Abstract

The photometric model for the mesopic luminous efficacy (LEm) of hybrid white LEDs, including the radiant efficiency of both blue and red LEDs as well as the overall quantum efficiency of the phosphor layer or the quantum dot (QD) film, was developed. The optimal spectral parameters of integrated with quantum dots (QD-WLED), phosphor-converted white LED (pc-WLED) with red LEDs instead of red phosphor (pc/R WLED) for both color fidelity index (Rf) and color rendering index (Ra) above 70, 80, and 90 at correlated color temperatures of 2700–6500 K were obtained by maximizing the average LEm of four road lighting standards. By comparing among pc-WLED, QD-WLED, and pc/R WLED, it was suggested that the pc/R WLEDs make strong candidates for mesopic road lighting. The requirements of the overall efficiency of QD film were presented if the QD-WLEDs were competitive to the pc-WLEDs. Finally, the three real pc/R WLEDs with both Rf and Ra about 80 at CCTs of 2982 K, 4560 K, and 5683 K were demonstrated.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2018 (1)

2016 (3)

L. L. Zan, D. Y. Lin, P. Zhong, and G. X. He, “Optimal spectra of white LED integrated with quantum dots for mesopic vision,” Opt. Express 24, 7643–7653 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, J. J. Xiao, H. L. Lu, Y. J. Lu, T. Z. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. L. Gao, H. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios,” AIP Adv. 6, 035127 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Xie, R. Hu, and X. B. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138, 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

T. Erdem, Y. Kelestemur, Z. S. Erdem, Y. Ji, and H. V. Demir, “Energy-saving quality road lighting with colloidal quantum dot nanophosphors,” Nanophotonics 3, 373–381 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. X. He and J. Tang, “Spectral optimization of color temperature tunable white LEDs with excellent color rendering and luminous efficacy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5570–5573 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

T. Erdem and H. V. Demir, “Color science of nanocrystal quantum dots for lighting and displays,” Nanophotonics 2, 57–81 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, J. H. Zhang, S. Q. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Studies of scotopic/photopic ratios for color-tunable white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 8200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Vitta, R. Stanikûnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevièius, and A. Þukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, and H. V. Demir, “High scotopic/photopic ratio white-light-emitting diodes integrated with semiconductor nanophosphors of colloidal quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1893–1895 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49, 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. X. He and L. H. Zheng, “White-light LED clusters with high color rendering,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2955–2957 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Warm-white light-emitting diodes integrated with colloidal quantum dots for high luminous efficacy and color rendering,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3372–3374 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Lita, A. L. Washington, L. van de Burgt, G. F. Strouse, and A. E. Stiegman, “Stable efficient solid-state white-light-emitting phosphor with a high scotopic/photopic ratio fabricated from fused CdSe-silica nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3987–3991 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

P. R. Boyce, S. Fotios, and M. Richards, “Road lighting and energy saving,” Light. Res. Technol. 41, 245–260 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

E. Hamidreza and D. G. Christopher, “A fast Pareto genetic algorithm approach for solving expensive multiobjective optimization problems,” J. Heuristics 14, 203–241 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, “A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children,” Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41–49 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111302 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. Rosenthal, “Bar-coding biomolecules with fluorescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 621–622 (2001).
[Crossref]

Berman, S. M.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, “A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children,” Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41–49 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boyce, P. R.

P. R. Boyce, S. Fotios, and M. Richards, “Road lighting and energy saving,” Light. Res. Technol. 41, 245–260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. L.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, J. H. Zhang, S. Q. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Studies of scotopic/photopic ratios for color-tunable white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 8200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, J. J. Xiao, H. L. Lu, Y. J. Lu, T. Z. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. L. Gao, H. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios,” AIP Adv. 6, 035127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, J. H. Zhang, S. Q. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Studies of scotopic/photopic ratios for color-tunable white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 8200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Christopher, D. G.

E. Hamidreza and D. G. Christopher, “A fast Pareto genetic algorithm approach for solving expensive multiobjective optimization problems,” J. Heuristics 14, 203–241 (2008).
[Crossref]

Coltrin, M. F.

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49, 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

T. Erdem, Y. Kelestemur, Z. S. Erdem, Y. Ji, and H. V. Demir, “Energy-saving quality road lighting with colloidal quantum dot nanophosphors,” Nanophotonics 3, 373–381 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Erdem and H. V. Demir, “Color science of nanocrystal quantum dots for lighting and displays,” Nanophotonics 2, 57–81 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, and H. V. Demir, “High scotopic/photopic ratio white-light-emitting diodes integrated with semiconductor nanophosphors of colloidal quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1893–1895 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Warm-white light-emitting diodes integrated with colloidal quantum dots for high luminous efficacy and color rendering,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3372–3374 (2010).
[Crossref]

Erdem, T.

