Abstract

Scattering from multilayer coatings depends on the roughness of each interface as well as their cross-correlation properties. By depositing thin film coatings under oblique incidence, the cross-correlation properties can be specifically adapted and consequently also the scattering characteristics. This will be illustrated for Mo/Si multilayers, for which a scattering reduction of more than 30% can be achieved. The characterization techniques used comprise of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and angle-resolved light scattering measurements at a wavelength of 13.5 nm.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50, C148–C153 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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  4. C. Amra, G. Albrand, and P. Roche, “Theory and application of antiscattering single layers: antiscattering antireflection coatings,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2695–2702 (1986).
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  5. I. J. Hodgkinson, P. I. Bowmar, and Q. H. Wu, “Scatter from tilted-columnar birefringent thin films: observation and measurement of anisotropic scatter distributions,” Appl. Opt 34, 163–168 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. J. Hodgkinson, S. C. Cloughley, Q. H. Wu, and S. Kassam, “Anisotropic scatter patterns and anomalous birefringence of obliquely deposited cerium oxide films,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5563–5568 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Kassam, I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, and S. C. Cloughley, “Light scattering from thin films with an oblique columnar structure and with granular inclusions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2009–2021 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Schröder, H. Uhlig, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, “Nanostructure and optical properties of fluoride films for high-quality DUV/VUV optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630R (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. V. Grishchenko and M. L. Zanaveskin, “Investigation into the correlation factor of substrate and multilayer film surfaces by atomic force microscopy,” Crystallogr. Rep. 58, 493–497 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Rönnow, “Determination of interface roughness cross correlation of thin films from spectroscopic light scattering measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 3627–3636 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Bräuer-Burchardt, S. Schröder, M. Trost, P. Kühmstedt, A. Duparré, and G. Notni, “Roughness determination of ultra thin multilayer coatings in cross-section images with poor SNR using edge localization,” Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, 2009, pp. 176–181.
  21. J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, “Microfractography of thin films,” Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87–91 (1966).
  22. H. A. Macleod, “Structure-related optical properties of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418–422 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8169, 81690P (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, J. E. Harvey, and A. Duparré, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, S. Risse, T. Feigl, U. D. Zeitner, and A. Tünnermann, “Structured Mo/Si multilayers for IR-suppression in laser-produced EUV light sources,” Opt. Express 21, 27852–27864 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3279–3287 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, “Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coatings for 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5854–5864 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. M. Gullikson and D. G. Stearns, “Asymmetric extreme ultraviolet scattering from sputter-deposited multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13273–13277 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. G. Stearns and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, M. Trost, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering and reflectance of extreme-ultraviolet multilayer coatings: measurement and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1503–1512 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. A. Thornton, “The microstructure of sputter-deposited coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 3059–3065 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8501, 85010F (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50, C148–C153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8169, 81690P (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, J. E. Harvey, and A. Duparré, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Schröder, H. Uhlig, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, “Nanostructure and optical properties of fluoride films for high-quality DUV/VUV optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630R (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

D. G. Stearns and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, “Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coatings for 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5854–5864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. M. Gullikson and D. G. Stearns, “Asymmetric extreme ultraviolet scattering from sputter-deposited multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13273–13277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Rönnow, “Determination of interface roughness cross correlation of thin films from spectroscopic light scattering measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 3627–3636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

S. Kassam, I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, and S. C. Cloughley, “Light scattering from thin films with an oblique columnar structure and with granular inclusions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2009–2021 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson, P. I. Bowmar, and Q. H. Wu, “Scatter from tilted-columnar birefringent thin films: observation and measurement of anisotropic scatter distributions,” Appl. Opt 34, 163–168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

E. L. Church and P. Z. Takacs, “The optimal estimation of finish parameters,” Proc. SPIE 1530, 71–85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

C. Amra, G. Albrand, and P. Roche, “Theory and application of antiscattering single layers: antiscattering antireflection coatings,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2695–2702 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thornton, “The microstructure of sputter-deposited coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 3059–3065 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, “Structure-related optical properties of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418–422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, and J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1966 (1)

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, “Microfractography of thin films,” Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87–91 (1966).

Albrand, G.

Amra, C.

Apfel, J. H.

Bennett, J. M.

Bousquet, P.

Bowmar, P. I.

