Abstract

This paper is a review of lidar remote sensing of the aquatic environment. The optical properties of seawater relevant to lidar remote sensing are described. The three main theoretical approaches to understanding the performance of lidar are considered (the time-dependent radiative transfer equation, Monte Carlo simulations, and the quasi-single-scattering assumption). Basic lidar instrument design considerations are presented, and examples of lidar studies from surface vessels, aircraft, and satellites are given.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (8)

L. Hu, X. Zhang, and M. J. Perry, “Light scattering by pure seawater: effect of pressure,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 146, 103–109 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside and R. D. Marchbanks, “Calibration of an airborne oceanographic lidar using ocean backscattering measurements from space,” Opt. Express 27, A536–A542 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. G. Stegmann, B. Sun, J. Ding, P. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Study of the effects of phytoplankton morphology and vertical profile on lidar attenuated backscatter and depolarization ratio,” J. Quant. Spectry. Radiative Transfer 225, 1–15 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, D. Pan, Z. Mao, and H. Liu, “Semi-analytic Monte Carlo radiative transfer model of laser propagation in inhomogeneous sea water within subsurface plankton layer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 111, 1–5 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, Y. Zhou, W. Chen, Q. Liu, T. Huang, W. Liu, Q. Chen, Z. Liu, P. Xu, X. Cui, X. Wang, C. Le, and C. Liu, “Phase function effects on the retrieval of oceanic high-spectral-resolution lidar,” Opt. Express 27, A654–A668 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. S. Moore, J. H. Churnside, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, A. R. Nayak, M. N. McFarland, N. D. Stockley, R. W. Gould, T. H. Johengen, and S. A. Ruberg, “Vertical distributions of blooming cyanobacteria populations in a freshwater lake from LIDAR observations,” Rem. Sensing Environ. 225, 347–367 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, J. Tang, C. Zhao, S. Wu, F. Yu, C. Ma, Y. Xu, W. Chen, Y. Zhang, J. Liu, and L. Wu, “Concept design of the “Guanlan” science mission: China’s novel contribution to space oceanography,” Front. Mar. Sci. 6, 194 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Jamet, A. Ibrahim, Z. Ahmad, F. Angelini, M. Babin, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, B. Cairns, J. Churnside, J. Chowdhary, A. B. Davis, D. Dionisi, L. Duforêt-Gaurier, B. Franz, R. Frouin, M. Gao, D. Gray, O. Hasekamp, X. He, C. Hostetler, O. V. Kalashnikova, K. Knobelspiesse, L. Lacour, H. Loisel, V. Martins, E. Rehm, L. Remer, I. Sanhaj, K. Stamnes, S. Stamnes, S. Victori, J. Werdell, and P.-W. Zhai, “Going beyond standard ocean color observations: lidar and polarimetry,” Front. Mar. Sci. 6, 251 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (10)

