Abstract

A set of small and lightweight laser retro-reflector arrays (LRAs) was fabricated and tested for use on lunar landers under NASA’s Commercial Lunar Payload Service program. Each array contains eight 1.27-cm-diameter corner cube retro-reflectors mounted on a dome-shaped aluminum structure. The arrays are 5.0 cm in diameter at the base, 1.6 cm in height, and 20 g in mass. They can be tracked by an orbiting laser altimeter, such as the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter, from a distance of a few hundred kilometers or by a landing lidar on future lunar landers. The LRAs demonstrated a diffraction-limited optical performance. They were designed and tested to survive and function on the Moon for decades, well after the lander missions are completed.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

Y. He, Q. Liu, H. Duan, J. He, Y. Jiang, and H. Yeh, “Manufacture of a hollow corner cube retroreflector for the next generation of lunar laser ranging,” Res. Astron. Astrophys. 18, 136 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. K. Barker, X. Sun, D. Mao, E. Mazarico, G. A. Neumann, M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, J. F. McGarry, and E. D. Hoffman, “In-flight characterization of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument pointing and far-field pattern,” Appl. Opt. 57, 7702–7713 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

M. Fruit, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, D. Doyle, and G. Ulbrich, “Radiation impact on the characteristics of optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 10569, 105691R (2017).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 20833–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Williams, D. A. Paige, B. T. Greenhagen, and E. Sefton-Nash, “The global surface temperatures of the Moon as measured by the diviner lunar radiometer experiment,” Icarus 283, 300–325 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Dell’Annello, G. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: the first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. R. Ioan, I. Gruia, G. V. Ioan, L. Rusen, C. D. Negut, and P. Ioan, “The influence of gamma rays and protons affected optical media on a real Gaussian laser beam parameters,” Rom. Rep. Phys. 67, 508–522 (2015).

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

S. D. Goodrow and T. W. Murphy, “Effects of thermal gradients on total internal reflection corner cubes,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8793–8799 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, “Chromate conversion coating: Iridite 14-2 thermal/optical characterization,” Proc. SPIE 8492, 849202 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, N. H. Johnson, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, S. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod-1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, N. H. Johnson, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, S. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod-1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberge, J. B. Battat, L. N. Carey, C. D. Hoyle, P. LeBlanc, E. L. Michelsen, K. Nordtvedt, A. E. Orin, J. D. Strasburg, C. W. Stubbs, H. E. Swanson, and E. Willams, “The Apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation: instrument description and first detections,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 20–37 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

L. Magruder, E. Silverberg, C. Webb, and B. Schutz, “In situ timing and pointing verification of the ICESat altimeter using a ground-based system,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S04 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Fruit, A. Gusarov, and D. Doyle, “Measuring space radiation impact on the characteristics of optical glasses; measurement results and recommendations from testing a selected set of materials,” Proc. SPIE 4823, 132–141 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Waint, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, “Mars observer laser altimeter investigation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781–7797 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. Silverglate, E. Zalewski, and P. Petrone, “Proton induced radiation effects on optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1761, 46–57 (1992).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

P. L. Bender, D. G. Gurrie, R. H. Dicke, D. H. Eckhardt, J. E. Faller, W. M. Kaula, J. D. Mulholland, H. H. Plotkin, S. K. Poultney, E. C. Silverbert, D. T. Wilkinson, J. G. Williams, and C. O. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[Crossref]

Abshire, J. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, and R. Afzal, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: receiver model and performance analysis,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2449–2460 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, “Mars observer laser altimeter investigation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781–7797 (1992).
[Crossref]

Adelberge, E. G.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberge, J. B. Battat, L. N. Carey, C. D. Hoyle, P. LeBlanc, E. L. Michelsen, K. Nordtvedt, A. E. Orin, J. D. Strasburg, C. W. Stubbs, H. E. Swanson, and E. Willams, “The Apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation: instrument description and first detections,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 20–37 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adelberger, E. G.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, N. H. Johnson, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, S. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod-1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Afzal, R.