I. J. Hodgkinson, P. I. Bowmar, and Q. H. Wu, “Scatter from tilted-columnar birefringent thin films: observation and measurement of anisotropic scatter distributions,” Appl. Opt 34, 163–168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer-Burchardt, C.

C. Bräuer-Burchardt, S. Schröder, M. Trost, P. Kühmstedt, A. Duparré, and G. Notni, “Roughness determination of ultra thin multilayer coatings in cross-section images with poor SNR using edge localization,” Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, 2009, pp. 176–181.

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church and P. Z. Takacs, “The optimal estimation of finish parameters,” Proc. SPIE 1530, 71–85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, and J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Cloughley, S. C.

Duparré, A.

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3279–3287 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, S. Risse, T. Feigl, U. D. Zeitner, and A. Tünnermann, “Structured Mo/Si multilayers for IR-suppression in laser-produced EUV light sources,” Opt. Express 21, 27852–27864 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8501, 85010F (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8169, 81690P (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, J. E. Harvey, and A. Duparré, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50, C148–C153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, M. Trost, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering and reflectance of extreme-ultraviolet multilayer coatings: measurement and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1503–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express 15, 13997–14012 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, H. Uhlig, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, “Nanostructure and optical properties of fluoride films for high-quality DUV/VUV optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630R (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, “Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components,” Appl. Opt. 41, 154–171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, “Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coatings for 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5854–5864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Bräuer-Burchardt, S. Schröder, M. Trost, P. Kühmstedt, A. Duparré, and G. Notni, “Roughness determination of ultra thin multilayer coatings in cross-section images with poor SNR using edge localization,” Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, 2009, pp. 176–181.

Elson, J. M.

Feigl, T.

Ferre-Borrull, J.

Ferré-Borrull, J.

Flory, F.

Gaines, D. P.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gliech, S.

Grishchenko, J. V.

J. V. Grishchenko and M. L. Zanaveskin, “Investigation into the correlation factor of substrate and multilayer film surfaces by atomic force microscopy,” Crystallogr. Rep. 58, 493–497 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

D. G. Stearns and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson and D. G. Stearns, “Asymmetric extreme ultraviolet scattering from sputter-deposited multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13273–13277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haanstra, H. B.

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, “Microfractography of thin films,” Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87–91 (1966).

Harvey, J. E.

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, J. E. Harvey, and A. Duparré, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C (2011).
[CrossRef]

Herffurth, T.

Hodgkinson, I. J.

Jenkinson, H. A.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, and J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

S. Schröder, H. Uhlig, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, “Nanostructure and optical properties of fluoride films for high-quality DUV/VUV optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kassam, S.

Kühmstedt, P.

C. Bräuer-Burchardt, S. Schröder, M. Trost, P. Kühmstedt, A. Duparré, and G. Notni, “Roughness determination of ultra thin multilayer coatings in cross-section images with poor SNR using edge localization,” Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, 2009, pp. 176–181.

Lin, C. C.

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8501, 85010F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, “Structure-related optical properties of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418–422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nieuwenhuizen, J. M.

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, “Microfractography of thin films,” Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87–91 (1966).

Notni, G.

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, “Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components,” Appl. Opt. 41, 154–171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Bräuer-Burchardt, S. Schröder, M. Trost, P. Kühmstedt, A. Duparré, and G. Notni, “Roughness determination of ultra thin multilayer coatings in cross-section images with poor SNR using edge localization,” Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, 2009, pp. 176–181.

Quesnel, E.

Rahn, J. P.

Risse, S.

Roche, P.

Rönnow, D.

D. Rönnow, “Determination of interface roughness cross correlation of thin films from spectroscopic light scattering measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 3627–3636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, S.

M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, S. Risse, T. Feigl, U. D. Zeitner, and A. Tünnermann, “Structured Mo/Si multilayers for IR-suppression in laser-produced EUV light sources,” Opt. Express 21, 27852–27864 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3279–3287 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8501, 85010F (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, J. E. Harvey, and A. Duparré, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8169, 81690P (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50, C148–C153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, M. Trost, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering and reflectance of extreme-ultraviolet multilayer coatings: measurement and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1503–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express 15, 13997–14012 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, H. Uhlig, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, “Nanostructure and optical properties of fluoride films for high-quality DUV/VUV optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630R (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Bräuer-Burchardt, S. Schröder, M. Trost, P. Kühmstedt, A. Duparré, and G. Notni, “Roughness determination of ultra thin multilayer coatings in cross-section images with poor SNR using edge localization,” Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, 2009, pp. 176–181.