C. A. Hostetler, M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, J. W. Hair, and J. A. Schulien, “Spaceborne lidar in the study of marine systems,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 10, 121–147 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. R. Roddewig, J. H. Churnside, F. R. Hauer, J. Williams, P. E. Bigelow, T. M. Koel, and J. A. Shaw, “Airborne lidar detection and mapping of invasive lake trout in Yellowstone Lake,” Appl. Opt. 57, 4111–4116 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, P. Chen, Z. Mao, D. Pan, and Y. He, “Subsurface plankton layers observed from airborne lidar in Sanya Bay, South China Sea,” Opt. Express 26, 29134–29147 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, D. Pan, Z. Mao, and H. Liu, “Semi-analytic Monte Carlo model for oceanographic lidar systems: lookup table method used for randomly choosing scattering angles,” Appl. Sci. 9, 48 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. S. Shamanaev, “Detection of schools of marine fish using polarization laser sensing,” Atmos. Ocean. Opt. 31, 358–364 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Churnside, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, and A. Scarino, “Ocean backscatter profiling using high-spectral-resolution lidar and a perturbation retrieval,” Remote Sens. 10, 2003 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. L. Collister, R. C. Zimmerman, C. I. Sukenik, V. J. Hill, and W. M. Balch, “Remote sensing of optical characteristics and particle distributions of the upper ocean using shipboard lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 215, 85–96 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Twardowski and A. Tonizzo, “Ocean color analytical model explicitly dependent on the volume scattering function,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2684 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Poulin, D. Antoine, and Y. Huot, “Diurnal variations of the optical properties of phytoplankton in a laboratory experiment and their implication for using inherent optical properties to measure biomass,” Opt. Express 26, 711–729 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Le, X. Zhou, C. Hu, Z. Lee, L. Li, and D. Stramski, “A color-index-based empirical algorithm for determining particulate organic carbon concentration in the ocean from satellite observations,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 123, 7407–7419 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom-bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10, 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. A. Schulien, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, and M. S. Twardowski, “Vertically-resolved phytoplankton carbon and net primary production from a high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Express 25, 13577–13587 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside, R. J. D. Wells, K. M. Boswell, J. A. Quinlan, R. D. Marchbanks, B. J. McCarty, and T. T. Sutton, “Surveying the distribution and abundance of flying fishes and other epipelagics in the northern Gulf of Mexico using airborne lidar,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 93, 591–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside and R. D. Marchbanks, “Inversion of oceanographic profiling lidars by a perturbation to a linear regression,” Appl. Opt. 56, 5228–5233 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, W. M. Graham, and R. J. D. Wells, “Hollow aggregations of moon jellyfish (Aurelia spp.),” J. Plankton Res. 38, 122–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. J. Moses, S. G. Ackleson, J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, and W. D. Miller, “Spatial scales of optical variability in the coastal ocean: implications for remote sensing and in situ sampling,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 121, 4194–4208 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, Y. Zhou, J. Luo, J. Bai, Y. Shen, K. Wang, C. Liu, L. Su, and L. Yang, “Field-widened Michelson interferometer for spectral discrimination in high-spectral-resolution lidar: practical development,” Opt. Express 24, 7232–7245 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Harmel, M. Hieronymi, W. Slade, R. Röttgers, F. Roullier, and M. Chami, “Laboratory experiments for inter-comparison of three volume scattering meters to measure angular scattering properties of hydrosols,” Opt. Express 24, A234–A256 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Hair, C. Hostetler, Y. Hu, M. Behrenfeld, C. Butler, D. Harper, R. Hare, T. Berkoff, A. Cook, J. Collins, N. Stockley, M. Twardowski, I. Cetinić, R. Ferrare, and T. Mack, “Combined atmospheric and ocean profiling from an airborne high spectral resolution lidar,” EPJ Web Conf. 119, 22001 (2016).

R. J. Brewin, G. Dall’Olmo, S. Pardo, V. van Dongen-Vogels, and E. S. Boss, “Underway spectrophotometry along the Atlantic Meridional Transect reveals high performance in satellite chlorophyll retrievals,” Rem. Sensing Environ. 183, 82–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. D. Mason, M. T. Cone, and E. S. Fry, “Ultraviolet (250–550 nm) absorption spectrum of pure water,” Appl. Opt. 55, 7163–7172 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (4)

J. H. Churnside, “Review of profiling oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Eng. 53, 051405 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, E. Boss, and D. J. Gray, “Significance of scattering by oceanic particles at angles around 120 degree,” Opt. Express 22, 31329–31336 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kurekin, P. I. Miller, and H. J. Van der Woerd, “Satellite discrimination of Karenia mikimotoi and Phaeocystis harmful algal blooms in European coastal waters: merged classification of ocean colour data,” Harmful Algae 31, 163–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J. H. Churnside, “Ocean subsurface studies with the CALIPSO spaceborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119, 4305–4317 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

J. Churnside, B. McCarty, and X. Lu, “Subsurface ocean signals from an orbiting polarization lidar,” Remote Sens. 5, 3457–3475 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, Y. Hu, Z. Liu, S. Zeng, and C. Trepte, “CALIOP receiver transient response study,” Proc. SPIE 8873, 887316 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Rem. Sensing Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. T. Wynne, R. P. Stumpf, and T. O. Briggs, “Comparing MODIS and MERIS spectral shapes for cyanobacterial bloom detection,” Journal of Remote Sensing 34, 6668–6678 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Johnson, P. G. Strutton, S. W. Wright, A. McMinn, and K. M. Meiners, “Three improved satellite chlorophyll algorithms for the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118, 3694–3703 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Fernand, K. Weston, T. Morris, N. Greenwood, J. Brown, and T. Jickells, “The contribution of the deep chlorophyll maximum to primary production in a seasonally stratified shelf sea, the North Sea,” Biogeochemistry 113, 153–166 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6, 063611 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

