Abstract

This paper discusses the new radiometric calibration methods and results that we have developed to apply to day/night whole sky imager data and extinction imager data. Day/night whole sky imagers detect the presence and location of clouds and categorize them by opacity. The new day and night cloud algorithms for these instruments are documented elsewhere, and these algorithms depend on the use of the new calibrations we have developed. In this paper, we document our calibration methods for determining the absolute radiance of the whole sky imager scene at each pixel in the images as well as the results of the calibrations. The extinction imagers are new systems we developed that determine beam transmittance and path extinction for horizontal paths through the atmosphere. These instruments and their algorithms are documented elsewhere, and they also depend on the new calibration results. The extinction imager algorithms only require relative radiances, as opposed to absolute radiances. The calibration steps for the two instruments are quite similar, and they include dark correction; linearity calibration, which corrects for nonlinearities in the signal versus flux relationship; absolute calibration (for the whole sky imager); and uniformity calibration, which corrects for pixel-to-pixel nonuniformities. These developments include methods for handling uniformity calibrations in a system using a fisheye lens and the calibration of both visible and short-wave IR systems. This paper presents both the new methods and results in support of the papers documenting the algorithms.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1605–1616 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Atmospheric cloud algorithms for day/night whole sky imagers.”
  3. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” , 2014, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .
  4. J. E. Shields and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Extinction imagers for measurements of atmospheric beam transmittance.”
  5. U. Feister and J. Shields, “Cloud and radiance measurements with the VIS/NIR daylight whole sky imager at Lindenberg (Germany),” Meteorol. Z. 14, 627–639 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. McCluney, Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry (Artech House, 1994).
  7. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 155–167 (2003).
  8. K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic ‘fisheye’ camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 652–662 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. Roman, M. Anton, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Northern Germany,” , 1976, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA035571 .
  12. A. Richards, Senior Research Scientist, FLIR Systems, Inc., 6769 Hollister Ave., Goleta, CA 93117 (personal communication, 2019).
  13. U. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

R. Roman, M. Anton, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

U. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

U. Feister and J. Shields, “Cloud and radiance measurements with the VIS/NIR daylight whole sky imager at Lindenberg (Germany),” Meteorol. Z. 14, 627–639 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 155–167 (2003).

1989 (1)

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic ‘fisheye’ camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 652–662 (1989).
[Crossref]

Alados-Arboledas, L.

R. Roman, M. Anton, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anton, M.

R. Roman, M. Anton, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baddeley, L.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baker, J. G.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 155–167 (2003).

Berger, P. J.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” , 2014, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

Bilbao, J.

R. Roman, M. Anton, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biles, D.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bjørkland, H.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brändström, U.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burden, A. R.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1605–1616 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 155–167 (2003).

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Atmospheric cloud algorithms for day/night whole sky imagers.”

Cazorla, A.

R. Roman, M. Anton, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chernouss, S.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

de Miguel, A.

R. Roman, M. Anton, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[Crossref]

Deehr, C. S.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Northern Germany,” , 1976, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA035571 .

Dyrland, M.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feister, U.

U. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[Crossref]

U. Feister and J. Shields, “Cloud and radiance measurements with the VIS/NIR daylight whole sky imager at Lindenberg (Germany),” Meteorol. Z. 14, 627–639 (2005).
[Crossref]

Frederickson, P. A.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” , 2014, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

Gordon, J. I.

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Northern Germany,” , 1976, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA035571 .

Görsdorf, U.

U. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[Crossref]

Güldner, J.

U. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hodgkiss, W. S.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” , 2014, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

Holmen, S. E.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johnson, R. W.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1605–1616 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 155–167 (2003).

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Northern Germany,” , 1976, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA035571 .

Karr, M. E.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1605–1616 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 155–167 (2003).

J. E. Shields and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Extinction imagers for measurements of atmospheric beam transmittance.”

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Atmospheric cloud algorithms for day/night whole sky imagers.”

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” , 2014, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

Lind, R. J.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” , 2014, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

Lorentzen, D. A.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lybekk, B.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

McCluney, R.

R. McCluney, Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry (Artech House, 1994).

Mikuls, V. W.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” , 2014, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

Moen, J.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Möller, H.

U. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[Crossref]

Olmo, F. J.

R. Roman, M. Anton, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[Crossref]

Richards, A.

A. Richards, Senior Research Scientist, FLIR Systems, Inc., 6769 Hollister Ave., Goleta, CA 93117 (personal communication, 2019).

Roman, R.

R. Roman, M. Anton, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sattler, T.

U. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shields, J.