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson and D. G. Stearns, “Asymmetric extreme ultraviolet scattering from sputter-deposited multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13273–13277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steinert, J.

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, 3rd ed. (SPIE, 2012).

Sweeney, D. W.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takacs, P. Z.

E. L. Church and P. Z. Takacs, “The optimal estimation of finish parameters,” Proc. SPIE 1530, 71–85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, “The microstructure of sputter-deposited coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 3059–3065 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Trost, M.

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3279–3287 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, S. Risse, T. Feigl, U. D. Zeitner, and A. Tünnermann, “Structured Mo/Si multilayers for IR-suppression in laser-produced EUV light sources,” Opt. Express 21, 27852–27864 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8501, 85010F (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8169, 81690P (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, J. E. Harvey, and A. Duparré, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50, C148–C153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, M. Trost, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering and reflectance of extreme-ultraviolet multilayer coatings: measurement and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1503–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Bräuer-Burchardt, S. Schröder, M. Trost, P. Kühmstedt, A. Duparré, and G. Notni, “Roughness determination of ultra thin multilayer coatings in cross-section images with poor SNR using edge localization,” Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, 2009, pp. 176–181.

Tünnermann, A.

Uhlig, H.

S. Schröder, H. Uhlig, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, “Nanostructure and optical properties of fluoride films for high-quality DUV/VUV optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q. H.

Zanaveskin, M. L.

J. V. Grishchenko and M. L. Zanaveskin, “Investigation into the correlation factor of substrate and multilayer film surfaces by atomic force microscopy,” Crystallogr. Rep. 58, 493–497 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, and J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zeitner, U. D.

Appl. Opt (1)

I. J. Hodgkinson, P. I. Bowmar, and Q. H. Wu, “Scatter from tilted-columnar birefringent thin films: observation and measurement of anisotropic scatter distributions,” Appl. Opt 34, 163–168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

I. J. Hodgkinson, S. C. Cloughley, Q. H. Wu, and S. Kassam, “Anisotropic scatter patterns and anomalous birefringence of obliquely deposited cerium oxide films,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5563–5568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, and J. M. Bennett, “Light scattering from multilayer optics: comparison of theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 19, 669–679 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50, C148–C153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Apfel, “Optical coating design with reduced electric field intensity,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1880–1885 (1977).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Basic geometry for the definitions of specular quantities and scattering.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross-sectional HRTEM image of Mo/Si multilayer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Extracted 1D interface profiles obtained from the HRTEM image in Fig. 2. For clarity only every second profile is plotted. The inset shows a zoomed view of one of the profiles.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Top surface PSD of Mo/Si multilayer obtained from AFM and HRTEM measurements (fy=0μm1).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Interface and cross-correlation PSDs (fy=0μm1).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Deviation between experimentally determined cross-correlation PSDs and model PSDs. All three plots are normalized to the same maximum deviation mmax.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Top surface topography of Mo/Si multilayers deposited under different deposition angles (measurement area: 1μm×1μm).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

ARS measurement and simulations (φs=0°) at 13.5 nm of Mo/Si multilayer deposited under normal and oblique incidence.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

3D-ARS simulation (δ=0°) of Mo/Si multilayer deposited under normal and oblique incidence.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Encircled energy around specular reflex for different deposition angles.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

PSD and AFM topography images of Mo/Si multilayer top surface and substrate after deposition of additional Cr layer.

Equations (10)

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ARS(θs,φs,θi)=ΔPs(θs,φs,θi)ΔΩsPi=1λ4i=0Nj=0NCiCj*PSDij,2D(fx,fy).
fx=sinθscosφssinθiλ,fy=sinθssinφsλ.
Cij(τ)=limL1LL/2L/2zi(x)zj(x+τ)dx,
PSDij,1D(fx)=Cij(τ)e2πifτdτ.
S(θr)=02π085°ARS*(θs,φs)sinθsdθsdφs.
TS=S(85°+|θi|)S(2°).
tanβ=12tanα.
PSDij(f)=min[PSDi(f),PSDj(f)].
m(i,j)=f=2μm1f=100μm1|logPSDij,measured(f)logPSDij,model(f)|df
PSDij,oblique(f)=PSDij,normal(f)e2πif(zizj)tanβcos(φs+δ).

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