Abstract

Laser fusion researchers have realized since the 1970s that the deep UV light from excimer lasers would be an advantage as a driver for robust high-performance capsule implosions for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Most of this research has centered on the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser. In this article we review the advantages of the KrF laser for direct-drive ICF, the history of high-energy KrF laser development, and the present state of the art and describe a development path to the performance needed for laser fusion and its energy application. We include descriptions of the architecture and performance of the multi-kilojoule Nike KrF laser-target facility and the 700 J Electra high-repetition-rate KrF laser that were developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Nike and Electra are the most advanced KrF lasers for inertial fusion research and energy applications.

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2015 (3)

Z. Xueqing, L. Jingru, Y. Aiping, Z. Yongsheng, W. Dahui, Z. Yongxiang, Q. Hang, H. Yun, M. Lianying, X. Quanxi, H. Chao, S. Bibo, and Y. Li, “Progress on high power excimer laser in NINT,” Proc. SPIE 9255, 925523 (2015).
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Y. Zhang, L. Ma, D. Wang, X. Zhao, Y. Zhu, Y. Hu, H. Qian, B. Shao, A. Yi, and J. Liu, “The development and progress of XeCl excimer laser system,” Proc. SPIE 9543, 95431C (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, J. Oh, and S. P. Obenschain, “Suppression of laser nonuniformity imprinting using a thin high-Z coating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 085001 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

B. L. Garrec, “Challenges of high-power diode pumped lasers for fusion energy,” Power Laser Sci. Eng. 2, E28 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lindl, O. Landen, J. Edwards, and E. Moses, “Review of the National Ignition Campaign (2009-2012),” Phys. Plasmas 21, 020501 (2014). Erratum: Phys. Plasmas 21, 129902 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Doppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H. S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in indirectly confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506, 343–348 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

S. E. Bodner, A. J. Schmitt, and J. D. Sethian, “Laser requirements for a laser fusion energy power plant,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 2–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. M. Kehne, M. Karasik, Y. Aglitsky, Z. Smyth, S. Terrell, J. L. Weaver, Y. Chan, R. H. Lehmberg, and S. P. Obenschain, “Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 013509 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. V. Igumenshchev, D. H. Froula, D. H. Edgell, V. N. Goncharov, T. J. Kessler, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, P. W. McKenty, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. T. Michel, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, and S. Skupsky, “Laser-beam zooming to mitigate crossed beam energy losses in direct drive implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 145001 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. L. Weaver, J. Oh, B. Afeyan, L. Phillips, J. Seely, U. Feldman, C. Brown, M. Karasik, V. Serlin, Y. Aglitskiy, A. N. Mostovych, G. Holland, S. Obenschain, L.-Y. Chan, D. Kehne, R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, D. Colombant, and A. Velikovich, “Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 022701 (2013).
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F. Hegeler, M. C. Myers, M. F. Wolford, J. D. Sethian, and A. M. Fielding, “Low jitter, high voltage, repetitive laser triggered gas switches,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 20, 1168–1188 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. F. Wolford, J. D. Sethian, M. C. Myers, F. Hegeler, J. L. Giuliani, and S. P. Obenschain, “Krypton fluoride (KrF) laser driver for inertial fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 64, 179–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. D. ZVorykin, A. S. Alimov, S. V. Arlantsev, B. S. Ishkhanov, A. O. Levchenko, N. N. Mogilenet, V. F. Oreshkin, A. P. Sergeev, P. B. Sergeev, V. F. Shtan’Ko, V. I. Shvedunov, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Degradation of the transmissive optics for a laser-driven IFE power plant under electrons and x-ray irradiation,” Plasma Fusion Res. 8, 3405046 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

B. Lu, S. I. Abdel-Khalik, D. L. Sadowski, and K. G. Schoonover, “Investigations of Electra KrF laser hibachi foil cooling with small obliquely impinging jets,” Fusion Eng. Des. 87, 352–358 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. H. Froula, I. V. Igumenshchev, D. T. Michel, D. H. Edgell, R. Follett, V. Y. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, J. Kwiatkowski, F. J. Marshall, P. B. Radha, W. Seka, C. Sorce, S. Stagnitto, C. Stoeckl, and T. C. Sangster, “Increasing hydrodynamic efficiency by reducing cross-beam energy transfer in direct-drive-implosion experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 125003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Aglitskiy, M. Karasik, A. L. Velikovich, V. Serlin, J. Weaver, T. J. Kessler, A. J. Schmitt, S. P. Obenschain, N. Metzler, and J. Oh, “Observation of strong oscillations of areal mass in an unsupported shockwave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 085001 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

F. Hegeler, M. W. McGeoch, J. D. Sethian, H. D. Sanders, S. C. Glidden, and M. C. Myers, “A durable gigawatt class solid state pulsed power system,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 18, 1205–1213 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Lu, S. I. Abdel-Khalik, D. L. Sadowski, and K. G. Schoonover, “Experimental and numerical investigation of Electra KrF laser hibachi foil cooling with a near-wall planar jet,” J. Fusion Energy 30, 453–458 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Watari, Y. Arikawa, T. Sakaiya, J. Oh, A. L. Velikovich, S. T. Zalesak, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, M. Murakami, and H. Azechiet, “Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. J. Schmitt, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, S. T. Zalesak, and D. E. Fyfe, “Shock ignition target design for inertial fusion energy,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 042701 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, “The national ignition facility: Ushering in a new age for high energy density science,” Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. H. Lehmberg, J. L. Giuliani, and A. J. Schmitt, “Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023103 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, and A. J. Schmitt, “A laser based fusion test facility,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 594–603 (2009).

2008 (4)

F. Hegeler, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, M. C. Myers, M. F. Wolford, P. M. Burns, and M. Friedman, “Forced convective cooling of foils in a repetitively pulsed electron-beam diode,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 778–793 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. D. Zvorykin, S. V. Arlantsev, R. V. Gaynutdinov, I. V. Kholin, A. O. Levchenko, N. N. Mogilenetz, A. G. Molchanov, V. F. Oreshkin, M. A. Rogulev, S. I. Sagitov, A. P. Sergeev, P. B. Sergeev, D. B. Stavrovskii, N. N. Ustinovskii, and D. A. Zayarnyi, “Quests for inertial fusion energy conducted at GARPUN KrF laser facility,” J. Phys. 112, 032055 (2008).

M. F. Wolford, M. C. Myers, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, P. M. Burns, F. Hegeler, and R. Jaynes, “Repetition-rate angularly multiplexed krypton fluoride laser system,” Opt. Eng. 47, 104202 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Friedman, M. Myers, Y. Chan, and J. D. Sethian, “Properties of ceramic honeycomb cathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141501 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (6)

V. D. Zvorykin, R. V. Gaynutdinov, M. V. Isaev, A. O. Levchenko, S. I. Sagitov, P. B. Sergeev, D. B. Stavrovskii, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Fluorine-resistant optics for high-energy KrF Lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6611, 66110M (2007).
[Crossref]

P. M. Burns, M. Myers, J. D. Sethian, M. F. Wolford, J. L. Giuliani, S. P. Obenschain, R. H. Lehmberg, S. Searles, M. Friedman, F. Hegeler, R. Jaynes, and R. V. Smilgys, “Development of a continuous multi-thousand shot electron beam pumped KrF rep-rate laser for fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 52, 445–453 (2007).