Afzal, R. S.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
[Crossref]

Aharonson, O.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
[Crossref]

Alley, C. O.

P. L. Bender, D. G. Gurrie, R. H. Dicke, D. H. Eckhardt, J. E. Faller, W. M. Kaula, J. D. Mulholland, H. H. Plotkin, S. K. Poultney, E. C. Silverbert, D. T. Wilkinson, J. G. Williams, and C. O. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[Crossref]

Arnold, D. A.

D. A. Arnold, “Optical and infrared transfer function of the LAGEOS retroreflector array,” (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 1975), available at https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19780017949.pdf , last accessed 6/24/2019.

Baker, D.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

Banerdt, W. B.

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S. Dell’Annello, G. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: the first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
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S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, M. Tibuzzi, L. Salvatori, C. Mondaini, M. Muccino, M. D. P. Emilio, R. March, L. Loppi, O. Luongo, S. Casini, G. Bianco, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Benedetto, F. Pasquali, M. Petrassi, F. Filomena, L. Mauro, L. Rubino, and V. Sanclimenti, “Laser retroreflectors for: Dydimos, comets, Phobos, Deimos, CLPS, and lunar Lagrangian L1 for exploration, planetary and gravity science,” (NASA Ames Research Center, 2019), available at https://nesf2019.arc.nasa.gov/abstract/NESF2019-038 , last accessed 8/2/2019.

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S. Dell’Annello, G. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: the first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
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S. Dell’Annello, D. Currie, E. Ciocci, S. Contessa, G. D. Monache, R. March, M. Martini, C. Mondaini, L. Porcelli, L. Salvatori, M. Tibuzzi, G. Bianco, R. Vittori, J. Chandler, T. Murphy, M. Maiello, M. Petrassi, and A. Lomastro, “Lunar, cislunar, near/farside laser retroreflectors for the accurate: position of landers/rovers/hoppers/orbiters, commercial georeferencing, test of relativistic gravity and metrics of the lunar interior,” in Annual Meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), Columbia Maryland, USA, October10-12, 2017, paper 5070.

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M. Fruit, A. Gusarov, and D. Doyle, “Measuring space radiation impact on the characteristics of optical glasses; measurement results and recommendations from testing a selected set of materials,” Proc. SPIE 4823, 132–141 (2002).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
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P. L. Bender, D. G. Gurrie, R. H. Dicke, D. H. Eckhardt, J. E. Faller, W. M. Kaula, J. D. Mulholland, H. H. Plotkin, S. K. Poultney, E. C. Silverbert, D. T. Wilkinson, J. G. Williams, and C. O. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
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Faller, J. E.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Waint, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
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P. L. Bender, D. G. Gurrie, R. H. Dicke, D. H. Eckhardt, J. E. Faller, W. M. Kaula, J. D. Mulholland, H. H. Plotkin, S. K. Poultney, E. C. Silverbert, D. T. Wilkinson, J. G. Williams, and C. O. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
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Filomena, F.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, M. Tibuzzi, L. Salvatori, C. Mondaini, M. Muccino, M. D. P. Emilio, R. March, L. Loppi, O. Luongo, S. Casini, G. Bianco, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Benedetto, F. Pasquali, M. Petrassi, F. Filomena, L. Mauro, L. Rubino, and V. Sanclimenti, “Laser retroreflectors for: Dydimos, comets, Phobos, Deimos, CLPS, and lunar Lagrangian L1 for exploration, planetary and gravity science,” (NASA Ames Research Center, 2019), available at https://nesf2019.arc.nasa.gov/abstract/NESF2019-038 , last accessed 8/2/2019.

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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
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Fruit, M.