T. Erdem, Y. Kelestemur, Z. S. Erdem, Y. Ji, and H. V. Demir, “Energy-saving quality road lighting with colloidal quantum dot nanophosphors,” Nanophotonics 3, 373–381 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Erdem and H. V. Demir, “Color science of nanocrystal quantum dots for lighting and displays,” Nanophotonics 2, 57–81 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, and H. V. Demir, “High scotopic/photopic ratio white-light-emitting diodes integrated with semiconductor nanophosphors of colloidal quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1893–1895 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Warm-white light-emitting diodes integrated with colloidal quantum dots for high luminous efficacy and color rendering,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3372–3374 (2010).
[Crossref]

Erdem, Z. S.

T. Erdem, Y. Kelestemur, Z. S. Erdem, Y. Ji, and H. V. Demir, “Energy-saving quality road lighting with colloidal quantum dot nanophosphors,” Nanophotonics 3, 373–381 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. J.

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fotios, S.

P. R. Boyce, S. Fotios, and M. Richards, “Road lighting and energy saving,” Light. Res. Technol. 41, 245–260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y. L.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, J. J. Xiao, H. L. Lu, Y. J. Lu, T. Z. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. L. Gao, H. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios,” AIP Adv. 6, 035127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, J. H. Zhang, S. Q. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Studies of scotopic/photopic ratios for color-tunable white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 8200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, J. J. Xiao, H. L. Lu, Y. J. Lu, T. Z. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. L. Gao, H. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios,” AIP Adv. 6, 035127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, J. H. Zhang, S. Q. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Studies of scotopic/photopic ratios for color-tunable white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 8200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hamidreza, E.

E. Hamidreza and D. G. Christopher, “A fast Pareto genetic algorithm approach for solving expensive multiobjective optimization problems,” J. Heuristics 14, 203–241 (2008).
[Crossref]

He, G.

He, G. X.

Hu, R.

B. Xie, R. Hu, and X. B. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138, 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y.

T. Erdem, Y. Kelestemur, Z. S. Erdem, Y. Ji, and H. V. Demir, “Energy-saving quality road lighting with colloidal quantum dot nanophosphors,” Nanophotonics 3, 373–381 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kelestemur, Y.

T. Erdem, Y. Kelestemur, Z. S. Erdem, Y. Ji, and H. V. Demir, “Energy-saving quality road lighting with colloidal quantum dot nanophosphors,” Nanophotonics 3, 373–381 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, D. Y.

Lin, S. Q.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, J. H. Zhang, S. Q. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Studies of scotopic/photopic ratios for color-tunable white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 8200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, J. J. Xiao, H. L. Lu, Y. J. Lu, T. Z. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. L. Gao, H. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios,” AIP Adv. 6, 035127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lita, A.

A. Lita, A. L. Washington, L. van de Burgt, G. F. Strouse, and A. E. Stiegman, “Stable efficient solid-state white-light-emitting phosphor with a high scotopic/photopic ratio fabricated from fused CdSe-silica nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3987–3991 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, H. L.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, J. J. Xiao, H. L. Lu, Y. J. Lu, T. Z. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. L. Gao, H. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios,” AIP Adv. 6, 035127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. J.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, J. J. Xiao, H. L. Lu, Y. J. Lu, T. Z. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. L. Gao, H. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios,” AIP Adv. 6, 035127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, J. H. Zhang, S. Q. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Studies of scotopic/photopic ratios for color-tunable white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 8200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luo, X. B.

B. Xie, R. Hu, and X. B. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138, 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

Martin, M. J.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, “A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children,” Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41–49 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mueller, G. O.

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Navvab, M.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, “A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children,” Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41–49 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nizamoglu, S.

Ohno, Y.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49, 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Parmentier, A. B.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phillips, M.

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Poelman, D.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reklaitis, I.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikûnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevièius, and A. Þukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[Crossref]

Richards, M.

P. R. Boyce, S. Fotios, and M. Richards, “Road lighting and energy saving,” Light. Res. Technol. 41, 245–260 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rohwer, L. E. S.

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rosenthal, J.

J. Rosenthal, “Bar-coding biomolecules with fluorescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 621–622 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sheedy, J.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, “A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children,” Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41–49 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shih, T. M.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, J. J. Xiao, H. L. Lu, Y. J. Lu, T. Z. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. L. Gao, H. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios,” AIP Adv. 6, 035127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, J. H. Zhang, S. Q. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Studies of scotopic/photopic ratios for color-tunable white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 8200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Simmons, J. A.