M. F. Wolford, M. C. Myers, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, P. M. Burns, F. Hegeler, and R. Jaynes, “Electra: Durable repetitively pulsed 700  J, 100  ns electron beam pumped KrF laser system,” Proc. SPIE 6454, 645407 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. A. Haynam, P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, M. W. Bowers, S. N. Dixit, G. V. Erbert, G. M. Heestand, M. A. Henesian, M. R. Hermann, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, C. D. Marshall, N. C. Mehta, J. Menapace, E. Moses, J. R. Murray, M. C. Nostrand, C. D. Orth, R. Patterson, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, M. Spaeth, S. B. Sutton, W. H. Williams, C. C. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. Van Wonterghem, “National ignition facility laser performance status,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3276–3303 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Yi-huai, G. Zhi-xing, T. Xiao-hui, D. Hui, T. Xiu-zhang, and S. Yu-sheng, “Beam smoothing investigation on heaven I,” Proc. SPIE 6279, 62795Z (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Betti, C. D. Zhou, K. S. Anderson, L. J. Perkins, W. Theobald, and A. A. Solodov, “Shock ignition of thermonuclear fuel with high areal density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155001 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, and M. W. McGeoch, “Pathway to a lower cost high repetition rate ignition facility,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056320 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

B. Canaud and F. Garaude, “Optimization of laser-target coupling efficiency for direct drive laser fusion,” Nucl. Fusion 45, L43–L47 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Fluerot, C. Cavailler, and J. L. Bourgad, “The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Project dedicated to inertial confinement fusion: Development and construction status,” Fusion Eng. Des. 74, 147–154 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Karasik, A. N. Mostovych, R. H. Lehmberg, Y. Chan, J. L. Weaver, and S. P. Obenschain, “Measurements of low-level prepulse on Nike KrF laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053101 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. H. Lehmberg and T. Chan, “Near-field nonuniformities in angularly multiplexed KrF fusion lasers with induced spatial incoherence,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2805–2817 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

F. Hegeler, D. V. Rose, M. C. Myers, J. D. Sethian, J. L. Giuliani, M. F. Wolford, and M. Friedman, “Efficient electron beam deposition in the gas cell of the Electra laser,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 5010–5021 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

R. H. Lehmberg and J. L. Giuliani, “Simulations of amplified spontaneous emission in high gain KrF laser amplifiers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 31–43 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Friedman, Y. Chan, S. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, and S. B. Swanekamp, “Eliminating the transit-time instability in large-area electron-beam diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1539–1541 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, M. Karasik, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, A. J. Schmitt, J. L. Weaver, J. H. Gardner, L. Phillips, Y. Aglitskiy, Y. Chan, J. P. Dahlburg, and M. Klapisch, “Effects of thin high-Z layers on the hydrodynamics of laser-accelerated plastic targets,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 2234–2243 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, M. C. Myers, J. D. Sethian, and S. B. Swanekamp, “Reduction of edge emission in electron beam diodes,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 4309–4315 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. M. Petrov, J. L. Giuliani, and A. Dasgupta, “Electron energy deposition in an electron-beam pumped KrF amplifier: impact of beam power and energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2662–2677 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. L. Giuliani, G. M. Petrov, and A. Dasgupta, “Electron energy deposition in an electron-beam pumped KrF amplifier: impact of the gas deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1200–1206 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (5)

I. Okuda, E. Takahashi, and Y. Owadano, “A conceptual design of a high-efficiency rep-rated pulsed power system for KrF laser drivers of inertial fusion energy,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 247–250 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. H. Lehmberg and J. E. Rothenberg, “Comparison of optical beam smoothing techniques for inertial confinement fusion and improvement of smoothing by zero-correlation masks,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1012–1022 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Mounaix, L. Divol, S. Hüller, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Effects of spatial and temporal smoothing on stimulated Brillouin scattering in the independent-hot-spot model limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4526–4529 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. J. Ewing, “Excimer laser technology development,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1061–1071 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Friedman, S. Swanekamp, S. Obenschain, Y. Chan, L. Ludeking, and D. Smithe, “Stability of large-area electron beam diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1053–1055 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

I. Okuda, E. Takahashi, I. Matsushima, Y. Matsumoto, H. Yashiro, E. Miura, T. Tomie, and Y. Owadano, “Performance of the super-ASHURA main amplifier,” Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 377–381 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, R. H. Lehmberg, and M. W. McGeoch, “A rep rate KrF system to address issues relevant to inertial fusion energy,” Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 371–375 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, and S. P. Obenschain, “Comparison between measured and calculated nonuniformities of Nike laser beams smoothed by induced spatial incoherence,” Opt. Commun. 147, 402–410 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct drive laser fusion: Status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altes, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, and O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, and J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

1996 (3)

D. S. Montgomery, J. D. Moody, H. A. Baldis, B. B. Afeyan, R. L. Berger, K. G. Estabrook, B. F. Lasinski, E. A. Williams, and C. Labaune, “Effects of laser beam smoothing on stimulated Raman scattering in exploding foil,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 1728–1736 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, and M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF laser facility: Performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107. (1996).
[Crossref]

E. J. Divall, C. B. Edwards, G. J. Hirst, C. J. Hooker, A. K. Kidd, J. M. D. Lister, R. Mathumo, I. N. Ross, M. J. Shaw, W. T. Toner, A. P. Visser, and B. E. Wyborn, “Titania, a 1020  W/cm2 ultraviolet laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1025–1033 (1996).

1995 (1)

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, and C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy, uniform profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

M. S. Pronko, “Controlling output gain uniformity by spatial variation of the x-ray preionization in a large-aperture discharge-pumped KrF amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2147–2156 (1994).
[Crossref]

W. R. Meier, “Osiris and sombrero inertial fusion power-plant designs—summary, conclusions, and recommendations,” Fusion Eng. Des. 25, 145–157 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. J. Linford, D. E. Driemeyer, S. W. Fornaca, and A. W. Maschke, “Design descriptions of the Prometheus-l and Prometheus-H inertial fusion energy drivers,” Fusion Eng. Des. 25, 111–124 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

W. Seka, R. E. Bahr, R. W. Short, A. Simon, R. S. Craxton, D. S. Montgomery, and A. E. Rubenchik, “Nonlinear laser-matter interaction processes in long‐scale‐length plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 4, 2232–2240 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. A. Halbleib, R. P. Kensek, G. D. Valdez, S. M. Seltzer, and M. J. Berger, “ITS: The integrated TIGER series of electron/photon transport codes-version 3.0,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 39, 1025–1030 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and P. W. Wang, “Some effects of 5  eV photons on defects in SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. 149, 122–136 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. M. D. Lister, M. J. Shaw, C. J. Hooker, and E. C. Harvey, “Uniform target illumination by induced spatial incoherence in a multiplexed KrF laser system,” Opt. Commun. 84, 55–60 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

O. Willi, T. Ashar-Rad, S. Coe, and A. Giulietti, “Study of instabilities in long scale‐length plasmas with and without laser‐beam‐smoothing techniques,” Phys. Fluids B 2, 1318–1324 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (4)

S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, A. N. Mostovych, J. A. Stamper, J. H. Gardner, A. J. Schmitt, and S. E. Bodner, “Reduction of Raman scattering in a plasma to convective levels using induced spatial incoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 768–771 (1989).
[Crossref]

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using angular dispersion of frequency–modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Lee, F. Kannari, and M. Obara, “Power extraction study of an e-beam pumped atmospheric pressure, Kr-rich KrF laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 4532–4541 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Sasaki, K. I. Ueda, H. Takuma, and K. Kasuya, “Amplified spontaneous emission in high power KrF lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 231–236 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (8)

A. E. Mandl, D. E. Klimek, and E. T. Salesky, “KrF laser studies at high krypton density,” Fusion Technol. 11, 542–547 (1987).

S. J. Czuchlewski, D. E. Hanson, B. J. Krohn, A. R. Larson, and E. T. Salesky, “KrF laser optimization,” Fusion Technol. 11, 560–575 (1987).

