson, L. T. McDonald, and P. Vukusic, “Optically ambidextrous circularly polarized reflection from the chiral cuticle of the scarab beetle Chrysina resplendens,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14, 20170129 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. R. Moore, M. L. Jameson, B. H. Garner, C. Audibert, A. B. Smith, and M. Seidel, “Synopsis of the pelidnotine scarabs (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae, Rutelini) and annotated catalog of the species and subspecies,” ZooKeys 666, 1–349 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. D. Feller, T. M. Jordan, D. Wilby, and N. W. Roberts, “Selection of the intrinsic polarization properties of animal optical materials creates enhanced structural reflectivity and camouflage,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372:20160336 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (4)

D. E. Azofeifa, M. Hernández-Jiménez, E. Libby, A. Solís, C. Barboza-Aguilar, and W. E. Vargas, “A quantitative assessment approach of feasible optical mechanisms contributing to structural color of golden-like Chrysina aurigans scarab beetles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 160, 63–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Gagnon, R. M. Templin, M. J. How, and N. J. Marshall, “Circularly polarized light as a communication signal in mantis shrimps,” Curr. Biol. 25, 3074–3078 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Arwin, R. Magnusson, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Fallet, K. Järrendahl, M. Foldyna, A. De Martino, and R. Ossikovski, “Sum decomposition of Mueller-matrix images and spectra of beetle cuticles,” Opt. Express 23, 1951–1966 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Miao, Y. Wu, K. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Gong, Y. X. Duan, and T. Li, “Evidence for visually mediated copulation frequency in the scarab beetle Anomala corpulenta,” J. Insect Behav. 28, 175–182 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

E. Muñoz-Pineda, K. Järrendahl, H. Arwin, and A. Mendoza-Galván, “Symmetries and relationships between elements of the Mueller matrix spectra of the cuticle of the beetle Cotinis mutabilis,” Thin Solid Films 571, 660–665 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

H. Arwin, R. S. Magnusson, J. Landin, and K. Järrendahl, “Chirality-induced polarization effects in the cuticle of scarab beetles: 100 years after Michelson,” Philos. Mag. 92(12), 1583–1599 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Blahó, A. Egri, R. Hegedüs, J. Jósvai, M. Tóth, K. Kertész, L. Biro, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “No evidence for behavioral responses to circularly polarized light in four scarab beetle species with circularly polarizing exocuticle,” Physiol. Behav. 105, 1067–1075 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

P. C. Brady and M. E. Cummings, “Differential response to circularly polarized light by the jewel scarab beetle Chrysina gloriosa,” Am. Nat. 175, 614–620 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Pye, “The distribution of circularly polarized light reflection in the Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera),” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 100, 585–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Hodgkinson, S. Lowrey, L. Bourke, A. Parker, and M. W. McCall, “Mueller-matrix characterization of beetle cuticle: polarized and unpolarized reflections from representative architectures,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4558–4567 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

V. Sharma, M. Crne, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, “Structural origin of circularly polarized iridescence in jeweled beetles,” Science 325, 449–451 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. Lenau and M. Barfoed, “Colours and metallic sheen in beetle shells—a biomimetic search for material structuring principles causing light interference,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 10, 299–314 (2008).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Chiou, S. Kleinlogel, T. Cronin, R. Caldwell, B. Loeffler, A. Siddiqi, A. Goldizen, and J. Marshall, “Circular polarization vision in a stomatopod crustacean,” Curr. Biol. 18, 429–434 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. B. Thomas, A. Seago, and D. C. Robacker, “Reflections on golden scarabs,” Am. Entom. 553, 224–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

R. Hegedüs, S. Győző, and H. Gábor, “Imaging polarimetry of the circularly polarizing cuticle of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Rutelidae, Cetoniidae),” Vis. Res. 46, 2786–2797 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. H. Goldstein, “Polarization properties of Scarabaeidae,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7944–7950 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. H. Goldstein, “Reflection properties of Scarabaeidae,” Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880T (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, “Spectropolarimetric reflectometer,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1013–1020 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. C. Hawks, “Taxonomic and nomenclatural changes in Chrysina and a synonymic checklist of species (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae),” Occ. Pap. Consortium Coleopterorum 4, 1–8 (2001).