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smet, P. F.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stanikûnas, R.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikûnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevièius, and A. Þukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[Crossref]

Stiegman, A. E.

A. Lita, A. L. Washington, L. van de Burgt, G. F. Strouse, and A. E. Stiegman, “Stable efficient solid-state white-light-emitting phosphor with a high scotopic/photopic ratio fabricated from fused CdSe-silica nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3987–3991 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stonkus, A.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikûnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevièius, and A. Þukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[Crossref]

Strouse, G. F.

A. Lita, A. L. Washington, L. van de Burgt, G. F. Strouse, and A. E. Stiegman, “Stable efficient solid-state white-light-emitting phosphor with a high scotopic/photopic ratio fabricated from fused CdSe-silica nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3987–3991 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

Tang, J.

Þukauskas, A.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikûnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevièius, and A. Þukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[Crossref]

Tithof, W.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, “A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children,” Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41–49 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tsao, J. Y.

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tuzikas, A.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikûnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevièius, and A. Þukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[Crossref]

Vaikevièius, H. P.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikûnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevièius, and A. Þukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[Crossref]

van de Burgt, L.

A. Lita, A. L. Washington, L. van de Burgt, G. F. Strouse, and A. E. Stiegman, “Stable efficient solid-state white-light-emitting phosphor with a high scotopic/photopic ratio fabricated from fused CdSe-silica nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3987–3991 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vitta, P.

P. Vitta, R. Stanikûnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevièius, and A. Þukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[Crossref]

Washington, A. L.

A. Lita, A. L. Washington, L. van de Burgt, G. F. Strouse, and A. E. Stiegman, “Stable efficient solid-state white-light-emitting phosphor with a high scotopic/photopic ratio fabricated from fused CdSe-silica nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3987–3991 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, T. Z.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, J. J. Xiao, H. L. Lu, Y. J. Lu, T. Z. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. L. Gao, H. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios,” AIP Adv. 6, 035127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiao, H.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, J. J. Xiao, H. L. Lu, Y. J. Lu, T. Z. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. L. Gao, H. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios,” AIP Adv. 6, 035127 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, J. J. Xiao, H. L. Lu, Y. J. Lu, T. Z. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. L. Gao, H. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios,” AIP Adv. 6, 035127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiao, L.

Xie, B.

B. Xie, R. Hu, and X. B. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138, 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zan, L. L.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, J. H.

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, J. H. Zhang, S. Q. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Studies of scotopic/photopic ratios for color-tunable white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 8200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Zhong, P.

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Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, J. H. Zhang, S. Q. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Studies of scotopic/photopic ratios for color-tunable white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 8200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

A. Lita, A. L. Washington, L. van de Burgt, G. F. Strouse, and A. E. Stiegman, “Stable efficient solid-state white-light-emitting phosphor with a high scotopic/photopic ratio fabricated from fused CdSe-silica nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3987–3991 (2010).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, J. J. Xiao, H. L. Lu, Y. J. Lu, T. Z. Wu, Y. Lin, Y. L. Gao, H. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios,” AIP Adv. 6, 035127 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Z. Q. Guo, T. M. Shih, Y. J. Lu, Y. L. Gao, L. H. Zhu, G. L. Chen, J. H. Zhang, S. Q. Lin, and Z. Chen, “Studies of scotopic/photopic ratios for color-tunable white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 8200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Packag. (1)

B. Xie, R. Hu, and X. B. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138, 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

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E. Hamidreza and D. G. Christopher, “A fast Pareto genetic algorithm approach for solving expensive multiobjective optimization problems,” J. Heuristics 14, 203–241 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. Phillips, M. F. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Light. Res. Technol. (2)

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, “A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children,” Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41–49 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. R. Boyce, S. Fotios, and M. Richards, “Road lighting and energy saving,” Light. Res. Technol. 41, 245–260 (2009).
[Crossref]

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T. Erdem and H. V. Demir, “Color science of nanocrystal quantum dots for lighting and displays,” Nanophotonics 2, 57–81 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Erdem, Y. Kelestemur, Z. S. Erdem, Y. Ji, and H. V. Demir, “Energy-saving quality road lighting with colloidal quantum dot nanophosphors,” Nanophotonics 3, 373–381 (2014).
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J. Rosenthal, “Bar-coding biomolecules with fluorescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 621–622 (2001).
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Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111302 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49, 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. Vitta, R. Stanikûnas, A. Tuzikas, I. Reklaitis, A. Stonkus, H. P. Vaikevièius, and A. Þukauskas, “Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81231H (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

International Commission on Illumination, “Recommended system for mesopic photometry based on visual performance,” (CIE, 2010).

Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, Recommended Practice RP-8-00 Roadway Lighting (IESNA, 2005).