P. J. M. Peters, H. M. J. Bastiens, W. J. Witteman, and T. Gerber, “A study of electron quenching of excimers in a KrF* lasers excited by a coaxial electron beam,” Appl. Phys. B 43, 253–261 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. H. Lehmberg and J. Goldhar, “Use of incoherence to produce smooth and controllable irradiation profiles with KrF fusion lasers,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 11, 532–541 (1987).

L. A. Rosocha and K. B. Riepe, “Electron-beam sources for pumping large aperture KrF lasers,” Fusion Technol. 11, 576–611 (1987).

J. A. Hanlon and J. McLeod, “The aurora laser optical system,” Fusion Technol.  11, 634–653 (1987).

A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. H. Gardner, J. Grun, K. J. Kearney, C. K. Manka, E. A. McLean, and C. J. Pawley, “Brillouin scattering measurements from plasmas irradiated with spatially and temporally incoherent laser light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1193–1196 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, and S. E. Bodner, “Theory of induced spatial incoherence,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2680–2701 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (3)

S. P. Obenschain, J. Grun, M. J. Herbst, K. J. Kearney, C. K. Manka, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, J. A. Stamper, R. R. Whitlock, S. E. Bodner, J. H. Gardner, and R. H. Lehmberg, “Laser-target interaction with induced spatial incoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2807–2810 (1986).
[Crossref]

A. M. Hunter, R. O. Hunter, and T. H. Johnson, “Scaling of KrF lasers for inertial confinement fusion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 386–404 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. P. Partanen and M. J. Shaw, “High-power forward Raman amplifiers employing low pressure gases in light guides. I. theory and applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1374–1389 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

F. Kannari, M. Obara, and T. Fujioka, “An advanced kinetic model of electron-beam-excited KrF lasers including the vibrational relaxation in KrF* (B) and collisional mixing of KrF*(B, C),” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4309–4322 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

A. Mandl, D. Klimek, and J. H. Parks, “KrF laser kinetics studies,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3940–3949 (1984).
[Crossref]

Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, and C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

R. H. Lehmberg and S. P. Obenschain, “Use of induced spatial incoherence for uniform illumination of laser fusion targets,” Opt. Commun. 46, 27–31 (1983).
[Crossref]

C. B. Edwards and F. O’Neill, “Computer modeling of E-beam-pumped KrF lasers,” Laser Particle Beams 1, 81–95 (1983).
[Crossref]

1980 (2)

T. H. Johnson and A. M. Hunter, “Physics of the krypton fluoride laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2406–2420 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. K. Rice, G. C. Tisone, and E. L. Patterson, “Oscillator performance and energy extraction from a KrF laser pumped by a high-intensity relativistic electron beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1315–1326 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

J. R. Murray, J. Goldhar, D. Eimerl, and A. Szoke, “Raman pulse compression of excimer lasers for applications to laser fusion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 342–368 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. J. Ewing, R. A. Haas, J. C. Swingle, E. V. George, and W. F. Krupke, “Optical pulse compressor systems for laser fusion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 368–379 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

W. B. Lacina and D. B. Cohn, “Theoretical analysis of the electronically excited KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 106–108 (1978).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

J. A. Mangano and J. H. Jacob, “Electron-beam controlled discharge pumping of the KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 495–498 (1975).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Thiessen, and G. Zimmerman, “Laser compression of matter to super high densities: thermonuclear (CTR) applications,” Nature 239, 139–142 (1972).
[Crossref]

Abdel Kahlik, S.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Khalik, S. I.

B. Lu, S. I. Abdel-Khalik, D. L. Sadowski, and K. G. Schoonover, “Investigations of Electra KrF laser hibachi foil cooling with small obliquely impinging jets,” Fusion Eng. Des. 87, 352–358 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Lu, S. I. Abdel-Khalik, D. L. Sadowski, and K. G. Schoonover, “Experimental and numerical investigation of Electra KrF laser hibachi foil cooling with a near-wall planar jet,” J. Fusion Energy 30, 453–458 (2011).
[Crossref]

Afeyan, B.

J. L. Weaver, J. Oh, B. Afeyan, L. Phillips, J. Seely, U. Feldman, C. Brown, M. Karasik, V. Serlin, Y. Aglitskiy, A. N. Mostovych, G. Holland, S. Obenschain, L.-Y. Chan, D. Kehne, R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, D. Colombant, and A. Velikovich, “Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 022701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Afeyan, B. B.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct drive laser fusion: Status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. S. Montgomery, J. D. Moody, H. A. Baldis, B. B. Afeyan, R. L. Berger, K. G. Estabrook, B. F. Lasinski, E. A. Williams, and C. Labaune, “Effects of laser beam smoothing on stimulated Raman scattering in exploding foil,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 1728–1736 (1996).
[Crossref]

Aglitskiy, Y.

M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, J. Oh, and S. P. Obenschain, “Suppression of laser nonuniformity imprinting using a thin high-Z coating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 085001 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Weaver, J. Oh, B. Afeyan, L. Phillips, J. Seely, U. Feldman, C. Brown, M. Karasik, V. Serlin, Y. Aglitskiy, A. N. Mostovych, G. Holland, S. Obenschain, L.-Y. Chan, D. Kehne, R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, D. Colombant, and A. Velikovich, “Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 022701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Aglitskiy, M. Karasik, A. L. Velikovich, V. Serlin, J. Weaver, T. J. Kessler, A. J. Schmitt, S. P. Obenschain, N. Metzler, and J. Oh, “Observation of strong oscillations of areal mass in an unsupported shockwave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 085001 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Watari, Y. Arikawa, T. Sakaiya, J. Oh, A. L. Velikovich, S. T. Zalesak, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, M. Murakami, and H. Azechiet, “Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, M. Karasik, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, A. J. Schmitt, J. L. Weaver, J. H. Gardner, L. Phillips, Y. Aglitskiy, Y. Chan, J. P. Dahlburg, and M. Klapisch, “Effects of thin high-Z layers on the hydrodynamics of laser-accelerated plastic targets,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 2234–2243 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aglitsky, Y.

D. M. Kehne, M. Karasik, Y. Aglitsky, Z. Smyth, S. Terrell, J. L. Weaver, Y. Chan, R. H. Lehmberg, and S. P. Obenschain, “Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 013509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aiping, Y.

Z. Xueqing, L. Jingru, Y. Aiping, Z. Yongsheng, W. Dahui, Z. Yongxiang, Q. Hang, H. Yun, M. Lianying, X. Quanxi, H. Chao, S. Bibo, and Y. Li, “Progress on high power excimer laser in NINT,” Proc. SPIE 9255, 925523 (2015).
[Crossref]

Al-Ayat, R.

E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, “The national ignition facility: Ushering in a new age for high energy density science,” Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alexander, N.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alimov, A. S.

V. D. ZVorykin, A. S. Alimov, S. V. Arlantsev, B. S. Ishkhanov, A. O. Levchenko, N. N. Mogilenet, V. F. Oreshkin, A. P. Sergeev, P. B. Sergeev, V. F. Shtan’Ko, V. I. Shvedunov, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Degradation of the transmissive optics for a laser-driven IFE power plant under electrons and x-ray irradiation,” Plasma Fusion Res. 8, 3405046 (2013).
[Crossref]

Altes, R. A.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altes, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, and O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[Crossref]

Altes, R. G.

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, and J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

Anderson, K. S.

R. Betti, C. D. Zhou, K. S. Anderson, L. J. Perkins, W. Theobald, and A. A. Solodov, “Shock ignition of thermonuclear fuel with high areal density,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arikawa, Y.

M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Watari, Y. Arikawa, T. Sakaiya, J. Oh, A. L. Velikovich, S. T. Zalesak, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, M. Murakami, and H. Azechiet, “Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arinaga, S.

Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, and C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
[Crossref]

Arlantsev, S. V.

V. D. ZVorykin, A. S. Alimov, S. V. Arlantsev, B. S. Ishkhanov, A. O. Levchenko, N. N. Mogilenet, V. F. Oreshkin, A. P. Sergeev, P. B. Sergeev, V. F. Shtan’Ko, V. I. Shvedunov, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Degradation of the transmissive optics for a laser-driven IFE power plant under electrons and x-ray irradiation,” Plasma Fusion Res. 8, 3405046 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. D. Zvorykin, S. V. Arlantsev, R. V. Gaynutdinov, I. V. Kholin, A. O. Levchenko, N. N. Mogilenetz, A. G. Molchanov, V. F. Oreshkin, M. A. Rogulev, S. I. Sagitov, A. P. Sergeev, P. B. Sergeev, D. B. Stavrovskii, N. N. Ustinovskii, and D. A. Zayarnyi, “Quests for inertial fusion energy conducted at GARPUN KrF laser facility,” J. Phys. 112, 032055 (2008).

Ashar-Rad, T.

O. Willi, T. Ashar-Rad, S. Coe, and A. Giulietti, “Study of instabilities in long scale‐length plasmas with and without laser‐beam‐smoothing techniques,” Phys. Fluids B 2, 1318–1324 (1990).
[Crossref]

Atzeni, S.

S. Atzeni and J. Meyer-ter-Ven, The Physics of Inertial Fusion (Clarendon, 2004).

Auerbach, J. M.

Azechiet, H.

M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Watari, Y. Arikawa, T. Sakaiya, J. Oh, A. L. Velikovich, S. T. Zalesak, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, M. Murakami, and H. Azechiet, “Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bahr, R. E.

W. Seka, R. E. Bahr, R. W. Short, A. Simon, R. S. Craxton, D. S. Montgomery, and A. E. Rubenchik, “Nonlinear laser-matter interaction processes in long‐scale‐length plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 4, 2232–2240 (1992).
[Crossref]

Baldis, H. A.

D. S. Montgomery, J. D. Moody, H. A. Baldis, B. B. Afeyan, R. L. Berger, K. G. Estabrook, B. F. Lasinski, E. A. Williams, and C. Labaune, “Effects of laser beam smoothing on stimulated Raman scattering in exploding foil,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 1728–1736 (1996).
[Crossref]

Barr, O. C.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altes, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, and O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bastiens, H. M. J.

P. J. M. Peters, H. M. J. Bastiens, W. J. Witteman, and T. Gerber, “A study of electron quenching of excimers in a KrF* lasers excited by a coaxial electron beam,” Appl. Phys. B 43, 253–261 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bates, J. W.

M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Watari, Y. Arikawa, T. Sakaiya, J. Oh, A. L. Velikovich, S. T. Zalesak, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, M. Murakami, and H. Azechiet, “Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. J. Schmitt, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, S. T. Zalesak, and D. E. Fyfe, “Shock ignition target design for inertial fusion energy,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 042701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bayramian, A.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berger, M. J.

J. A. Halbleib, R. P. Kensek, G. D. Valdez, S. M. Seltzer, and M. J. Berger, “ITS: The integrated TIGER series of electron/photon transport codes-version 3.0,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 39, 1025–1030 (1992).
[Crossref]

Berger, R. L.

D. S. Montgomery, J. D. Moody, H. A. Baldis, B. B. Afeyan, R. L. Berger, K. G. Estabrook, B. F. Lasinski, E. A. Williams, and C. Labaune, “Effects of laser beam smoothing on stimulated Raman scattering in exploding foil,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 1728–1736 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bernat, T.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
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Berzak Hopkins, L. F.

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Brown, C.

J. L. Weaver, J. Oh, B. Afeyan, L. Phillips, J. Seely, U. Feldman, C. Brown, M. Karasik, V. Serlin, Y. Aglitskiy, A. N. Mostovych, G. Holland, S. Obenschain, L.-Y. Chan, D. Kehne, R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, D. Colombant, and A. Velikovich, “Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 022701 (2013).
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Burns, P. M.

M. F. Wolford, M. C. Myers, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, P. M. Burns, F. Hegeler, and R. Jaynes, “Repetition-rate angularly multiplexed krypton fluoride laser system,” Opt. Eng. 47, 104202 (2008).
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F. Hegeler, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, M. C. Myers, M. F. Wolford, P. M. Burns, and M. Friedman, “Forced convective cooling of foils in a repetitively pulsed electron-beam diode,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 778–793 (2008).
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P. M. Burns, M. Myers, J. D. Sethian, M. F. Wolford, J. L. Giuliani, S. P. Obenschain, R. H. Lehmberg, S. Searles, M. Friedman, F. Hegeler, R. Jaynes, and R. V. Smilgys, “Development of a continuous multi-thousand shot electron beam pumped KrF rep-rate laser for fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 52, 445–453 (2007).

M. F. Wolford, M. C. Myers, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, P. M. Burns, F. Hegeler, and R. Jaynes, “Electra: Durable repetitively pulsed 700  J, 100  ns electron beam pumped KrF laser system,” Proc. SPIE 6454, 645407 (2007).
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Caird, J.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
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Callahan, D. A.

O. A. Hurricane, D. A. Callahan, D. T. Casey, P. M. Celliers, C. Cerjan, E. L. Dewald, T. R. Dittrich, T. Doppner, D. E. Hinkel, L. F. Berzak Hopkins, J. L. Kline, S. Le Pape, T. Ma, A. G. MacPhee, J. L. Milovich, A. Pak, H. S. Park, P. K. Patel, B. A. Remington, J. D. Salmonson, P. T. Springer, and R. Tommasini, “Fuel gain exceeding unity in indirectly confined fusion implosion,” Nature 506, 343–348 (2014).
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J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
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Casey, D. T.

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Forsythe, D.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Friedman, M.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Friedman, M. Myers, Y. Chan, and J. D. Sethian, “Properties of ceramic honeycomb cathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141501 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Hegeler, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, M. C. Myers, M. F. Wolford, P. M. Burns, and M. Friedman, “Forced convective cooling of foils in a repetitively pulsed electron-beam diode,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 778–793 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. M. Burns, M. Myers, J. D. Sethian, M. F. Wolford, J. L. Giuliani, S. P. Obenschain, R. H. Lehmberg, S. Searles, M. Friedman, F. Hegeler, R. Jaynes, and R. V. Smilgys, “Development of a continuous multi-thousand shot electron beam pumped KrF rep-rate laser for fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 52, 445–453 (2007).

F. Hegeler, D. V. Rose, M. C. Myers, J. D. Sethian, J. L. Giuliani, M. F. Wolford, and M. Friedman, “Efficient electron beam deposition in the gas cell of the Electra laser,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 5010–5021 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Friedman, Y. Chan, S. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, and S. B. Swanekamp, “Eliminating the transit-time instability in large-area electron-beam diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1539–1541 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, M. C. Myers, J. D. Sethian, and S. B. Swanekamp, “Reduction of edge emission in electron beam diodes,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 4309–4315 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Friedman, S. Swanekamp, S. Obenschain, Y. Chan, L. Ludeking, and D. Smithe, “Stability of large-area electron beam diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1053–1055 (2000).
[Crossref]

Froula, D. H.

I. V. Igumenshchev, D. H. Froula, D. H. Edgell, V. N. Goncharov, T. J. Kessler, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, P. W. McKenty, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. T. Michel, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, and S. Skupsky, “Laser-beam zooming to mitigate crossed beam energy losses in direct drive implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 145001 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. H. Froula, I. V. Igumenshchev, D. T. Michel, D. H. Edgell, R. Follett, V. Y. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, J. Kwiatkowski, F. J. Marshall, P. B. Radha, W. Seka, C. Sorce, S. Stagnitto, C. Stoeckl, and T. C. Sangster, “Increasing hydrodynamic efficiency by reducing cross-beam energy transfer in direct-drive-implosion experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 125003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fujioka, T.