E. Saiki, C. Weimer, and M. Stephens, “An investigation of high spectral resolution lidar measurements over the ocean,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 81590F (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Weston, L. Fernand, D. K. Mills, R. Delahunty, and J. Brown, “Primary production in the deep chlorophyll maximum of the central North Sea,” J. Plankton Res. 33, 1627–1628 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (5)

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6811–6819 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1214–1228 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, L. Hu, and M.-X. He, “Scattering by pure seawater: effect of salinity,” Opt. Express 17, 5698–5710 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Stramska, “Particulate organic carbon in the global ocean derived from SeaWiFS ocean color,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 56, 1459–1470 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66, 778–789 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16, 1196–1207 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 111, C05013 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, X. Ni, S. K. Gayen, and R. R. Alfano, “Analytical cumulant solution of the vector radiative transfer equation investigates backscattering of circularly polarized light from turbid media,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056605 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB1006 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside and L. A. Ostrovsky, “Lidar observation of a strongly nonlinear internal wave train in the Gulf of Alaska,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 167–177 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Chlorophyll biomass in the global oceans: airborne lidar retrieval using fluorescence of both chlorophyll and chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2857–2862 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

K. J. Lee, Y. Park, A. Bunkin, R. Nunes, S. Pershin, and K. Voliak, “Helicopter-based lidar system for monitoring the upper ocean and terrain surface,” Appl. Opt. 41, 401–406 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. M. Contarino, J. Prentice, D. M. Allocca, T. J. Kane, M. A. London, B. M. Concannon, T. P. Curran, and L. J. Mullen, “Ocean water clarity measurement using shipboard lidar systems,” Proc. SPIE 4488, 106–114 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, L. Guillou, F. Le Gall, D. Marie, and F. Partensky, “Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1637–1647 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. P. Stumpf, “Applications of satellite ocean color sensors for monitoring and predicting harmful algal blooms,” J. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 7, 1363–1368 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503–5507 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

K. Mitra and J. H. Churnside, “Transient radiative transfer equation applied to oceanographic lidar,” Appl. Opt. 38, 889–895 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285, 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (7)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. D. DuRand and R. J. Olson, “Diel patterns in optical properties of the chlorophyte Nannochloris sp.: relating individual-cell to bulk measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1107–1118 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, and A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3324–3332 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, and V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. I. Effect of the atmosphere and wind-driven sea waves,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1589–1595 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, and V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. II. Polarization characteristics of signals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1596–1601 (1998).
[Crossref]

O. A. Bukin, A. Y. Major, A. N. Pavlov, B. M. Shevtsov, and E. D. Kholodkevich, “Measurement of the lightscattering layers structure and detection of the dynamic processes in the upper ocean layer by shipborne lidar,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19, 707–715 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside, V. V. Tatarskii, and J. J. Wilson, “Oceanographic lidar attenuation coefficients and signal fluctuations measured from a ship in the Southern California Bight,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3105–3112 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

1994 (3)

1991 (1)

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanogr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

R. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, and U. Heyman, “Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll. Introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57–70 (1985).
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1982 (3)

R. Smith, R. Eppley, and K. Baker, “Correlation of primary production as measured aboard ship in southern California coastal waters and as estimated from satellite chlorophyll images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281–288 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. L. Cullen, “The deep chlorophyll maximum: comparing vertical profiles of chlorophyll a,” Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39, 791–803 (1982).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “Interpretation of airborne oceanic lidar: effects of multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2996–3001 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (5)

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[Crossref]

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
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J. J. Cullen and S. G. Horrigan, “Effects of nitrate on the diurnal vertical migration, carbon to nitrogen ratio, and the photosynthetic capacity of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium splendens,” Mar. Biol. 62, 81–89 (1981).
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J. L. Squire and H. Krumboltz, “Profiling pelagic fish schools using airborne optical lasers and other remote sensing techniques,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 15, 29–31 (1981).

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, and R. Furtek, “Use of water Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

D. Kamykowski and S. J. Zentara, “The diurnal vertical migration of motile phytoplankton through temperature gradients,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 148–151 (1977).
[Crossref]

1973 (2)

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

L. Dolin and V. Savelev, “Characteristics of the backscattering signal during pulsed irradiation of a turbid medium by a narrow directed light beam (short narrow light pulse reflection from thick turbid medium with strong anisotropic scattering, obtaining backscattering signal power from unsteady transport equation solution),” Akademiia Nauk Sssr, Izvestiia, Fizika Atmosfery I Okeana 7, 505–510 (1971).