1998 (1)

A. R. Parker, D. R. McKenzie, and M. C. J. Large, “Multilayer reflectors in animals using green and gold beetles as contrasting examples,” J. Exp. Biol. 201, 1307–1313 (1998).

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

A. C. Neville, “Metallic gold and silver colours in some insect cuticles,” J. Insect Physiol. 23, 1267–1274 (1977).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

S. Caveney, “Cuticle reflectivity and optical activity in scarab beetles: the role of uric acid,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 178, 205–225 (1971).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

A. C. Neville and S. Caveney, “Scarabeid beetle exocuticle as an optical analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Biol. Rev. 44, 531–562 (1969).
[Crossref]

1924 (1)

F. Ohaus, “Plusiotis strasseni new sp,” Senckenbergiana 6, 185–186 (1924).

1911 (1)

A. A. Michelson, “On metallic colouring in birds and insects,” Philos. Mag. 21(124), 554–567 (1911).
[Crossref]

1874 (1)

A. Sallé, “Diagnose d’une nouvelle espèce de Pelidnota (P. chrysargyrea),” Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 5, 362 (1874).

1854 (1)

J. L. LeConte, “Descriptions of new coleoptera collected by Thos. H. Webb, M. D., in the years 1850–1851 and 52, while secretary to the U. S. and mexican boundary commission,” Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7, 220–225 (1854).

Amir, A.

Arwin, H.

A. Mendoza-Galván, K. Järrendahl, and H. Arwin, “Mueller matrix modeling of the architecture in the cuticle of the beetle Chrysina resplendens,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 37, 062904 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. S. Magnusson, H. Arwin, E. García-Caurel, K. Järrendahl, and R. Ossikovski, “Sum regression decomposition of spectral and angle-resolved Mueller matrices from biological reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 55, 4060–4065 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Arwin, R. Magnusson, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Fallet, K. Järrendahl, M. Foldyna, A. De Martino, and R. Ossikovski, “Sum decomposition of Mueller-matrix images and spectra of beetle cuticles,” Opt. Express 23, 1951–1966 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Muñoz-Pineda, K. Järrendahl, H. Arwin, and A. Mendoza-Galván, “Symmetries and relationships between elements of the Mueller matrix spectra of the cuticle of the beetle Cotinis mutabilis,” Thin Solid Films 571, 660–665 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Arwin, R. S. Magnusson, J. Landin, and K. Järrendahl, “Chirality-induced polarization effects in the cuticle of scarab beetles: 100 years after Michelson,” Philos. Mag. 92(12), 1583–1599 (2012).
[Crossref]

Audibert, C.

M. R. Moore, M. L. Jameson, B. H. Garner, C. Audibert, A. B. Smith, and M. Seidel, “Synopsis of the pelidnotine scarabs (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae, Rutelini) and annotated catalog of the species and subspecies,” ZooKeys 666, 1–349 (2017).
[Crossref]

Avendaño, E.

W. E. Vargas, E. Avendaño, M. Hernández-Jiménez, D. E. Azofeifa, E. Libby, Á. G. Solís, and C. Barboza-Aguilar, “Photonic crystal characterization of the cuticles of Chrysina chrysargyrea and Chrysina optima jewel scarab beetles,” Biomimetics 3, 30 (2018).
[Crossref]

Azofeifa, D. E.

W. E. Vargas, E. Avendaño, M. Hernández-Jiménez, D. E. Azofeifa, E. Libby, Á. G. Solís, and C. Barboza-Aguilar, “Photonic crystal characterization of the cuticles of Chrysina chrysargyrea and Chrysina optima jewel scarab beetles,” Biomimetics 3, 30 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. E. Azofeifa, M. Hernández-Jiménez, E. Libby, A. Solís, C. Barboza-Aguilar, and W. E. Vargas, “A quantitative assessment approach of feasible optical mechanisms contributing to structural color of golden-like Chrysina aurigans scarab beetles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 160, 63–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

Azzam, R. M. A.