F. Kannari, M. Obara, and T. Fujioka, “An advanced kinetic model of electron-beam-excited KrF lasers including the vibrational relaxation in KrF* (B) and collisional mixing of KrF*(B, C),” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4309–4322 (1985).
[Crossref]

Fyfe, D. E.

A. J. Schmitt, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, S. T. Zalesak, and D. E. Fyfe, “Shock ignition target design for inertial fusion energy,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 042701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Garaude, F.

B. Canaud and F. Garaude, “Optimization of laser-target coupling efficiency for direct drive laser fusion,” Nucl. Fusion 45, L43–L47 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gardner, J. H.

S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, M. Karasik, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, A. J. Schmitt, J. L. Weaver, J. H. Gardner, L. Phillips, Y. Aglitskiy, Y. Chan, J. P. Dahlburg, and M. Klapisch, “Effects of thin high-Z layers on the hydrodynamics of laser-accelerated plastic targets,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 2234–2243 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct drive laser fusion: Status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, and M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF laser facility: Performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107. (1996).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, A. N. Mostovych, J. A. Stamper, J. H. Gardner, A. J. Schmitt, and S. E. Bodner, “Reduction of Raman scattering in a plasma to convective levels using induced spatial incoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 768–771 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. H. Gardner, J. Grun, K. J. Kearney, C. K. Manka, E. A. McLean, and C. J. Pawley, “Brillouin scattering measurements from plasmas irradiated with spatially and temporally incoherent laser light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1193–1196 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, J. Grun, M. J. Herbst, K. J. Kearney, C. K. Manka, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, J. A. Stamper, R. R. Whitlock, S. E. Bodner, J. H. Gardner, and R. H. Lehmberg, “Laser-target interaction with induced spatial incoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2807–2810 (1986).
[Crossref]

Garrec, B. L.

B. L. Garrec, “Challenges of high-power diode pumped lasers for fusion energy,” Power Laser Sci. Eng. 2, E28 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gaynutdinov, R. V.

V. D. Zvorykin, S. V. Arlantsev, R. V. Gaynutdinov, I. V. Kholin, A. O. Levchenko, N. N. Mogilenetz, A. G. Molchanov, V. F. Oreshkin, M. A. Rogulev, S. I. Sagitov, A. P. Sergeev, P. B. Sergeev, D. B. Stavrovskii, N. N. Ustinovskii, and D. A. Zayarnyi, “Quests for inertial fusion energy conducted at GARPUN KrF laser facility,” J. Phys. 112, 032055 (2008).

V. D. Zvorykin, R. V. Gaynutdinov, M. V. Isaev, A. O. Levchenko, S. I. Sagitov, P. B. Sergeev, D. B. Stavrovskii, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Fluorine-resistant optics for high-energy KrF Lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6611, 66110M (2007).
[Crossref]

Geller, D.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gentile, C.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

George, E. V.

J. J. Ewing, R. A. Haas, J. C. Swingle, E. V. George, and W. F. Krupke, “Optical pulse compressor systems for laser fusion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 368–379 (1979).
[Crossref]

Gerber, K.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, and M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF laser facility: Performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107. (1996).
[Crossref]

Gerber, K. A.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altes, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, and O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, and C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy, uniform profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gerber, T.

P. J. M. Peters, H. M. J. Bastiens, W. J. Witteman, and T. Gerber, “A study of electron quenching of excimers in a KrF* lasers excited by a coaxial electron beam,” Appl. Phys. B 43, 253–261 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ghoniem, N. M.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gidcumb, S. M.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gilliam, S. B.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Giuliani, J. L.

M. F. Wolford, J. D. Sethian, M. C. Myers, F. Hegeler, J. L. Giuliani, and S. P. Obenschain, “Krypton fluoride (KrF) laser driver for inertial fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 64, 179–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. H. Lehmberg, J. L. Giuliani, and A. J. Schmitt, “Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023103 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Hegeler, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, M. C. Myers, M. F. Wolford, P. M. Burns, and M. Friedman, “Forced convective cooling of foils in a repetitively pulsed electron-beam diode,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 778–793 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. F. Wolford, M. C. Myers, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, P. M. Burns, F. Hegeler, and R. Jaynes, “Repetition-rate angularly multiplexed krypton fluoride laser system,” Opt. Eng. 47, 104202 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. M. Burns, M. Myers, J. D. Sethian, M. F. Wolford, J. L. Giuliani, S. P. Obenschain, R. H. Lehmberg, S. Searles, M. Friedman, F. Hegeler, R. Jaynes, and R. V. Smilgys, “Development of a continuous multi-thousand shot electron beam pumped KrF rep-rate laser for fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 52, 445–453 (2007).

M. F. Wolford, M. C. Myers, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, P. M. Burns, F. Hegeler, and R. Jaynes, “Electra: Durable repetitively pulsed 700  J, 100  ns electron beam pumped KrF laser system,” Proc. SPIE 6454, 645407 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Hegeler, D. V. Rose, M. C. Myers, J. D. Sethian, J. L. Giuliani, M. F. Wolford, and M. Friedman, “Efficient electron beam deposition in the gas cell of the Electra laser,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 5010–5021 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. H. Lehmberg and J. L. Giuliani, “Simulations of amplified spontaneous emission in high gain KrF laser amplifiers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 31–43 (2003).
[Crossref]

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M. Karasik, A. N. Mostovych, R. H. Lehmberg, Y. Chan, J. L. Weaver, and S. P. Obenschain, “Measurements of low-level prepulse on Nike KrF laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053101 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, and M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF laser facility: Performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107. (1996).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, A. N. Mostovych, J. A. Stamper, J. H. Gardner, A. J. Schmitt, and S. E. Bodner, “Reduction of Raman scattering in a plasma to convective levels using induced spatial incoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 768–771 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. H. Gardner, J. Grun, K. J. Kearney, C. K. Manka, E. A. McLean, and C. J. Pawley, “Brillouin scattering measurements from plasmas irradiated with spatially and temporally incoherent laser light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1193–1196 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, J. Grun, M. J. Herbst, K. J. Kearney, C. K. Manka, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, J. A. Stamper, R. R. Whitlock, S. E. Bodner, J. H. Gardner, and R. H. Lehmberg, “Laser-target interaction with induced spatial incoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2807–2810 (1986).
[Crossref]

Mounaix, P.

P. Mounaix, L. Divol, S. Hüller, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Effects of spatial and temporal smoothing on stimulated Brillouin scattering in the independent-hot-spot model limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4526–4529 (2000).
[Crossref]

Murakami, M.

M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Watari, Y. Arikawa, T. Sakaiya, J. Oh, A. L. Velikovich, S. T. Zalesak, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, M. Murakami, and H. Azechiet, “Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010).
[Crossref]

Murray, J. R.

Myers, M.

M. Friedman, M. Myers, Y. Chan, and J. D. Sethian, “Properties of ceramic honeycomb cathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141501 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. M. Burns, M. Myers, J. D. Sethian, M. F. Wolford, J. L. Giuliani, S. P. Obenschain, R. H. Lehmberg, S. Searles, M. Friedman, F. Hegeler, R. Jaynes, and R. V. Smilgys, “Development of a continuous multi-thousand shot electron beam pumped KrF rep-rate laser for fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 52, 445–453 (2007).

Myers, M. C.