1941 (1)

L. C. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
[Crossref]

Abbott, M. R.

R. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, and U. Heyman, “Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll. Introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57–70 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ackleson, S. G.

W. J. Moses, S. G. Ackleson, J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, and W. D. Miller, “Spatial scales of optical variability in the coastal ocean: implications for remote sensing and in situ sampling,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 121, 4194–4208 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, Z.

C. Jamet, A. Ibrahim, Z. Ahmad, F. Angelini, M. Babin, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, B. Cairns, J. Churnside, J. Chowdhary, A. B. Davis, D. Dionisi, L. Duforêt-Gaurier, B. Franz, R. Frouin, M. Gao, D. Gray, O. Hasekamp, X. He, C. Hostetler, O. V. Kalashnikova, K. Knobelspiesse, L. Lacour, H. Loisel, V. Martins, E. Rehm, L. Remer, I. Sanhaj, K. Stamnes, S. Stamnes, S. Victori, J. Werdell, and P.-W. Zhai, “Going beyond standard ocean color observations: lidar and polarimetry,” Front. Mar. Sci. 6, 251 (2019).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

W. Cai, X. Ni, S. K. Gayen, and R. R. Alfano, “Analytical cumulant solution of the vector radiative transfer equation investigates backscattering of circularly polarized light from turbid media,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 056605 (2006).
[Crossref]

Allocca, D. M.

V. M. Contarino, J. Prentice, D. M. Allocca, T. J. Kane, M. A. London, B. M. Concannon, T. P. Curran, and L. J. Mullen, “Ocean water clarity measurement using shipboard lidar systems,” Proc. SPIE 4488, 106–114 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. M. Allocca, G. D. Ludbrook, L. J. Mullen, T. H. Holloway, and V. M. Contarino, “Joint US-UK polarized lidar trial,” in Airborne and In-Water Imaging (SPIE, 1999), pp. 174–184.

Angelini, F.

C. Jamet, A. Ibrahim, Z. Ahmad, F. Angelini, M. Babin, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, B. Cairns, J. Churnside, J. Chowdhary, A. B. Davis, D. Dionisi, L. Duforêt-Gaurier, B. Franz, R. Frouin, M. Gao, D. Gray, O. Hasekamp, X. He, C. Hostetler, O. V. Kalashnikova, K. Knobelspiesse, L. Lacour, H. Loisel, V. Martins, E. Rehm, L. Remer, I. Sanhaj, K. Stamnes, S. Stamnes, S. Victori, J. Werdell, and P.-W. Zhai, “Going beyond standard ocean color observations: lidar and polarimetry,” Front. Mar. Sci. 6, 251 (2019).
[Crossref]

Antoine, D.

C. Poulin, D. Antoine, and Y. Huot, “Diurnal variations of the optical properties of phytoplankton in a laboratory experiment and their implication for using inherent optical properties to measure biomass,” Opt. Express 26, 711–729 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Rem. Sensing Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Babin, M.

C. Jamet, A. Ibrahim, Z. Ahmad, F. Angelini, M. Babin, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, B. Cairns, J. Churnside, J. Chowdhary, A. B. Davis, D. Dionisi, L. Duforêt-Gaurier, B. Franz, R. Frouin, M. Gao, D. Gray, O. Hasekamp, X. He, C. Hostetler, O. V. Kalashnikova, K. Knobelspiesse, L. Lacour, H. Loisel, V. Martins, E. Rehm, L. Remer, I. Sanhaj, K. Stamnes, S. Stamnes, S. Victori, J. Werdell, and P.-W. Zhai, “Going beyond standard ocean color observations: lidar and polarimetry,” Front. Mar. Sci. 6, 251 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, L. Guillou, F. Le Gall, D. Marie, and F. Partensky, “Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1637–1647 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bai, J.

Bailey, S. W.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Rem. Sensing Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baker, K.

R. Smith, R. Eppley, and K. Baker, “Correlation of primary production as measured aboard ship in southern California coastal waters and as estimated from satellite chlorophyll images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281–288 (1982).
[Crossref]

Baker, K. S.

Balch, W. M.

B. L. Collister, R. C. Zimmerman, C. I. Sukenik, V. J. Hill, and W. M. Balch, “Remote sensing of optical characteristics and particle distributions of the upper ocean using shipboard lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 215, 85–96 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bartlett, J. S.

