Abstract

Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of motor impairment syndromes secondary to genetic that may be due to acquired disorders of the developing brain. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to investigate the prefrontal cortical activation and lateralization in response to the planning and execution of motor skills in controls and individuals with CP. The prefrontal cortex, which plays a dominant role in the planning and execution of motor skill stimulus, is noninvasively imaged using a continuous wave-based NIRS system. During the study, 7 controls (4 right-handed and 3 left-handed) and 2 individuals with CP (1 right-handed and 1 left-handed) over 18 years of age performed 30 s of a ball throwing task followed by 30 s rest in a 5-block paradigm. The optical signal acquired from the NIRS system was processed to elucidate the activation and lateralization in the prefrontal region of controls and individuals with CP. The preliminary result indicated a difference in activation between the task and rest conditions in all the participant types. Bilateral dominance was observed in the prefrontal cortex of controls in response to planning and execution of motor skill tasks, while an ipsilateral dominance was observed in individuals with CP. In conjunction, similar contralateral dominance was observed during rest periods, both in controls and individuals with CP.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  29. B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

P. Nevalainen, E. Pihko, H. Maenpaa, L. Valanne, L. Nummenmaa, and L. Lauronen, “Bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical processing in hemiplegic cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. 54, 361–367 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

2010 (2)

F. Tian, M. R. Delgado, S. C. Dhamne, G. Alexandrakis, M. I. Romero, L. Smith, B. Khan, D. Reid, N. J. Clegg, and H. Liu, “Quantification of functional near infrared spectroscopy to assess cortical reorganization in children with cerebral palsy,” Opt. Express 18, 25973–25986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “HomER: a review of time-series analysis methods for near-infrared spectroscopy of the brain,” Appl. Opt. 48, D280–D298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gartus, T. Foki, A. Geissler, and R. Beisteiner, “Improvement of clinical language localization with an overt semantic and syntactic language functional MRI imaging paradigm,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 30, 1977–1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. D. Janis and L. R. Robert, “Construction of efficacious gait and upper limb functional interventions based on brain plasticity evidence and model-based measures for stroke patients,” Sci. World J. 7, 2031–2045 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. H. Schwartz, “The application of optical recording of intrinsic signals to simultaneously acquire functional, pathological and localizing information and its potential role in neurosurgery,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 83, 36–44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bax, M. Goldstein, P. Rosenbaum, A. Leviton, N. Paneth, B. Dan, B. Jacobsson, and D. Damiano, “Executive committee for the definition of cerebral palsy, proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 47, 571–576 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. A. Boas and M. A. Dale Franceschini, “Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy,” Neuroimage 23, S275–S288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, “Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging,” Psychophysiology 40, 548–560 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Faw, “Pre-frontal executive committee for perception, working memory, attention, long-term memory, motor control, and thinking: a tutorial review,” Conscious. Cogn. 12, 83–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

J. Duncan and A. M. Owen, “Common regions of the human frontal lobe recruited by diverse cognitive demands,” Trends Neurosci. 23, 475–483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sokol, O. N. Markand, E. C. Daly, T. G. Luerssen, and M. D. Malkoff, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) distinguishes seizure types,” Seizure 9, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Watanabe, A. Maki, F. Kawaguchi, Y. Yamashita, H. Koizumi, and Y. Mayanagi, “Noninvasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multichannel near infrared spectroscopic topography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 287–290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Eschweiler, C. Wegerer, W. Schlotter, C. Spandl, A. Stevens, M. Bartels, and G. Buchkremer, “Left prefrontal activation predicts therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression,” Psychiatry Res. 99, 161–172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsuo, T. Kato, M. Fukuda, and N. Kato, “Alteration of hemoglobin oxygenation in the frontal region in elderly depressed patients as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 12, 465–471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

K. Sakatani, S. Chen, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, and Y. P. Wang, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by auditory stimulation in newborn infants measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Early Hum. Dev. 55, 229–236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, T. Takeuchi, and K. L. Sakai, “Temporal cortex activation during speech recognition: an optical topography study,” Cognition 73, B55–B66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Adelson, E. Nemoto, M. Scheuer, M. Painter, J. Morgan, and H. Yonas, “Noninvasive continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation perictally using near-infrared spectroscopy: a preliminary report,” Epilepsia 40, 1484–1489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Colier, V. Quaresima, B. Oeseburg, and M. Ferrari, “Human motor-cortex oxygenation changes induced by cyclic coupled movements of hand and foot,” Exp. Brain Res. 129, 457–461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Ruben, R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, J. Bernarding, C. Hirth, H. Heekeren, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Hemoglobin oxygenation changes during visual stimulation in the occipital cortex,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 181–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Heekeren, H. Obrig, R. Wenzel, K. Eberle, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, R. Kurth, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation during sustained visual stimulation—a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 352, 743–750 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

H. Obrig, C. Hirth, J. G. Junge-Hulsing, C. Doge, T. Wolf, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral oxygenation changes in response to motor stimulation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1174–1183 (1996).

C. Hirth, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Muhlnickel, H. Flor, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Non-invasive functional mapping of the human motor cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroReport 7, 1977–1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral hemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, and J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light: technical note,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, and P. Van der Zee, “Methods of quantitating cerebral near infrared spectroscopy data,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 222, 183–189 (1987).

Adelson, P. D.

P. D. Adelson, E. Nemoto, M. Scheuer, M. Painter, J. Morgan, and H. Yonas, “Noninvasive continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation perictally using near-infrared spectroscopy: a preliminary report,” Epilepsia 40, 1484–1489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrakis, G.