M. Fruit, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, D. Doyle, and G. Ulbrich, “Radiation impact on the characteristics of optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 10569, 105691R (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Fruit, A. Gusarov, and D. Doyle, “Measuring space radiation impact on the characteristics of optical glasses; measurement results and recommendations from testing a selected set of materials,” Proc. SPIE 4823, 132–141 (2002).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
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Goossens, S.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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M. R. Ioan, I. Gruia, G. V. Ioan, L. Rusen, C. D. Negut, and P. Ioan, “The influence of gamma rays and protons affected optical media on a real Gaussian laser beam parameters,” Rom. Rep. Phys. 67, 508–522 (2015).

Gudimetla, V. S. R.

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P. L. Bender, D. G. Gurrie, R. H. Dicke, D. H. Eckhardt, J. E. Faller, W. M. Kaula, J. D. Mulholland, H. H. Plotkin, S. K. Poultney, E. C. Silverbert, D. T. Wilkinson, J. G. Williams, and C. O. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
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Y. He, Q. Liu, H. Duan, J. He, Y. Jiang, and H. Yeh, “Manufacture of a hollow corner cube retroreflector for the next generation of lunar laser ranging,” Res. Astron. Astrophys. 18, 136 (2018).
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He, Y.

Y. He, Q. Liu, H. Duan, J. He, Y. Jiang, and H. Yeh, “Manufacture of a hollow corner cube retroreflector for the next generation of lunar laser ranging,” Res. Astron. Astrophys. 18, 136 (2018).
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Head, J. W.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
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M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, “Mars observer laser altimeter investigation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781–7797 (1992).
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T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 20833–47 (2017).
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Hoyle, C. D.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, N. H. Johnson, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, S. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod-1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
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S. Dell’Annello, G. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: the first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
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M. R. Ioan, I. Gruia, G. V. Ioan, L. Rusen, C. D. Negut, and P. Ioan, “The influence of gamma rays and protons affected optical media on a real Gaussian laser beam parameters,” Rom. Rep. Phys. 67, 508–522 (2015).

Ioan, M. R.

M. R. Ioan, I. Gruia, G. V. Ioan, L. Rusen, C. D. Negut, and P. Ioan, “The influence of gamma rays and protons affected optical media on a real Gaussian laser beam parameters,” Rom. Rep. Phys. 67, 508–522 (2015).

Ioan, P.

M. R. Ioan, I. Gruia, G. V. Ioan, L. Rusen, C. D. Negut, and P. Ioan, “The influence of gamma rays and protons affected optical media on a real Gaussian laser beam parameters,” Rom. Rep. Phys. 67, 508–522 (2015).

Ivanov, A. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
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T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, N. H. Johnson, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, S. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod-1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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P. L. Bender, D. G. Gurrie, R. H. Dicke, D. H. Eckhardt, J. E. Faller, W. M. Kaula, J. D. Mulholland, H. H. Plotkin, S. K. Poultney, E. C. Silverbert, D. T. Wilkinson, J. G. Williams, and C. O. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
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Kleyner, I.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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S. Dell’Annello, D. Currie, E. Ciocci, S. Contessa, G. D. Monache, R. March, M. Martini, C. Mondaini, L. Porcelli, L. Salvatori, M. Tibuzzi, G. Bianco, R. Vittori, J. Chandler, T. Murphy, M. Maiello, M. Petrassi, and A. Lomastro, “Lunar, cislunar, near/farside laser retroreflectors for the accurate: position of landers/rovers/hoppers/orbiters, commercial georeferencing, test of relativistic gravity and metrics of the lunar interior,” in Annual Meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), Columbia Maryland, USA, October10-12, 2017, paper 5070.

