Abstract

To provide two-eyed views with one device, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) displays interlace the two views either temporally or spatially: temporal interlacing (TI) alternates the two views in time with full resolution, while spatial interlacing (SI) presents the two views simultaneously but with half resolution for each eye. We investigate the effect of interlacing methods on image quality through a psychophysical experiment. We compared four experimental conditions: three S3D interlacing methods (TI, SI with raw sampling, and SI with vertical interpolation), and one nonconventional interlacing method (vertical interpolation). The stimuli were 10 natural stereo images presented at nine levels of pixel sizes (0.64, 0.78, 0.89, 1.00, 1.28, 1.55, 1.78, 2.00, and 2.56 arcmin). To test the effect of interlacing methods per se, we provided all the experimental conditions to the subjects using a single experimental setup: a mirror stereoscope. The results show that TI does not degrade the image quality for any pixel size. SI degrades the image quality when the pixel size is relatively large, but the effect of the two SI methods does not differ significantly. Comparison of SI methods against the vertical interpolation method implies that the primary cause of the degradation in image quality for SI methods is the visibility of the interlacing pattern rather than the loss of high-frequency information.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. A. Grebenyuk and V. V. Petrov, “Methods, formats, and technologies for the reproduction of stereoscopic video images,” J. Opt. Technol. 74, 330–337 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Dawson, “Active versus passive,” Connected Home Australia, 46–48 (2012).
  3. S. Dawson, “Passive 3D from the beginning,” http://hifi-writer.com/wpblog/?p=3797 .
  4. J. Kim and M. S. Banks, “Effective spatial resolution of temporally and spatially interlaced stereo 3D televisions,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, 43, 879–882 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. Soneira, “3D TV display technology shoot-out,” http://www.displaymate.com/3D_TV_ShootOut_1.htm .
  6. E. F. Kelley, “Resolving resolution,” Inform. Dis. 27, 18–21 (2011).
  7. E. F. Kelley and P. A. Boynton, “Late-news paper: binocular fusion camera to render pixel detail in 3D displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 43, 145–148 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Wang, M. Yu, Y. Yang, and G. Jiang, “Research on subjective stereoscopic image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7255, 725509 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. K. Moorthy and A. C. Bovik, “A survey on 3D quality of experience and 3D quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8651, 86510M (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. http://www.flickr.com/groups/3d-cross-view/pool/ .
  11. I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol. 197, 551–566 (1968).
  13. D. H. Kelly, “Motion and vision. II. Stabilized spatio-temporal threshold surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1340–1349 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” J. Soc. Inform. Dis. 19, 271–297 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. ITU-R Recommendation , “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange,” International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland (2002).
  16. ITU-R Recommendation , “Subjective assessment methods for image quality in high-definition television,” International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (1998).
  17. ITU-R Recommendation , “General viewing conditions for subjective assessment of quality of SDTV and HDTV television pictures on flat panel displays,” International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (2012).

2013 (1)

A. K. Moorthy and A. C. Bovik, “A survey on 3D quality of experience and 3D quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8651, 86510M (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

J. Kim and M. S. Banks, “Effective spatial resolution of temporally and spatially interlaced stereo 3D televisions,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, 43, 879–882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Kelley and P. A. Boynton, “Late-news paper: binocular fusion camera to render pixel detail in 3D displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 43, 145–148 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

E. F. Kelley, “Resolving resolution,” Inform. Dis. 27, 18–21 (2011).

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” J. Soc. Inform. Dis. 19, 271–297 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

X. Wang, M. Yu, Y. Yang, and G. Jiang, “Research on subjective stereoscopic image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7255, 725509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

1979 (1)

1968 (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol. 197, 551–566 (1968).

Banks, M. S.

J. Kim and M. S. Banks, “Effective spatial resolution of temporally and spatially interlaced stereo 3D televisions,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, 43, 879–882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” J. Soc. Inform. Dis. 19, 271–297 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bovik, A. C.

A. K. Moorthy and A. C. Bovik, “A survey on 3D quality of experience and 3D quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8651, 86510M (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, P. A.