British Standards Institution, “Code of practice for the design of road lighting–Part 1: lighting of roads and public amenity areas,” (BSI, 2003).

British Standards Institution, “Road lighting—Part 2: performance requirements,” (BSI, 2003).

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, “Spectrally enhanced lighting program implementation for energy savings: field evaluation,” (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2006).

Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, “IES method for evaluating light source color rendition,” (IESNA, 2015).

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“LED,” https://www.osram.com/apps/product_selector .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Optimal SPDs of QD-WLED and pc/R WLEDs with Q=70, 80, and 90 at CCTs of 2700–6500 K for four mesopic road lighting standards.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. LLEm,aves of the optimal pc-WLEDs, QD-WLEDs, and pc/R WLEDs with Q=70, 80, and 90 at CCTs of 2700–6500 K (Duv=0.0054) for four mesopic road lighting standards.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. SPDs of the three real pc/R WLEDs. The inset shows photographs of the real pc-LED, the real red LED, and white light of the real pc/R WLED from the integrating sphere with a increase in the CCT from top to bottom.

Tables (11)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optimal Spectral Parameters of Each Color Component, as well as LERs of the QD-WLEDs with Q=70 at CCTs of 2700–6500 K (Duv=0.0054) for Four Mesopic Road Lighting Standards

Tables Icon

Table 2. Optimal Spectral Parameters of Each Color Component, as well as LERs of the QD-WLEDs with Q=80 at CCTs of 2700–6500 K (Duv=0.0054) for Four Mesopic Road Lighting Standards

Tables Icon

Table 3. Optimal Spectral Parameters of Each Color Component, as well as LERs of the QD-WLEDs with Q=90 at CCTs of 2700–6500 K (Duv=0.0054) for Four Mesopic Road Lighting Standards

Tables Icon

Table 4. Optimal Spectral Parameters of Each Color Component, as well as LERs of the pc/R WLEDs with Q=70 at CCTs of 2700–6500 K (Duv=0.0054) for Four Mesopic Road Lighting Standards

Tables Icon

Table 5. Optimal Spectral Parameters of Each Color Component, as well as LERs of the pc/R WLEDs with Q=80 at CCTs of 2700–6500 K (Duv=0.0054) for Four Mesopic Road Lighting Standards

Tables Icon

Table 6. Optimal Spectral Parameters of Each Color Component, as well as LERs of the pc/R WLEDs with Q=90 at CCTs of 2700–6500 K (Duv=0.0054) for Four Mesopic Road Lighting Standards

Tables Icon

Table 7. Optimal S/P Ratios of the pc-WLEDs with Q=70, 80, and 90 at CCTs of 2700–6500 K (Duv=0.0054) for Four Mesopic Road Lighting Standards

Tables Icon

Table 8. Optimal S/P Ratios of the QD-WLEDs with Q=70, 80, and 90 at CCTs of 2700–6500 K (Duv=0.0054) for Four Mesopic Road Lighting Standards

Tables Icon

Table 9. Optimal S/P Ratios of the pc/R WLEDs with Q=70, 80, and 90 at CCTs of 2700–6500 K (Duv=0.0054) for Four Mesopic Road Lighting Standards

Tables Icon

Table 10. LEm,aves of the pc-WLEDs, QD-WLEDs, and pc/R WLEDs with Q=70, 80, and 90 at CCTs of 2700–6500 K for Four Mesopic Road Lighting Standards (ηe=60%)

Tables Icon

Table 11. Photometric and Colorimetric Performances of the Three Optimal and Real pc/R WLEDs for Four Mesopic Road Lighting Standards, and the Drive Currents of pc-LEDs and the Red LED

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SW(λ)=i=14qiS(λ,λi,Δλi),
LEm(x)=x+(1x)(S/P)(683/1699)x+(1x)(683/1699)LEp,
S/P=λ1699V(λ)SW(λ)dλλ683V(λ)SW(λ)dλ.
LEp=683ηeλV(λ)SW(λ)dλλ(q1+qab)S(λ,λ1,Δλ1)dλ,
qab=i=24qiλS(λ,λi,Δλi)λdληλS(λ,λ1,Δλ1)λdλ.
LEp=683ηeλV(λ)SW(λ)dλλ(q1+qab)S(λ,λ1,Δλ1)dλ+λq4S(λ,λ4,Δλ4)dλ,
qab=i=23qλS(λ,λi,Δλi)λdiληλS(λ,λ1,Δλ1)λdλ,
F=LLEm.ave(xj,q1,λ1,λ2,λ3,λ4,Δλ1,Δλ2,Δλ3,Δλ4)(bothRfandRaQ,Duv0.0054,ηe=60%,η=90%),