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M. K. Barker, X. Sun, D. Mao, E. Mazarico, G. A. Neumann, M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, J. F. McGarry, and E. D. Hoffman, “In-flight characterization of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument pointing and far-field pattern,” Appl. Opt. 57, 7702–7713 (2018).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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S. Dell’Annello, D. Currie, E. Ciocci, S. Contessa, G. D. Monache, R. March, M. Martini, C. Mondaini, L. Porcelli, L. Salvatori, M. Tibuzzi, G. Bianco, R. Vittori, J. Chandler, T. Murphy, M. Maiello, M. Petrassi, and A. Lomastro, “Lunar, cislunar, near/farside laser retroreflectors for the accurate: position of landers/rovers/hoppers/orbiters, commercial georeferencing, test of relativistic gravity and metrics of the lunar interior,” in Annual Meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), Columbia Maryland, USA, October10-12, 2017, paper 5070.

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S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, M. Tibuzzi, L. Salvatori, C. Mondaini, M. Muccino, M. D. P. Emilio, R. March, L. Loppi, O. Luongo, S. Casini, G. Bianco, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Benedetto, F. Pasquali, M. Petrassi, F. Filomena, L. Mauro, L. Rubino, and V. Sanclimenti, “Laser retroreflectors for: Dydimos, comets, Phobos, Deimos, CLPS, and lunar Lagrangian L1 for exploration, planetary and gravity science,” (NASA Ames Research Center, 2019), available at https://nesf2019.arc.nasa.gov/abstract/NESF2019-038 , last accessed 8/2/2019.

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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
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S. Dell’Annello, G. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: the first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
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S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, M. Tibuzzi, L. Salvatori, C. Mondaini, M. Muccino, M. D. P. Emilio, R. March, L. Loppi, O. Luongo, S. Casini, G. Bianco, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Benedetto, F. Pasquali, M. Petrassi, F. Filomena, L. Mauro, L. Rubino, and V. Sanclimenti, “Laser retroreflectors for: Dydimos, comets, Phobos, Deimos, CLPS, and lunar Lagrangian L1 for exploration, planetary and gravity science,” (NASA Ames Research Center, 2019), available at https://nesf2019.arc.nasa.gov/abstract/NESF2019-038 , last accessed 8/2/2019.

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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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S. Dell’Annello, D. Currie, E. Ciocci, S. Contessa, G. D. Monache, R. March, M. Martini, C. Mondaini, L. Porcelli, L. Salvatori, M. Tibuzzi, G. Bianco, R. Vittori, J. Chandler, T. Murphy, M. Maiello, M. Petrassi, and A. Lomastro, “Lunar, cislunar, near/farside laser retroreflectors for the accurate: position of landers/rovers/hoppers/orbiters, commercial georeferencing, test of relativistic gravity and metrics of the lunar interior,” in Annual Meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), Columbia Maryland, USA, October10-12, 2017, paper 5070.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, M. Tibuzzi, L. Salvatori, C. Mondaini, M. Muccino, M. D. P. Emilio, R. March, L. Loppi, O. Luongo, S. Casini, G. Bianco, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Benedetto, F. Pasquali, M. Petrassi, F. Filomena, L. Mauro, L. Rubino, and V. Sanclimenti, “Laser retroreflectors for: Dydimos, comets, Phobos, Deimos, CLPS, and lunar Lagrangian L1 for exploration, planetary and gravity science,” (NASA Ames Research Center, 2019), available at https://nesf2019.arc.nasa.gov/abstract/NESF2019-038 , last accessed 8/2/2019.