Barboza-Aguilar, C.

W. E. Vargas, E. Avendaño, M. Hernández-Jiménez, D. E. Azofeifa, E. Libby, Á. G. Solís, and C. Barboza-Aguilar, “Photonic crystal characterization of the cuticles of Chrysina chrysargyrea and Chrysina optima jewel scarab beetles,” Biomimetics 3, 30 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. E. Azofeifa, M. Hernández-Jiménez, E. Libby, A. Solís, C. Barboza-Aguilar, and W. E. Vargas, “A quantitative assessment approach of feasible optical mechanisms contributing to structural color of golden-like Chrysina aurigans scarab beetles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 160, 63–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barfoed, M.

T. Lenau and M. Barfoed, “Colours and metallic sheen in beetle shells—a biomimetic search for material structuring principles causing light interference,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 10, 299–314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bates, H. W.

H. W. Bates, “Insecta. Coleoptera,” in Part 2. Pectinicornia and Lamellicornia, O. Salvin and G. F. du Cane, eds. (R. H. Porter, 1988), Vol. II, pp. 1–432.

Berlind, A. T.

Biro, L.

M. Blahó, A. Egri, R. Hegedüs, J. Jósvai, M. Tóth, K. Kertész, L. Biro, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “No evidence for behavioral responses to circularly polarized light in four scarab beetle species with circularly polarizing exocuticle,” Physiol. Behav. 105, 1067–1075 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blahó, M.

M. Blahó, A. Egri, R. Hegedüs, J. Jósvai, M. Tóth, K. Kertész, L. Biro, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “No evidence for behavioral responses to circularly polarized light in four scarab beetle species with circularly polarizing exocuticle,” Physiol. Behav. 105, 1067–1075 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boucard, A.

A. Boucard, “Monographic list of the Coleoptera of the genus Plusiotis of America, north of Panama, with descriptions of several new species,” Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.117–125 (1875).

Bouchal, P.

P. Bouchal, J. Kapitán, M. Konečný, M. Zbončák, and Z. Bouchal, “Non-diffracting light in nature: anomalously reflected self-healing Bessel beams from jewel scarabs,” APL Photon. 4, 126102 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bouchal, Z.

P. Bouchal, J. Kapitán, M. Konečný, M. Zbončák, and Z. Bouchal, “Non-diffracting light in nature: anomalously reflected self-healing Bessel beams from jewel scarabs,” APL Photon. 4, 126102 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bourke, L.

Brady, P. C.

P. C. Brady and M. E. Cummings, “Differential response to circularly polarized light by the jewel scarab beetle Chrysina gloriosa,” Am. Nat. 175, 614–620 (2010).
[Crossref]

Caldwell, R.

T.-H. Chiou, S. Kleinlogel, T. Cronin, R. Caldwell, B. Loeffler, A. Siddiqi, A. Goldizen, and J. Marshall, “Circular polarization vision in a stomatopod crustacean,” Curr. Biol. 18, 429–434 (2008).
[Crossref]

Caveney, S.

S. Caveney, “Cuticle reflectivity and optical activity in scarab beetles: the role of uric acid,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 178, 205–225 (1971).
[Crossref]

A. C. Neville and S. Caveney, “Scarabeid beetle exocuticle as an optical analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Biol. Rev. 44, 531–562 (1969).
[Crossref]

Chenault, D. B.

D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, “Spectropolarimetric reflectometer,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1013–1020 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and M. Owens, “Spectropolarimetric reflectometer,” U.S. patent6,618,145 (9September2003).

Chiou, T.-H.

T.-H. Chiou, S. Kleinlogel, T. Cronin, R. Caldwell, B. Loeffler, A. Siddiqi, A. Goldizen, and J. Marshall, “Circular polarization vision in a stomatopod crustacean,” Curr. Biol. 18, 429–434 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chipman, R. A.

Cook, C. Q.

Crne, M.

V. Sharma, M. Crne, J. O. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, “Structural origin of circularly polarized iridescence in jeweled beetles,” Science 325, 449–451 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cronin, T.

