Abstract

A simple high-power, high-brightness Nd:YAG solar laser pumping approach is presented in this paper. The incoming solar radiation is both collected and concentrated by four Fresnel lenses and redirected toward a Nd:YAG laser head by four plane-folding mirrors. A fused-silica secondary concentrator is used to compress the highly concentrated solar radiation to a laser rod. Optimum pumping conditions and laser resonator parameters are found through ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis. Solar laser power of 96 W is numerically calculated, corresponding to the collection efficiency of 24W/m2. A record-high solar laser beam brightness figure of merit of 9.6 W is numerically achieved.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. G. Young, “A Sun pumped cw one-watt laser,” Appl. Opt. 5, 993–997 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Weksler and J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. J. Benmair, J. Kagan, Y. Kalisky, Y. Noter, M. Oron, Y. Shimony, and A. Yogev, “Solar-pumped Er, Tm, Ho: YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 36–38 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Almeida, D. Liang, E. Guillot, and Y. Abdel-Hadi, “A 40  W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system,” Laser Phys. 23, 065801 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Liang and J. Almeida, “Highly efficient solar pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 19, 26399–26405 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. H. Dinh, T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, and H. Kuboyama, “120 watt continuous wave solar-pumped laser with a liquid light-guide lens and a Nd:YAG rod,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2670–2672 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Almeida, D. Liang, and E. Guillot, “Improvement in solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser beam brightness,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2115–2119 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Liang and J. Almeida, “Solar-pumped TEM00 mode Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 21, 25107–25112 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. H. Bernardes and D. Liang, “Solid-state laser pumping by light-guides,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3811–3816 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. ASTM Standard G173 - 03(2012), “Standard tables for reference solar spectral irradiances: direct normal and hemispherical on 37° tilted surface” (2012).
  14. Z. Bin, C. Zhao, J. He, and S. Yang, “The study of active medium for solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 1–9 (2007).
  15. V. G. Niziev, “Selection and generation of multipass modes in open resonator,” Opt. Express 21, 21076–21086 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Brand, “Compact 170-W continuous-wave diode-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser with a cusp-shaped reflector,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1776–1778 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

J. Almeida, D. Liang, E. Guillot, and Y. Abdel-Hadi, “A 40  W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system,” Laser Phys. 23, 065801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. Almeida, “Solar-pumped TEM00 mode Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 21, 25107–25112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Niziev, “Selection and generation of multipass modes in open resonator,” Opt. Express 21, 21076–21086 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

T. H. Dinh, T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, and H. Kuboyama, “120 watt continuous wave solar-pumped laser with a liquid light-guide lens and a Nd:YAG rod,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2670–2672 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, D. Liang, and E. Guillot, “Improvement in solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser beam brightness,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2115–2119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2007 (2)

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bin, C. Zhao, J. He, and S. Yang, “The study of active medium for solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 1–9 (2007).

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

M. Weksler and J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

Abdel-Hadi, Y.

J. Almeida, D. Liang, E. Guillot, and Y. Abdel-Hadi, “A 40  W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system,” Laser Phys. 23, 065801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, J.

J. Almeida, D. Liang, E. Guillot, and Y. Abdel-Hadi, “A 40  W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system,” Laser Phys. 23, 065801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. Almeida, “Solar-pumped TEM00 mode Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 21, 25107–25112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, D. Liang, and E. Guillot, “Improvement in solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser beam brightness,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2115–2119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. Almeida, “Highly efficient solar pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 19, 26399–26405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arashi, H.

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Baasandash, C.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Behgol, B.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benmair, R. M. J.

Bernardes, P. H.

Bin, Z.

Z. Bin, C. Zhao, J. He, and S. Yang, “The study of active medium for solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 1–9 (2007).

Brand, T.

Daito, K.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dinh, T. H.

Dobrusin, V.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Funatsu, T.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guillot, E.

J. Almeida, D. Liang, E. Guillot, and Y. Abdel-Hadi, “A 40  W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system,” Laser Phys. 23, 065801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, D. Liang, and E. Guillot, “Improvement in solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser beam brightness,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2115–2119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

Z. Bin, C. Zhao, J. He, and S. Yang, “The study of active medium for solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 1–9 (2007).

Ishigame, M.

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kagan, J.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. J. Benmair, J. Kagan, Y. Kalisky, Y. Noter, M. Oron, Y. Shimony, and A. Yogev, “Solar-pumped Er, Tm, Ho: YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 36–38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaimai, A.

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kalisky, Y.

Kuboyama, H.

Lando, M.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

J. Almeida, D. Liang, E. Guillot, and Y. Abdel-Hadi, “A 40  W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system,” Laser Phys. 23, 065801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. Almeida, “Solar-pumped TEM00 mode Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 21, 25107–25112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Almeida, D. Liang, and E. Guillot, “Improvement in solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser beam brightness,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2115–2119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. Almeida, “Highly efficient solar pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 19, 26399–26405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Bernardes and D. Liang, “Solid-state laser pumping by light-guides,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3811–3816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linyekin, B.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mabuti, A.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Motokoshi, S.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, Y.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, Y.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niziev, V. G.

Noter, Y.

Ohkubo, T.

T. H. Dinh, T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, and H. Kuboyama, “120 watt continuous wave solar-pumped laser with a liquid light-guide lens and a Nd:YAG rod,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2670–2672 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, T.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oka, Y.

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Oron, M.

Oyama, A.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasahara, N.

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimony, Y.

Shwartz, J.

M. Weksler and J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, S.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weksler, M.

M. Weksler and J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yabe, T.

T. H. Dinh, T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, and H. Kuboyama, “120 watt continuous wave solar-pumped laser with a liquid light-guide lens and a Nd:YAG rod,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2670–2672 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Z. Bin, C. Zhao, J. He, and S. Yang, “The study of active medium for solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 1–9 (2007).

Yogev, A.

Yoshida, M.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Young, C. G.

Zhao, C.

Z. Bin, C. Zhao, J. He, and S. Yang, “The study of active medium for solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 1–9 (2007).

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

Z. Bin, C. Zhao, J. He, and S. Yang, “The study of active medium for solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” Acta Opt. Sin. 27, 1–9 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Funatsu, A. Mabuti, A. Oyama, Y. Nakagawa, T. Oishi, K. Daito, B. Behgol, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, S. Motokoshi, Y. Sato, and C. Baasandash, “High efficiency and economical solar energy pumped laser with Fresnel lens and chromium co-doped laser medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Weksler and J. Shwartz, “Solar-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1222–1228 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

J. Almeida, D. Liang, E. Guillot, and Y. Abdel-Hadi, “A 40  W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system,” Laser Phys. 23, 065801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

J. Almeida, D. Liang, and E. Guillot, “Improvement in solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser beam brightness,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 2115–2119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

ASTM Standard G173 - 03(2012), “Standard tables for reference solar spectral irradiances: direct normal and hemispherical on 37° tilted surface” (2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The four Fresnel lens-folding mirror solar laser pumping approach. (b) Solar light collection and concentration in xz plane.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) 3D view and (b) 2D view of the fused silica secondary concentrator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Resonator length at both the stability limit (Lmax) and 60% Lmax for different laser rod diameters.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser output power versus rod diameter at different resonator lengths.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Beam quality parameters M2 (primary axis) and brightness figure of merit (secondary axis) as a function of the rod diameter at 60% Lmax.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Absorbed pump flux distributions along the central and longitudinal cross sections of the (a) Φ=4mm and (b) Φ=8mm Nd:YAG rods.

Metrics