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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Waint, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
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P. L. Bender, D. G. Gurrie, R. H. Dicke, D. H. Eckhardt, J. E. Faller, W. M. Kaula, J. D. Mulholland, H. H. Plotkin, S. K. Poultney, E. C. Silverbert, D. T. Wilkinson, J. G. Williams, and C. O. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
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P. Silverglate, E. Zalewski, and P. Petrone, “Proton induced radiation effects on optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1761, 46–57 (1992).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, “Mars observer laser altimeter investigation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781–7797 (1992).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
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M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, “Mars observer laser altimeter investigation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781–7797 (1992).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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Strasburg, J. D.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberge, J. B. Battat, L. N. Carey, C. D. Hoyle, P. LeBlanc, E. L. Michelsen, K. Nordtvedt, A. E. Orin, J. D. Strasburg, C. W. Stubbs, H. E. Swanson, and E. Willams, “The Apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation: instrument description and first detections,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 20–37 (2008).
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Stubbs, C. W.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberge, J. B. Battat, L. N. Carey, C. D. Hoyle, P. LeBlanc, E. L. Michelsen, K. Nordtvedt, A. E. Orin, J. D. Strasburg, C. W. Stubbs, H. E. Swanson, and E. Willams, “The Apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation: instrument description and first detections,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 20–37 (2008).
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Stubbs, S. W.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, N. H. Johnson, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, S. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod-1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
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Sun, X.

M. K. Barker, X. Sun, D. Mao, E. Mazarico, G. A. Neumann, M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, J. F. McGarry, and E. D. Hoffman, “In-flight characterization of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument pointing and far-field pattern,” Appl. Opt. 57, 7702–7713 (2018).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
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J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, and R. Afzal, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: receiver model and performance analysis,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2449–2460 (2000).
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Swanson, H. E.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, N. H. Johnson, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, S. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod-1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberge, J. B. Battat, L. N. Carey, C. D. Hoyle, P. LeBlanc, E. L. Michelsen, K. Nordtvedt, A. E. Orin, J. D. Strasburg, C. W. Stubbs, H. E. Swanson, and E. Willams, “The Apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation: instrument description and first detections,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 20–37 (2008).
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Swinski, J. P.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 20833–47 (2017).
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Tibuzzi, M.

S. Dell’Annello, G. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: the first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
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S. Dell’Annello, D. Currie, E. Ciocci, S. Contessa, G. D. Monache, R. March, M. Martini, C. Mondaini, L. Porcelli, L. Salvatori, M. Tibuzzi, G. Bianco, R. Vittori, J. Chandler, T. Murphy, M. Maiello, M. Petrassi, and A. Lomastro, “Lunar, cislunar, near/farside laser retroreflectors for the accurate: position of landers/rovers/hoppers/orbiters, commercial georeferencing, test of relativistic gravity and metrics of the lunar interior,” in Annual Meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), Columbia Maryland, USA, October10-12, 2017, paper 5070.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, M. Tibuzzi, L. Salvatori, C. Mondaini, M. Muccino, M. D. P. Emilio, R. March, L. Loppi, O. Luongo, S. Casini, G. Bianco, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Benedetto, F. Pasquali, M. Petrassi, F. Filomena, L. Mauro, L. Rubino, and V. Sanclimenti, “Laser retroreflectors for: Dydimos, comets, Phobos, Deimos, CLPS, and lunar Lagrangian L1 for exploration, planetary and gravity science,” (NASA Ames Research Center, 2019), available at https://nesf2019.arc.nasa.gov/abstract/NESF2019-038 , last accessed 8/2/2019.

Torrence, M. H.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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Tuscano, P.

S. Dell’Annello, G. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: the first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
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M. Fruit, A. Gusarov, F. Berghmans, D. Doyle, and G. Ulbrich, “Radiation impact on the characteristics of optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 10569, 105691R (2017).
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Unger, G.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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Veillet, C.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Waint, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
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Vittori, R.

S. Dell’Annello, D. Currie, E. Ciocci, S. Contessa, G. D. Monache, R. March, M. Martini, C. Mondaini, L. Porcelli, L. Salvatori, M. Tibuzzi, G. Bianco, R. Vittori, J. Chandler, T. Murphy, M. Maiello, M. Petrassi, and A. Lomastro, “Lunar, cislunar, near/farside laser retroreflectors for the accurate: position of landers/rovers/hoppers/orbiters, commercial georeferencing, test of relativistic gravity and metrics of the lunar interior,” in Annual Meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), Columbia Maryland, USA, October10-12, 2017, paper 5070.