E. F. Kelley and P. A. Boynton, “Late-news paper: binocular fusion camera to render pixel detail in 3D displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 43, 145–148 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol. 197, 551–566 (1968).

Dawson, S.

S. Dawson, “Active versus passive,” Connected Home Australia, 46–48 (2012).

Fründ, I.

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grebenyuk, K. A.

Haenel, N. V.

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” J. Soc. Inform. Dis. 19, 271–297 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, G.

X. Wang, M. Yu, Y. Yang, and G. Jiang, “Research on subjective stereoscopic image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7255, 725509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karasev, V. I.

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” J. Soc. Inform. Dis. 19, 271–297 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, E. F.

E. F. Kelley and P. A. Boynton, “Late-news paper: binocular fusion camera to render pixel detail in 3D displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 43, 145–148 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Kelley, “Resolving resolution,” Inform. Dis. 27, 18–21 (2011).

Kelly, D. H.

Kim, J.

J. Kim and M. S. Banks, “Effective spatial resolution of temporally and spatially interlaced stereo 3D televisions,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, 43, 879–882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moorthy, A. K.

A. K. Moorthy and A. C. Bovik, “A survey on 3D quality of experience and 3D quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8651, 86510M (2013).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V. V.

Robson, J. G.

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol. 197, 551–566 (1968).

Wang, X.

X. Wang, M. Yu, Y. Yang, and G. Jiang, “Research on subjective stereoscopic image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7255, 725509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wichmann, F. A.

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

X. Wang, M. Yu, Y. Yang, and G. Jiang, “Research on subjective stereoscopic image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7255, 725509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

X. Wang, M. Yu, Y. Yang, and G. Jiang, “Research on subjective stereoscopic image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7255, 725509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inform. Dis. (1)

E. F. Kelley, “Resolving resolution,” Inform. Dis. 27, 18–21 (2011).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. Physiol. (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol. 197, 551–566 (1968).

J. Soc. Inform. Dis. (1)

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” J. Soc. Inform. Dis. 19, 271–297 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Vis. (1)

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

X. Wang, M. Yu, Y. Yang, and G. Jiang, “Research on subjective stereoscopic image quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 7255, 725509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Moorthy and A. C. Bovik, “A survey on 3D quality of experience and 3D quality assessment,” Proc. SPIE 8651, 86510M (2013).
[CrossRef]

SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (2)

E. F. Kelley and P. A. Boynton, “Late-news paper: binocular fusion camera to render pixel detail in 3D displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 43, 145–148 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim and M. S. Banks, “Effective spatial resolution of temporally and spatially interlaced stereo 3D televisions,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, 43, 879–882 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

R. M. Soneira, “3D TV display technology shoot-out,” http://www.displaymate.com/3D_TV_ShootOut_1.htm .

S. Dawson, “Active versus passive,” Connected Home Australia, 46–48 (2012).

S. Dawson, “Passive 3D from the beginning,” http://hifi-writer.com/wpblog/?p=3797 .

http://www.flickr.com/groups/3d-cross-view/pool/ .

ITU-R Recommendation , “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange,” International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland (2002).

ITU-R Recommendation , “Subjective assessment methods for image quality in high-definition television,” International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (1998).

ITU-R Recommendation , “General viewing conditions for subjective assessment of quality of SDTV and HDTV television pictures on flat panel displays,” International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (2012).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Concept of TI with active glasses (top) and TI with passive glasses (bottom).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Principle of SI 3D using polarization glasses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Structure and principles of the mirror stereoscope.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ten stereo images used in the experiment [10].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Principles of simulating the TI experimental condition.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SI with vertical interpolation using two rows from the original image to generate pixel values in a single row.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Concept of the vertical interpolation only method.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Experimental results per subject. The graphs plot subject’s performance scores for discrimination tasks in terms of the image resolution.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Experiment results for all images across all subjects.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Detection thresholds for each image presented in SI with raw sampling, SI with vertical interpolation and vertical interpolation only.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Results of FFT for Image 3 in Fig. 4.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Results of FFT for the SI with raw sampling.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

CSF of the human visual system [12].

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Perceived visibility of the SI with raw sampling images.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Values of the Experimental Parameters in Our Experiment

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