M. F. Wolford, J. D. Sethian, M. C. Myers, F. Hegeler, J. L. Giuliani, and S. P. Obenschain, “Krypton fluoride (KrF) laser driver for inertial fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 64, 179–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Hegeler, M. C. Myers, M. F. Wolford, J. D. Sethian, and A. M. Fielding, “Low jitter, high voltage, repetitive laser triggered gas switches,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 20, 1168–1188 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Hegeler, M. W. McGeoch, J. D. Sethian, H. D. Sanders, S. C. Glidden, and M. C. Myers, “A durable gigawatt class solid state pulsed power system,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 18, 1205–1213 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Hegeler, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, M. C. Myers, M. F. Wolford, P. M. Burns, and M. Friedman, “Forced convective cooling of foils in a repetitively pulsed electron-beam diode,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 778–793 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. F. Wolford, M. C. Myers, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, P. M. Burns, F. Hegeler, and R. Jaynes, “Repetition-rate angularly multiplexed krypton fluoride laser system,” Opt. Eng. 47, 104202 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. F. Wolford, M. C. Myers, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, P. M. Burns, F. Hegeler, and R. Jaynes, “Electra: Durable repetitively pulsed 700  J, 100  ns electron beam pumped KrF laser system,” Proc. SPIE 6454, 645407 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Hegeler, D. V. Rose, M. C. Myers, J. D. Sethian, J. L. Giuliani, M. F. Wolford, and M. Friedman, “Efficient electron beam deposition in the gas cell of the Electra laser,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 5010–5021 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, M. C. Myers, J. D. Sethian, and S. B. Swanekamp, “Reduction of edge emission in electron beam diodes,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 4309–4315 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. C. Myers, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, and J. D. Sethian, “Efficient repetitively pulsed 730 joule electron beam pumped KrF laser,” presented at the 4th International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications, Biarritz, France, 4–9 September2005.

J. L. Giuliani, P. Kepple, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, J. D. Sethian, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, and G. Petrova, “Orestes: a kinetics model for electron beam pumped KrF lasers,” in 3rd International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications, Monterey, California, 2003, pp. 580–583.

Najmabadi, F.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nakatsuka, M.

Y. Kato, K. Mima, N. Miyanaga, S. Arinaga, Y. Kitagawa, M. Nakatsuka, and C. Yamanaka, “Random phasing of high-power lasers for uniform target acceleration and plasma-instability suppression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1057–1060 (1984).
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Nostrand, M. C.

Nuckolls, J.

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O’Dell, S.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
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F. Kannari, M. Obara, and T. Fujioka, “An advanced kinetic model of electron-beam-excited KrF lasers including the vibrational relaxation in KrF* (B) and collisional mixing of KrF*(B, C),” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4309–4322 (1985).
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Obenschain, S.

J. L. Weaver, J. Oh, B. Afeyan, L. Phillips, J. Seely, U. Feldman, C. Brown, M. Karasik, V. Serlin, Y. Aglitskiy, A. N. Mostovych, G. Holland, S. Obenschain, L.-Y. Chan, D. Kehne, R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, D. Colombant, and A. Velikovich, “Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 022701 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Friedman, Y. Chan, S. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, and S. B. Swanekamp, “Eliminating the transit-time instability in large-area electron-beam diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1539–1541 (2003).
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M. Friedman, S. Swanekamp, S. Obenschain, Y. Chan, L. Ludeking, and D. Smithe, “Stability of large-area electron beam diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1053–1055 (2000).
[Crossref]

Obenschain, S. P.

M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, J. Oh, and S. P. Obenschain, “Suppression of laser nonuniformity imprinting using a thin high-Z coating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 085001 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. M. Kehne, M. Karasik, Y. Aglitsky, Z. Smyth, S. Terrell, J. L. Weaver, Y. Chan, R. H. Lehmberg, and S. P. Obenschain, “Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 013509 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. F. Wolford, J. D. Sethian, M. C. Myers, F. Hegeler, J. L. Giuliani, and S. P. Obenschain, “Krypton fluoride (KrF) laser driver for inertial fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 64, 179–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Aglitskiy, M. Karasik, A. L. Velikovich, V. Serlin, J. Weaver, T. J. Kessler, A. J. Schmitt, S. P. Obenschain, N. Metzler, and J. Oh, “Observation of strong oscillations of areal mass in an unsupported shockwave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 085001 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Watari, Y. Arikawa, T. Sakaiya, J. Oh, A. L. Velikovich, S. T. Zalesak, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, M. Murakami, and H. Azechiet, “Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. J. Schmitt, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, S. T. Zalesak, and D. E. Fyfe, “Shock ignition target design for inertial fusion energy,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 042701 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, and A. J. Schmitt, “A laser based fusion test facility,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 594–603 (2009).

P. M. Burns, M. Myers, J. D. Sethian, M. F. Wolford, J. L. Giuliani, S. P. Obenschain, R. H. Lehmberg, S. Searles, M. Friedman, F. Hegeler, R. Jaynes, and R. V. Smilgys, “Development of a continuous multi-thousand shot electron beam pumped KrF rep-rate laser for fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 52, 445–453 (2007).

S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, and M. W. McGeoch, “Pathway to a lower cost high repetition rate ignition facility,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056320 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Karasik, A. N. Mostovych, R. H. Lehmberg, Y. Chan, J. L. Weaver, and S. P. Obenschain, “Measurements of low-level prepulse on Nike KrF laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053101 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, M. Karasik, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, A. J. Schmitt, J. L. Weaver, J. H. Gardner, L. Phillips, Y. Aglitskiy, Y. Chan, J. P. Dahlburg, and M. Klapisch, “Effects of thin high-Z layers on the hydrodynamics of laser-accelerated plastic targets,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 2234–2243 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, R. H. Lehmberg, and M. W. McGeoch, “A rep rate KrF system to address issues relevant to inertial fusion energy,” Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 371–375 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, and S. P. Obenschain, “Comparison between measured and calculated nonuniformities of Nike laser beams smoothed by induced spatial incoherence,” Opt. Commun. 147, 402–410 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct drive laser fusion: Status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, and J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altes, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, and O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, and M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF laser facility: Performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107. (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, and C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy, uniform profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, A. N. Mostovych, J. A. Stamper, J. H. Gardner, A. J. Schmitt, and S. E. Bodner, “Reduction of Raman scattering in a plasma to convective levels using induced spatial incoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 768–771 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. H. Gardner, J. Grun, K. J. Kearney, C. K. Manka, E. A. McLean, and C. J. Pawley, “Brillouin scattering measurements from plasmas irradiated with spatially and temporally incoherent laser light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1193–1196 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. P. Obenschain, J. Grun, M. J. Herbst, K. J. Kearney, C. K. Manka, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, J. A. Stamper, R. R. Whitlock, S. E. Bodner, J. H. Gardner, and R. H. Lehmberg, “Laser-target interaction with induced spatial incoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2807–2810 (1986).
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R. H. Lehmberg and S. P. Obenschain, “Use of induced spatial incoherence for uniform illumination of laser fusion targets,” Opt. Commun. 46, 27–31 (1983).
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C. J. Pawley, J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, and S. J. Czuchlewski, “Large area electron beam generation and propagation for KrF lasers,” in Proceedings of the 1992 9th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Washington DC, 1992, Vol. 3, pp. 1912–1917.

Oh, J.