S. Dell’Agnello, G. O. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, M. Tibuzzi, L. Salvatori, C. Mondaini, M. Muccino, M. D. P. Emilio, R. March, L. Loppi, O. Luongo, S. Casini, G. Bianco, D. G. Currie, R. Vittori, C. Benedetto, F. Pasquali, M. Petrassi, F. Filomena, L. Mauro, L. Rubino, and V. Sanclimenti, “Laser retroreflectors for: Dydimos, comets, Phobos, Deimos, CLPS, and lunar Lagrangian L1 for exploration, planetary and gravity science,” (NASA Ames Research Center, 2019), available at https://nesf2019.arc.nasa.gov/abstract/NESF2019-038 , last accessed 8/2/2019.

Waint, J. R.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Waint, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
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Webb, C.

L. Magruder, E. Silverberg, C. Webb, and B. Schutz, “In situ timing and pointing verification of the ICESat altimeter using a ground-based system,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S04 (2005).
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Whipple, A. L.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Waint, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
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Whitten, J.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
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P. L. Bender, D. G. Gurrie, R. H. Dicke, D. H. Eckhardt, J. E. Faller, W. M. Kaula, J. D. Mulholland, H. H. Plotkin, S. K. Poultney, E. C. Silverbert, D. T. Wilkinson, J. G. Williams, and C. O. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
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Willams, E.

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberge, J. B. Battat, L. N. Carey, C. D. Hoyle, P. LeBlanc, E. L. Michelsen, K. Nordtvedt, A. E. Orin, J. D. Strasburg, C. W. Stubbs, H. E. Swanson, and E. Willams, “The Apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation: instrument description and first detections,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 20–37 (2008).
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Williams, J. G.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Waint, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
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P. L. Bender, D. G. Gurrie, R. H. Dicke, D. H. Eckhardt, J. E. Faller, W. M. Kaula, J. D. Mulholland, H. H. Plotkin, S. K. Poultney, E. C. Silverbert, D. T. Wilkinson, J. G. Williams, and C. O. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
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Williams, J.-P.

J.-P. Williams, D. A. Paige, B. T. Greenhagen, and E. Sefton-Nash, “The global surface temperatures of the Moon as measured by the diviner lunar radiometer experiment,” Icarus 283, 300–325 (2017).
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Yamada, R.

T. Mizuno, T. Kase, T. Shiina, M. Mita, N. Namiki, H. Senshu, R. Yamada, H. Noda, H. Kunimori, N. Hirata, F. Terui, and Y. Mimasu, “Development of the laser altimeter (LIDAR) for Hayabusa2,” Space Sci. Rev. 20833–47 (2017).
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Yeh, H.

Y. He, Q. Liu, H. Duan, J. He, Y. Jiang, and H. Yeh, “Manufacture of a hollow corner cube retroreflector for the next generation of lunar laser ranging,” Res. Astron. Astrophys. 18, 136 (2018).
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Yoder, C. F.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Waint, J. G. Williams, and C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
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Yu, A. W.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zagwodzki, T. W.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
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Zalewski, E.

P. Silverglate, E. Zalewski, and P. Petrone, “Proton induced radiation effects on optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1761, 46–57 (1992).
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Zellar, R. S.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zuber, M. T.

