Abstract

An orderly inclined Al2O3 column array was fabricated by atomic layer deposition and sequential electron beam evaporation using a hollow nanosphere template. The transmittance spectra at various angles of incidence were obtained through the use of a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 900 UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer. The inclined column array could display the image information through a scattering mechanism and was transparent at high viewing angles along the deposition plane. This characteristic of the inclined column array gives it potential for applications in head-up displays in the automotive industry.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Crawford and A. Neal, “A review of the perceptual and cognitive issues associated with the use of head-up displays in commercial aviation,” Int. J. Aviat. Psychol. 16, 1–19 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Smith and S.-H. Fu, “The relationships between automobile head-up display presentation images and drivers’ Kansei,” Displays 32, 58–68 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Makita, “Combiner for head-up display (HUD) system,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 47, 209–211 (2008).
  5. E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up displays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 784–786 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacak, B. K. Lim, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Growth of uniformly aligned nanorod arrays by oblique angle deposition with two-phase substrate rotation,” Nanotechnology 15, 817–821 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W.-H. Cho, C.-T. Lee, C.-C. Yu, C.-C. Kei, D.-R. Liu, and C.-C. Lee, “Microstructure and optical properties of Al2O3 prepared by oblique deposition using microsphere shell templates,” Appl. Opt. 50, C246–C249 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up displays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. Makita, “Combiner for head-up display (HUD) system,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 47, 209–211 (2008).

2007 (1)

C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Crawford and A. Neal, “A review of the perceptual and cognitive issues associated with the use of head-up displays in commercial aviation,” Int. J. Aviat. Psychol. 16, 1–19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacak, B. K. Lim, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Growth of uniformly aligned nanorod arrays by oblique angle deposition with two-phase substrate rotation,” Nanotechnology 15, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Okabayashi, N. Sugie, M. Imaizumi, M. Furukawa, and T. Hatada, “Visual perception of HUD (head-up display) image with small angle of depression in practical automotive use,” Electron Comm. Jpn. 82, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cho, W.-H.

Crawford, J.

J. Crawford and A. Neal, “A review of the perceptual and cognitive issues associated with the use of head-up displays in commercial aviation,” Int. J. Aviat. Psychol. 16, 1–19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fu, S.-H.

S. Smith and S.-H. Fu, “The relationships between automobile head-up display presentation images and drivers’ Kansei,” Displays 32, 58–68 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, M.

S. Okabayashi, N. Sugie, M. Imaizumi, M. Furukawa, and T. Hatada, “Visual perception of HUD (head-up display) image with small angle of depression in practical automotive use,” Electron Comm. Jpn. 82, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hatada, T.

S. Okabayashi, N. Sugie, M. Imaizumi, M. Furukawa, and T. Hatada, “Visual perception of HUD (head-up display) image with small angle of depression in practical automotive use,” Electron Comm. Jpn. 82, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Imaizumi, M.

S. Okabayashi, N. Sugie, M. Imaizumi, M. Furukawa, and T. Hatada, “Visual perception of HUD (head-up display) image with small angle of depression in practical automotive use,” Electron Comm. Jpn. 82, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karabacak, T.

D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacak, B. K. Lim, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Growth of uniformly aligned nanorod arrays by oblique angle deposition with two-phase substrate rotation,” Nanotechnology 15, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kei, C. C.

C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kei, C.-C.

Kowarschik, R.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up displays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krul, L. P.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up displays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-C.

Lee, C.-T.

Lim, B. K.

D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacak, B. K. Lim, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Growth of uniformly aligned nanorod arrays by oblique angle deposition with two-phase substrate rotation,” Nanotechnology 15, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.-R.

Lu, T.-M.

D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacak, B. K. Lim, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Growth of uniformly aligned nanorod arrays by oblique angle deposition with two-phase substrate rotation,” Nanotechnology 15, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mahilny, U. V.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up displays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Makita, K.

K. Makita, “Combiner for head-up display (HUD) system,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 47, 209–211 (2008).

Marmysh, D. N.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up displays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matusevich, V.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up displays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matusevich, Y. I.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up displays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neal, A.

J. Crawford and A. Neal, “A review of the perceptual and cognitive issues associated with the use of head-up displays in commercial aviation,” Int. J. Aviat. Psychol. 16, 1–19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okabayashi, S.

S. Okabayashi, N. Sugie, M. Imaizumi, M. Furukawa, and T. Hatada, “Visual perception of HUD (head-up display) image with small angle of depression in practical automotive use,” Electron Comm. Jpn. 82, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perng, T. P.

C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S.

S. Smith and S.-H. Fu, “The relationships between automobile head-up display presentation images and drivers’ Kansei,” Displays 32, 58–68 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sugie, N.

S. Okabayashi, N. Sugie, M. Imaizumi, M. Furukawa, and T. Hatada, “Visual perception of HUD (head-up display) image with small angle of depression in practical automotive use,” Electron Comm. Jpn. 82, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tolstik, E.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up displays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.-C.

D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacak, B. K. Lim, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Growth of uniformly aligned nanorod arrays by oblique angle deposition with two-phase substrate rotation,” Nanotechnology 15, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, A.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up displays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, D.-X.

D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacak, B. K. Lim, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Growth of uniformly aligned nanorod arrays by oblique angle deposition with two-phase substrate rotation,” Nanotechnology 15, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-C.

Yu, Y. W.

C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Displays (1)

S. Smith and S.-H. Fu, “The relationships between automobile head-up display presentation images and drivers’ Kansei,” Displays 32, 58–68 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron Comm. Jpn. (1)

S. Okabayashi, N. Sugie, M. Imaizumi, M. Furukawa, and T. Hatada, “Visual perception of HUD (head-up display) image with small angle of depression in practical automotive use,” Electron Comm. Jpn. 82, 1–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up displays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Aviat. Psychol. (1)

J. Crawford and A. Neal, “A review of the perceptual and cognitive issues associated with the use of head-up displays in commercial aviation,” Int. J. Aviat. Psychol. 16, 1–19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Makita, “Combiner for head-up display (HUD) system,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 47, 209–211 (2008).

Nano Lett. (1)

C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

D.-X. Ye, T. Karabacak, B. K. Lim, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Growth of uniformly aligned nanorod arrays by oblique angle deposition with two-phase substrate rotation,” Nanotechnology 15, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Flow chart for preparation of ordered arrays of Al2O3 columns: (a) nanospheres were spin coated on the substrate; (b) the diameter of the nanospheres was reduced after a 130 s RIE treatment; (c) after the ALD process, Al2O3 was coated on the surface of the nanospheres; (d) nanosphere shells were formed by heating at 350°C; (e) after oblique deposition, inclined Al2O3 columns were grown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Plan-view SEM images of (a) nanosphere array and (b) Al2O3 inclined columns.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross-sectional SEM images of Al2O3 along direction c.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Specular transmittance spectra at various angles of incidence.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Specular and diffuse spectra of the inclined Al2O3 column array at a normal angle of incidence.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Effect on a real object viewed through the inclined column array at (a) normal and (b) a tilted angle (about 45°).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Scattering spectrum at normal and specular transmittance spectrum at 45°.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Schematic representation of HUDs using an inclined column array as a projection screen.

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