Behrenfeld, M.

J. Hair, C. Hostetler, Y. Hu, M. Behrenfeld, C. Butler, D. Harper, R. Hare, T. Berkoff, A. Cook, J. Collins, N. Stockley, M. Twardowski, I. Cetinić, R. Ferrare, and T. Mack, “Combined atmospheric and ocean profiling from an airborne high spectral resolution lidar,” EPJ Web Conf. 119, 22001 (2016).

Behrenfeld, M. J.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Absorption coefficient of seawater $a$ as a function of optical wavelength $\lambda$ , including measurements of pure water by Pope and Fry (P&F) [28], more recent measurements at short wavelengths by Mason et al. (M) [29], measurements of very clear natural seawater by Smith and Baker (S&B) [30], and results of a bio-optical model for Case 1 waters with chlorophyll concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and ${10}\,\,{\rm mg}\,{{\rm m}^{ - 3}}$ .
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Plot of several particulate phase functions ${\tilde \beta _p}$ , including Petzold (solid black line), polynomial fit to Petzold (solid grey line), Fournier–Forand (FF; black short-dashed line), Henyey–Greenstein (HG; black long-dashed line), and Sullivan–Twardowski (ST; grey short-dashed line).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Example HSRL configuration with iodine cell. A stable seed laser is locked to the iodine absorption at 532.293 nm, and an injection-seeded pulse laser creates a pulse at this wavelength to transmit into the ocean (Tx). The return light is collected by a telescope through a field-stop aperture (FS) to limit the receiver field of view. The light is recollimated and passed through an interference filter to limit the background light reaching the detectors. A polarization beamsplitter (PBS) directs the cross-polarized return to a detector (XP), a beamsplitter directs a portion of the co-polarized return to another detector (CP), and the remaining light is passed through an iodine filter to remove the particulate return and pass the Brillouin return to a third detector (B).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Airborne lidar return as a function of depth $z$ and distance along the flight track $d$ . A stronger return is represented by darker grey. The return has been corrected for the effects of attenuation.

Equations (12)

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a ( λ ) = [ a w ( λ ) + 0.06 a c ( λ ) C 0.65 ] × [ 1 + 0.2 exp ( 0.014 ( λ 440 ) ) ] ,
b w = ( 1.64 × 10 3 + 1.62 × 10 5 S + 1.22 × 10 6 T + 1.02 × 10 7 T S ) ( 532 λ ) 4.32 ,
β ~ w ( θ ) = 0.06225 ( 1 + 0.835 cos 2 θ ) ,
b p = 0.416 550 λ c h l 0.766 ,
β ~ p = exp ( 4.20799 2.91005 θ + 0.0909243 θ 2 + 0.563412 θ 3 + 0.353154 θ 4 + 0.108569 θ 5 + 0.0181941 θ 6 + 0.00159853 θ 7 + 0.0000579531 θ 8 ) ,
β ~ p = 1 4 π 1 g 2 [ 1 + g 2 2 g cos ( θ ) ] 3 / 2 ,
β ~ p = ε ( 1 δ ) ( 1 δ ε ) + [ δ ( 1 δ ε ) v ( 1 δ ) ] sin 2 ( 0.5 θ ) 4 π ( 1 δ ) 2 δ ε + 1 δ π ε 16 π ( δ π 1 ) δ π ε [ 3 cos 2 ( θ ) 1 ] ,
ε = 3 μ 2 ; δ π = 4 3 ( n 1 ) 2 ; δ = δ π sin 2 ( 0.5 θ ) .
β ~ p = 3.266 0.0815 θ + 8.007 × 10 4 θ 2 3.526 × 10 9 θ 3 + 5.885 × 10 9 θ 4 ,
b b p = 2 π χ ( π ) β p ( π ) .
1 v I ( r , s , t ) t + s I ( r , s , t ) + c I ( r , s , t ) = b P ( s , s ) [ I ( r , s , t ) I ( r , s , t ) ] d s + I 0 ( r , s , t ) ,
S C ( z ) = A C β C ( π , z ) exp [ 2 0 z α ( z ) d z ] , S X ( z ) = { A X β X ( π , z ) + 2 A X β C ( π , z ) 0 z γ ( z ) d z } × exp [ 2 0 z α ( z ) d z ] ,

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