M. K. Barker, X. Sun, D. Mao, E. Mazarico, G. A. Neumann, M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, J. F. McGarry, and E. D. Hoffman, “In-flight characterization of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument pointing and far-field pattern,” Appl. Opt. 57, 7702–7713 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A. M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, and V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J. P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, “Mars observer laser altimeter investigation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781–7797 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zwally, H. J.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, G. L. Johnson, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, “Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23689–23722 (2001).
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Adv. Space Res. (1)

S. Dell’Annello, G. D. Monache, L. Porcelli, A. Boni, S. Contessa, E. Ciocci, M. Martini, M. Tibuzzi, N. Intaglietta, L. Salvatori, P. Tuscano, G. Patrizi, G. Bianco, R. Mugnuolo, and C. Cantone, “INRRI-EDM/2016: the first laser retroreflector on the surface of Mars,” Adv. Space Res. 59, 645–655 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

L. Magruder, E. Silverberg, C. Webb, and B. Schutz, “In situ timing and pointing verification of the ICESat altimeter using a ground-based system,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S04 (2005).
[Crossref]

Icarus (3)

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. A. Neumann, E. Mazarico, F. G. Lemoine, J. W. Head, P. G. Lucey, O. Aharonson, M. S. Robinson, X. Sun, M. H. Torrence, M. K. Barker, J. Oberst, T. C. Duxbury, D. Mao, O. S. Barnouin, K. Jha, D. D. Rowlands, S. Goossens, D. Baker, S. Bauer, P. Gläser, M. Lemelin, M. Rosenburg, M. M. Sori, J. Whitten, and T. Mcclanahan, “Summary of the results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit,” Icarus 283, 70–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. W. Murphy, E. G. Adelberger, J. B. R. Battat, C. D. Hoyle, N. H. Johnson, R. J. McMillan, E. L. Michelsen, S. W. Stubbs, and H. E. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod-1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Williams, D. A. Paige, B. T. Greenhagen, and E. Sefton-Nash, “The global surface temperatures of the Moon as measured by the diviner lunar radiometer experiment,” Icarus 283, 300–325 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, “Mars observer laser altimeter investigation,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781–7797 (1992).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Laser ranging from an orbital lidar to determine the lander position on the lunar surface, and help the orbiter to self-determine its trajectory once the position of the lander is established.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Laser ranging to a number of LRAs as precision landmarks for safe landing by follow-on landers.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Deployable LRAs on an asteroid for laser ranging from an orbiting or co-orbiting spacecraft with a lidar to determine its orientation, rotation axis, etc.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Photograph of the LRA. It is 5.0 cm in diameter at the base and 1.6 cm in height, and weighs 21 g.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Far-field pattern of a TIR retro-reflector at 1064-nm laser wavelength as a function of incidence angle.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. LRA thermal vacuum test setup.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Temperature profile of the thermal vacuum tests of the LRAs.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Average total ionization dose on the lunar surface over 10 years.

Tables (5)

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Table 1. Random Vibration Test Level—Qualification

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Table 2. Sine Vibration Test Level—Qualification

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Table 3. Shock Response Test—Qualification

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Table 4. Random Vibration Test Level—Workmanship

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Table 5. LOLA Instrument Parameters

Equations (8)

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n s = η d η t η r λ h c E t G t ( θ L , δ θ t ) σ x ( θ i ) 1 ( 4 π R 2 ) 2 A r ,
G t ( θ L , δ θ t ) = 8 θ t 2 e 2 ( δ θ t θ L ) 2 .
σ x p = π 3 ρ ϕ c 4 4 λ 2 ,
σ x ( θ i ) = σ x p [ J 1 ( π D c λ θ i ) π D c λ θ i ] 2 ,
θ 0 = 1.22 λ ϕ c .
σ x ( θ i ) = σ x p ( 2 cos θ i π ) 2 { sin 1 [ 1 2 tan 2 ( sin 1 ( sin θ i n ) ) ] 2 tan [ sin 1 ( sin θ i n ) ] } 2 ,
θ r = cos 1 [ ( 1 α 2 ) cos ( θ s c ) 1 + α 2 + 2 α sin ( θ s c ) cos ( ϕ s c ) ] , ϕ r = tan 1 [ ( 1 α 2 ) sin ( θ s c ) cos ( ϕ s c ) α + sin ( θ s c ) cos ( ϕ s c ) ] ,
α = 2 v s c c ,