We propose a single-beam high-resolution quantitative phase imaging method based on a spatial light modulator (SLM) and an incremental binary random sampling (IBRS) algorithm. In this method, the image of the test object presents on the image sensor through an optical microscopy system composed of an objective lens and a collimating lens. A transmittance SLM displaying a group of well-designed IBRS patterns is inserted in the optical microscopy system to modulate the object wavefront. The phase information of the object image can be quantitatively retrieved from the recorded intensities using the IBRS algorithm and the amplitude obtained directly from the diffraction intensity. The IBRS algorithm employed in our method has higher accuracy for phase retrieval compared with our previously proposed complementary random sampling algorithm, which is confirmed by simulations. Further, we demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of our method through several examples: phase imaging of immersion oil droplets with a diffraction-limited lateral resolution of 1.54 µm and a few microbiological specimens with 0.70 µm. Experimental results reveal that our proposed method provides a feasible single-beam technique for quantitative phase imaging with a high spatial resolution.
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