M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, J. Oh, and S. P. Obenschain, “Suppression of laser nonuniformity imprinting using a thin high-Z coating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 085001 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Weaver, J. Oh, B. Afeyan, L. Phillips, J. Seely, U. Feldman, C. Brown, M. Karasik, V. Serlin, Y. Aglitskiy, A. N. Mostovych, G. Holland, S. Obenschain, L.-Y. Chan, D. Kehne, R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, D. Colombant, and A. Velikovich, “Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 022701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Aglitskiy, M. Karasik, A. L. Velikovich, V. Serlin, J. Weaver, T. J. Kessler, A. J. Schmitt, S. P. Obenschain, N. Metzler, and J. Oh, “Observation of strong oscillations of areal mass in an unsupported shockwave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 085001 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Watari, Y. Arikawa, T. Sakaiya, J. Oh, A. L. Velikovich, S. T. Zalesak, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, M. Murakami, and H. Azechiet, “Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010).
[Crossref]

Okuda, I.

I. Okuda, E. Takahashi, and Y. Owadano, “A conceptual design of a high-efficiency rep-rated pulsed power system for KrF laser drivers of inertial fusion energy,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 247–250 (2000).
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I. Okuda, E. Takahashi, I. Matsushima, Y. Matsumoto, H. Yashiro, E. Miura, T. Tomie, and Y. Owadano, “Performance of the super-ASHURA main amplifier,” Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 377–381 (1999).
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J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
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J. L. Weaver, J. Oh, B. Afeyan, L. Phillips, J. Seely, U. Feldman, C. Brown, M. Karasik, V. Serlin, Y. Aglitskiy, A. N. Mostovych, G. Holland, S. Obenschain, L.-Y. Chan, D. Kehne, R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, D. Colombant, and A. Velikovich, “Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 022701 (2013).
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S. E. Bodner, A. J. Schmitt, and J. D. Sethian, “Laser requirements for a laser fusion energy power plant,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 2–10 (2013).
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Y. Aglitskiy, M. Karasik, A. L. Velikovich, V. Serlin, J. Weaver, T. J. Kessler, A. J. Schmitt, S. P. Obenschain, N. Metzler, and J. Oh, “Observation of strong oscillations of areal mass in an unsupported shockwave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 085001 (2012).
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M. Karasik, J. L. Weaver, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Watari, Y. Arikawa, T. Sakaiya, J. Oh, A. L. Velikovich, S. T. Zalesak, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, M. Murakami, and H. Azechiet, “Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010).
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A. J. Schmitt, J. W. Bates, S. P. Obenschain, S. T. Zalesak, and D. E. Fyfe, “Shock ignition target design for inertial fusion energy,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 042701 (2010).
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S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, and A. J. Schmitt, “A laser based fusion test facility,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 594–603 (2009).

R. H. Lehmberg, J. L. Giuliani, and A. J. Schmitt, “Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023103 (2009).
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S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, and M. W. McGeoch, “Pathway to a lower cost high repetition rate ignition facility,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056320 (2006).
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S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, M. Karasik, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, A. J. Schmitt, J. L. Weaver, J. H. Gardner, L. Phillips, Y. Aglitskiy, Y. Chan, J. P. Dahlburg, and M. Klapisch, “Effects of thin high-Z layers on the hydrodynamics of laser-accelerated plastic targets,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 2234–2243 (2002).
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S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct drive laser fusion: Status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).
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S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, and M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF laser facility: Performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107. (1996).
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S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, A. N. Mostovych, J. A. Stamper, J. H. Gardner, A. J. Schmitt, and S. E. Bodner, “Reduction of Raman scattering in a plasma to convective levels using induced spatial incoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 768–771 (1989).
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Schoonover, K.

J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
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Schoonover, K. G.

B. Lu, S. I. Abdel-Khalik, D. L. Sadowski, and K. G. Schoonover, “Investigations of Electra KrF laser hibachi foil cooling with small obliquely impinging jets,” Fusion Eng. Des. 87, 352–358 (2012).
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B. Lu, S. I. Abdel-Khalik, D. L. Sadowski, and K. G. Schoonover, “Experimental and numerical investigation of Electra KrF laser hibachi foil cooling with a near-wall planar jet,” J. Fusion Energy 30, 453–458 (2011).
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J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
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P. M. Burns, M. Myers, J. D. Sethian, M. F. Wolford, J. L. Giuliani, S. P. Obenschain, R. H. Lehmberg, S. Searles, M. Friedman, F. Hegeler, R. Jaynes, and R. V. Smilgys, “Development of a continuous multi-thousand shot electron beam pumped KrF rep-rate laser for fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 52, 445–453 (2007).

Seely, J.

J. L. Weaver, J. Oh, B. Afeyan, L. Phillips, J. Seely, U. Feldman, C. Brown, M. Karasik, V. Serlin, Y. Aglitskiy, A. N. Mostovych, G. Holland, S. Obenschain, L.-Y. Chan, D. Kehne, R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, D. Colombant, and A. Velikovich, “Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 022701 (2013).
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Sergeev, P. B.

V. D. ZVorykin, A. S. Alimov, S. V. Arlantsev, B. S. Ishkhanov, A. O. Levchenko, N. N. Mogilenet, V. F. Oreshkin, A. P. Sergeev, P. B. Sergeev, V. F. Shtan’Ko, V. I. Shvedunov, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Degradation of the transmissive optics for a laser-driven IFE power plant under electrons and x-ray irradiation,” Plasma Fusion Res. 8, 3405046 (2013).
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J. L. Weaver, J. Oh, B. Afeyan, L. Phillips, J. Seely, U. Feldman, C. Brown, M. Karasik, V. Serlin, Y. Aglitskiy, A. N. Mostovych, G. Holland, S. Obenschain, L.-Y. Chan, D. Kehne, R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, D. Colombant, and A. Velikovich, “Observation of parametric instabilities in the quarter critical density region driven by the Nike KrF laser,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 022701 (2013).
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Y. Aglitskiy, M. Karasik, A. L. Velikovich, V. Serlin, J. Weaver, T. J. Kessler, A. J. Schmitt, S. P. Obenschain, N. Metzler, and J. Oh, “Observation of strong oscillations of areal mass in an unsupported shockwave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 085001 (2012).
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S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, M. Karasik, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, A. J. Schmitt, J. L. Weaver, J. H. Gardner, L. Phillips, Y. Aglitskiy, Y. Chan, J. P. Dahlburg, and M. Klapisch, “Effects of thin high-Z layers on the hydrodynamics of laser-accelerated plastic targets,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 2234–2243 (2002).
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J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altes, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, and O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
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S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, and M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF laser facility: Performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107. (1996).
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Sethian, J. D.

F. Hegeler, M. C. Myers, M. F. Wolford, J. D. Sethian, and A. M. Fielding, “Low jitter, high voltage, repetitive laser triggered gas switches,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 20, 1168–1188 (2013).
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M. F. Wolford, J. D. Sethian, M. C. Myers, F. Hegeler, J. L. Giuliani, and S. P. Obenschain, “Krypton fluoride (KrF) laser driver for inertial fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 64, 179–186 (2013).
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S. E. Bodner, A. J. Schmitt, and J. D. Sethian, “Laser requirements for a laser fusion energy power plant,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1, 2–10 (2013).
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F. Hegeler, M. W. McGeoch, J. D. Sethian, H. D. Sanders, S. C. Glidden, and M. C. Myers, “A durable gigawatt class solid state pulsed power system,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 18, 1205–1213 (2011).
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J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
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S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, and A. J. Schmitt, “A laser based fusion test facility,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 594–603 (2009).

M. Friedman, M. Myers, Y. Chan, and J. D. Sethian, “Properties of ceramic honeycomb cathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141501 (2008).
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F. Hegeler, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, M. C. Myers, M. F. Wolford, P. M. Burns, and M. Friedman, “Forced convective cooling of foils in a repetitively pulsed electron-beam diode,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 778–793 (2008).
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M. F. Wolford, M. C. Myers, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, P. M. Burns, F. Hegeler, and R. Jaynes, “Repetition-rate angularly multiplexed krypton fluoride laser system,” Opt. Eng. 47, 104202 (2008).
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P. M. Burns, M. Myers, J. D. Sethian, M. F. Wolford, J. L. Giuliani, S. P. Obenschain, R. H. Lehmberg, S. Searles, M. Friedman, F. Hegeler, R. Jaynes, and R. V. Smilgys, “Development of a continuous multi-thousand shot electron beam pumped KrF rep-rate laser for fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 52, 445–453 (2007).