T.-H. Chiou, S. Kleinlogel, T. Cronin, R. Caldwell, B. Loeffler, A. Siddiqi, A. Goldizen, and J. Marshall, “Circular polarization vision in a stomatopod crustacean,” Curr. Biol. 18, 429–434 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cummings, M. E.

P. C. Brady and M. E. Cummings, “Differential response to circularly polarized light by the jewel scarab beetle Chrysina gloriosa,” Am. Nat. 175, 614–620 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cuthill, I. C.

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D. E. Azofeifa, M. Hernández-Jiménez, E. Libby, A. Solís, C. Barboza-Aguilar, and W. E. Vargas, “A quantitative assessment approach of feasible optical mechanisms contributing to structural color of golden-like Chrysina aurigans scarab beetles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 160, 63–74 (2015).
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Y. L. Gagnon, R. M. Templin, M. J. How, and N. J. Marshall, “Circularly polarized light as a communication signal in mantis shrimps,” Curr. Biol. 25, 3074–3078 (2015).
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E. D. Finlayson, L. T. McDonald, and P. Vukusic, “Optically ambidextrous circularly polarized reflection from the chiral cuticle of the scarab beetle Chrysina resplendens,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14, 20170129 (2017).
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K. D. Feller, T. M. Jordan, D. Wilby, and N. W. Roberts, “Selection of the intrinsic polarization properties of animal optical materials creates enhanced structural reflectivity and camouflage,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372:20160336 (2017).
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L. T. McDonald, E. D. Finlayson, B. D. Wilts, and P. Vukusic, “Circularly polarized reflection from the scarab beetle Chalcothea smaragdina: light scattering by a dual photonic structure,” J. R. Soc. Interface 7, 20160129 (2017).
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J. Miao, Y. Wu, K. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Gong, Y. X. Duan, and T. Li, “Evidence for visually mediated copulation frequency in the scarab beetle Anomala corpulenta,” J. Insect Behav. 28, 175–182 (2015).
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P. Bouchal, J. Kapitán, M. Konečný, M. Zbončák, and Z. Bouchal, “Non-diffracting light in nature: anomalously reflected self-healing Bessel beams from jewel scarabs,” APL Photon. 4, 126102 (2019).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Spectropolarimetric reflectance measurement configuration. FTS is the Fourier transform spectrometer, PSG is the polarization state generator, BS is the beam splitter, and PSA is the polarization state analyzer. The red arrows represent the light beam (that is larger than the beetle) hitting the dorsal curved surface of the beetle sample at normal incidence in this lateral view.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Photographs of the five scarab species. The top row shows the beetles with no polarization filter. The bottom row shows the beetles through a RHCP filter. From left to right: Chrysina resplendens, Chrysina argenteola, Chrysina chrysargyrea, Chrysina batesi, and Chrysina strasseni. Scale bar is 10 mm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Normalized reflectance spectra for the five golden beetle species at normal incidence.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Mueller matrix spectra for C. argenteola at normal incidence.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Polarization metrics calculated from the Mueller matrices for the five species of beetles. Clockwise from top left: the degree of circular polarization (DoCP), ellipticity, degree of linear polarization (DoLP), and degree of polarization (DoP).

Equations (10)

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S r = M S i ,
M = ( m 11 m 12 m 13 m 14 m 21 m 22 m 23 m 24 m 31 m 32 m 33 m 34 m 41 m 42 m 43 m 44 ) ,
S i = ( 1 0 0 0 ) ,
S r = ( m 11 m 21 m 31 m 41 ) .
D e g r e e o f C i r c u l a r P o l a r i z a t i o n , o r D o C P = m 41 ,
D e g r e e o f P o l a r i z a t i o n , o r D o P = m 21 2 + m 31 2 + m 41 2 ,
D e g r e e o f L i n e a r P o l a r i z a t i o n , o r D o L P = m 21 2 + m 31 2 .
D o P 2 = D o L P 2 + D o C P 2 .
e = tan ( 1 2 sin 1 ( m 41 m 21 2 + m 31 2 + m 41 2 ) ) .
( 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 ) .

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