U. Feister and J. Shields, “Cloud and radiance measurements with the VIS/NIR daylight whole sky imager at Lindenberg (Germany),” Meteorol. Z. 14, 627–639 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shields, J. E.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1605–1616 (2013).
[Crossref]

U. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 155–167 (2003).

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Atmospheric cloud algorithms for day/night whole sky imagers.”

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” , 2014, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

J. E. Shields and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Extinction imagers for measurements of atmospheric beam transmittance.”

Sigernes, E.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trondsen, E.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trondsen, T.

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Voss, K. J.

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic ‘fisheye’ camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 652–662 (1989).
[Crossref]

Zibordi, G.

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic ‘fisheye’ camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 652–662 (1989).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

R. Roman, M. Anton, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Res. (1)

U. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. (1)

E. Sigernes, S. E. Holmen, D. Biles, H. Bjørkland, X. Chen, M. Dyrland, D. A. Lorentzen, L. Baddeley, T. Trondsen, U. Brändström, E. Trondsen, B. Lybekk, J. Moen, S. Chernouss, and C. S. Deehr, “Auroral all-sky camera calibraton,” Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 3, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic ‘fisheye’ camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 652–662 (1989).
[Crossref]

Meteorol. Z. (1)

U. Feister and J. Shields, “Cloud and radiance measurements with the VIS/NIR daylight whole sky imager at Lindenberg (Germany),” Meteorol. Z. 14, 627–639 (2005).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 155–167 (2003).

Other (6)

R. McCluney, Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry (Artech House, 1994).

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Atmospheric cloud algorithms for day/night whole sky imagers.”

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, V. W. Mikuls, P. J. Berger, P. A. Frederickson, R. J. Lind, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Development of extinction imagers for the determination of atmospheric optical extinction,” , 2014, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA613006 .

J. E. Shields and M. E. Karr, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr. 0701, La Jolla, CA 92093-0701, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Extinction imagers for measurements of atmospheric beam transmittance.”

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Northern Germany,” , 1976, https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA035571 .

A. Richards, Senior Research Scientist, FLIR Systems, Inc., 6769 Hollister Ave., Goleta, CA 93117 (personal communication, 2019).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Dark signal versus exposure, for two Photometrics CCD imagers, a Series 200 and a Series 300.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Dark signal versus exposure from an Alpha NIR SWIR camera, in low gain and high gain.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Dark-corrected signal as a function of exposure from the exposure calibration, for photometrics series 200 camera, unit 8.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Percent nonlinearity as a function of dark-corrected signal from the exposure calibration data in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Dark-corrected signal as a function of relative flux from the Lin versus radiance measurements.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Percent nonlinearity as a function of dark-corrected signal from the Lin versus radiance data in Fig. 5.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Dark-corrected signal as a function of exposure from the exposure calibration for the Photometrics Sensys camera.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Percent nonlinearity as a function of dark-corrected signal from the exposure calibration data in Fig. 7.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Dark-corrected signal as a function of exposure for the alpha NIR camera used in the SRI.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Dark-corrected signal as a function of flux for the alpha NIR camera used in the SRI, low gain.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Percent nonlinearity as a function of dark-corrected signal from the linearity versus radiance calibration for the alpha NIR.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Raw SRI image acquired near 1.6 μm, looking South to Los Coronados Islands from Pt. Loma, CA.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Processed image, with dark, linearity, and uniformity corrections.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Sample Absolute Calibration Constant Measurement and Derivation

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Table 2. Absolute Calibration Measurement Uncertainties by Filter

Equations (10)

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E λ ( d ) = E λ ( d 0 ) * d 0 2 / d 2 .
L λ ( d ) = R λ E λ ( d ) / π ,
NonLin ( Sig ) = Sig * E ( 10 , 000 ) 10 , 000 * E ( Sig ) .
E ( SP , ND ) ¯ = E λ S λ T λ ( SP ) T λ ( ND ) d λ S λ T λ ( SP ) T λ ( ND ) d λ ,
A ( SP , ND , d ) = L ( SP , ND , d ) * 10 , 000 Sig * Exp 100 .
Sig ( x , y ) = Sig ( x , y ) Dark ( x , y ) .
Sig ( x , y ) = f ( Sig ( x , y ) ) .
l ( x , y , SP , ND , Exp ) = A ( SP , ND ) * Sig ( x , y ) 10 , 000 * 100 Exp .
L ( x , y , SP , ND , Exp ) = l ( x , y , SP , ND , Exp ) * U ( SP , ROI ) U ( SP , x , y ) .
Sig ( x , y , SP , ND ) = Sig ( x , y ) * U ( SP , ROI ) U ( SP , x , y ) .

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