M. F. Wolford, M. C. Myers, J. L. Giuliani, J. D. Sethian, P. M. Burns, F. Hegeler, and R. Jaynes, “Electra: Durable repetitively pulsed 700  J, 100  ns electron beam pumped KrF laser system,” Proc. SPIE 6454, 645407 (2007).
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S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, and M. W. McGeoch, “Pathway to a lower cost high repetition rate ignition facility,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 056320 (2006).
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F. Hegeler, D. V. Rose, M. C. Myers, J. D. Sethian, J. L. Giuliani, M. F. Wolford, and M. Friedman, “Efficient electron beam deposition in the gas cell of the Electra laser,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 5010–5021 (2004).
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M. Friedman, Y. Chan, S. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, and S. B. Swanekamp, “Eliminating the transit-time instability in large-area electron-beam diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1539–1541 (2003).
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F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, M. C. Myers, J. D. Sethian, and S. B. Swanekamp, “Reduction of edge emission in electron beam diodes,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 4309–4315 (2002).
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S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct drive laser fusion: Status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).
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M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, and J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altes, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, and O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
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S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, and M. Klapisch, “The Nike KrF laser facility: Performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107. (1996).
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C. J. Pawley, J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, and S. J. Czuchlewski, “Large area electron beam generation and propagation for KrF lasers,” in Proceedings of the 1992 9th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Washington DC, 1992, Vol. 3, pp. 1912–1917.

M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. C. Myers, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, and J. D. Sethian, “Efficient repetitively pulsed 730 joule electron beam pumped KrF laser,” presented at the 4th International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications, Biarritz, France, 4–9 September2005.

J. L. Giuliani, P. Kepple, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, J. D. Sethian, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, and G. Petrova, “Orestes: a kinetics model for electron beam pumped KrF lasers,” in 3rd International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications, Monterey, California, 2003, pp. 580–583.

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J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
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J. D. Sethian, D. G. Colombant, J. L. Giuliani, R. H. Lehmberg, M. C. Myers, S. P. Obenschain, A. J. Schmitt, J. Weaver, M. F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, M. Friedman, A. E. Robson, A. Bayramian, J. Caird, C. Ebbers, J. Latkowski, W. Hogan, W. R. Meier, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, S. Abdel Kahlik, K. Schoonover, D. Sadowski, K. Boehm, L. Carlson, J. Pulsifer, F. Najmabadi, A. R. Raffray, M. S. Tillack, G. Kulcinski, J. P. Blanchard, T. Heltemes, A. Ibrahim, E. Marriott, G. Moses, R. Radell, M. Sawan, J. Santarius, G. Sviatoslavsky, S. Zenobia, N. M. Ghoniem, S. Sharafat, J. El-Awady, Q. Hu, C. Duty, K. Leonard, G. Romanoski, L. L. Snead, S. J. Zinkle, C. Gentile, W. Parsells, C. Prinksi, T. Kozub, T. Dodson, D. V. Rose, T. Renk, C. Olson, N. Alexander, M. A. Bozek, G. Flint, D. T. Goodin, J. Hund, R. Paguio, R. W. Petzoldt, D. G. Schroen, J. Sheliak, T. Bernat, D. Bittner, J. Karnes, N. Petta, J. Streit, D. Geller, J. K. Hoffer, M. W. McGeoch, S. C. Glidden, H. Sanders, D. Weidenheimer, D. Morton, I. D. Smith, M. Bobecia, D. Harding, T. Lehecka, S. B. Gilliam, S. M. Gidcumb, D. Forsythe, N. R. Parikh, S. O’Dell, and M. Gorensek, “The science and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-drive targets,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 690–703 (2010).
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Figures (19)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Inertial fusion concept where (1) a pellet shell is imploded to high velocity, (2) the central portion of deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel is heated to ignition, and (3) the thermonuclear burn propagates out from the ignition spark into the surrounding highly compressed ( 1000 × solid) DT fuel.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Electron-beam pumped KrF laser.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic of the Nike optical system. The angularly multiplexed beams are expanded to fill the full aperture of the two electron-beam amplifiers and then are reflected off a concave mirror behind each amplifier (double-pass amplification), which contracts the size of the beams prior to reaching downstream optics, as shown in Fig. 6.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. ISI concept, showing amplifiers placed at images of the object’s Fourier transform (FT) plane. The instantaneous speckle and smooth time-averaged profiles are illustrated for the case of a flat-top time-averaged object profile. The focal spot blurring results from random phase aberration, as illustrated by the small additional ray divergences beyond the amplifiers.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Nike laser propagation bay showing the time decoding mirrors as viewed toward the 60 cm amplifier aperture.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Top view of the Nike 60 cm final amplifier, showing one row of the input and output optical feed arrays and one of the 56 angularly multiplexed beams, which overlap at the amplifiers. The concave lenses in the input feed array can be independently tilted to correct the astigmatism in each beam.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Schematic of the Nike 60 cm electron-beam-pumped amplifier.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Final amplification stage of the Nike Laser: the 60 cm aperture E-beam-pumped amplifier.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Schematic of the ceramic cathode used in the 60 cm amplifier.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Patch cathode used on the Nike 60 cm amplifier.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Plot showing degradation of the overall 248 nm transmission of the 60 cm amplifier optics versus number of shots on the windows.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Prepulse intensity on target showing the effect of suppression of 20 cm amplifier ASE. The solid trace is an average of three shots with standard amplifier timing. The dashed trace is an average of two shots with the 20 cm amplifier firing delayed by 20 ns. In the latter case, the amplifier is loaded during its ramp-up, decreasing the ASE.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Sample low-energy focal profiles obtained at the center of the Nike target chamber (top) with horizontal lineouts (bottom). A and B are profiles with all the main beams overlapped but with two different sets of pinhole apertures inserted in the front end. B represents standard operating conditions, while A represents smaller spots used for higher intensity experiments. C shows the profile produced by a single beam when a multi-slit aperture is used (inset). All of these images demonstrate the 12–14XDL performance routinely achieved. The short-scale low-level fluctuations in the images are dominated by the noise in the CCD detector.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Major components of an electron beam pumped KrF laser amplifier. Two pulse power systems on each side of the laser cell power two 500 kV 100 kA 100 cm × 30 cm electron beams into the laser gas cell. A recirculator cools the gas for high-repetition-rate operation. Details of the pulse power and electron beam diode are shown in Fig 15.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 15. Schematic of Electra’s pulse power and electron beam diode.
Fig. 16.
Fig. 16. Patterned cathode directs electron beam between hibachi ribs.
Fig. 17.
Fig. 17. Development path to a KrF ICF driver.
Fig. 18.
Fig. 18. Calculated 800 keV electron beam energy deposition efficiency into a 100 cm wide laser cell for 20% Kr/80% Ar and 30% Kr/70% Ar laser gas mixtures (pressure ratio). A 25 μm thick stainless steel foil separates the laser gas from the diode vacuum.
Fig. 19.
Fig. 19. Orestes kinetic simulations of a scaled up Nike amplifier with and without AR coatings on the interior surface of the windows.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Laser Requirements for Direct Drive Laser Fusion

Tables Icon

Table 2. Characteristics of Nd Glass and KrF Lasers for ICF

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Table 3. Estimated Efficiency of an IFE Scale KrF Amplifier

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