B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Tian, M. R. Delgado, S. C. Dhamne, G. Alexandrakis, M. I. Romero, L. Smith, B. Khan, D. Reid, N. J. Clegg, and H. Liu, “Quantification of functional near infrared spectroscopy to assess cortical reorganization in children with cerebral palsy,” Opt. Express 18, 25973–25986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arneson, C. L.

R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

Ausman, J. I.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, and J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light: technical note,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, M.

G. W. Eschweiler, C. Wegerer, W. Schlotter, C. Spandl, A. Stevens, M. Bartels, and G. Buchkremer, “Left prefrontal activation predicts therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression,” Psychiatry Res. 99, 161–172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bax, M.

M. Bax, M. Goldstein, P. Rosenbaum, A. Leviton, N. Paneth, B. Dan, B. Jacobsson, and D. Damiano, “Executive committee for the definition of cerebral palsy, proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 47, 571–576 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Behbehani, K.

B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beisteiner, R.

A. Gartus, T. Foki, A. Geissler, and R. Beisteiner, “Improvement of clinical language localization with an overt semantic and syntactic language functional MRI imaging paradigm,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 30, 1977–1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benedict, R. E.

R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

Bernarding, J.

J. Ruben, R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, J. Bernarding, C. Hirth, H. Heekeren, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Hemoglobin oxygenation changes during visual stimulation in the occipital cortex,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 181–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Hirth, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Muhlnickel, H. Flor, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Non-invasive functional mapping of the human motor cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroReport 7, 1977–1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “HomER: a review of time-series analysis methods for near-infrared spectroscopy of the brain,” Appl. Opt. 48, D280–D298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas and M. A. Dale Franceschini, “Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy,” Neuroimage 23, S275–S288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, “Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging,” Psychophysiology 40, 548–560 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boretsky, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Buchkremer, G.

G. W. Eschweiler, C. Wegerer, W. Schlotter, C. Spandl, A. Stevens, M. Bartels, and G. Buchkremer, “Left prefrontal activation predicts therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression,” Psychiatry Res. 99, 161–172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

K. Sakatani, S. Chen, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, and Y. P. Wang, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by auditory stimulation in newborn infants measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Early Hum. Dev. 55, 229–236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clegg, N. J.

F. Tian, M. R. Delgado, S. C. Dhamne, G. Alexandrakis, M. I. Romero, L. Smith, B. Khan, D. Reid, N. J. Clegg, and H. Liu, “Quantification of functional near infrared spectroscopy to assess cortical reorganization in children with cerebral palsy,” Opt. Express 18, 25973–25986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, P.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Colier, W. N.

W. N. Colier, V. Quaresima, B. Oeseburg, and M. Ferrari, “Human motor-cortex oxygenation changes induced by cyclic coupled movements of hand and foot,” Exp. Brain Res. 129, 457–461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, and P. Van der Zee, “Methods of quantitating cerebral near infrared spectroscopy data,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 222, 183–189 (1987).

Culver, J. P.

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, “Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging,” Psychophysiology 40, 548–560 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dale Franceschini, M. A.

D. A. Boas and M. A. Dale Franceschini, “Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy,” Neuroimage 23, S275–S288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daly, E. C.

D. K. Sokol, O. N. Markand, E. C. Daly, T. G. Luerssen, and M. D. Malkoff, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) distinguishes seizure types,” Seizure 9, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Damiano, D.

M. Bax, M. Goldstein, P. Rosenbaum, A. Leviton, N. Paneth, B. Dan, B. Jacobsson, and D. Damiano, “Executive committee for the definition of cerebral palsy, proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 47, 571–576 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dan, B.

M. Bax, M. Goldstein, P. Rosenbaum, A. Leviton, N. Paneth, B. Dan, B. Jacobsson, and D. Damiano, “Executive committee for the definition of cerebral palsy, proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 47, 571–576 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delgado, M. R.

F. Tian, M. R. Delgado, S. C. Dhamne, G. Alexandrakis, M. I. Romero, L. Smith, B. Khan, D. Reid, N. J. Clegg, and H. Liu, “Quantification of functional near infrared spectroscopy to assess cortical reorganization in children with cerebral palsy,” Opt. Express 18, 25973–25986 (2010).
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B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
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J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral hemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 261, 351–356 (1995).
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J. Ruben, R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, J. Bernarding, C. Hirth, H. Heekeren, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Hemoglobin oxygenation changes during visual stimulation in the occipital cortex,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 181–187 (1997).
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C. Hirth, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Muhlnickel, H. Flor, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Non-invasive functional mapping of the human motor cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroReport 7, 1977–1981 (1996).
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R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

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H. Obrig, C. Hirth, J. G. Junge-Hulsing, C. Doge, T. Wolf, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral oxygenation changes in response to motor stimulation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1174–1183 (1996).

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P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, and J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light: technical note,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
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J. Duncan and A. M. Owen, “Common regions of the human frontal lobe recruited by diverse cognitive demands,” Trends Neurosci. 23, 475–483 (2000).
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R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

Eberle, K.

H. R. Heekeren, H. Obrig, R. Wenzel, K. Eberle, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, R. Kurth, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation during sustained visual stimulation—a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 352, 743–750 (1997).
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J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral hemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 261, 351–356 (1995).
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G. W. Eschweiler, C. Wegerer, W. Schlotter, C. Spandl, A. Stevens, M. Bartels, and G. Buchkremer, “Left prefrontal activation predicts therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression,” Psychiatry Res. 99, 161–172 (2000).
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M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, “Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging,” Psychophysiology 40, 548–560 (2003).
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W. N. Colier, V. Quaresima, B. Oeseburg, and M. Ferrari, “Human motor-cortex oxygenation changes induced by cyclic coupled movements of hand and foot,” Exp. Brain Res. 129, 457–461 (1999).
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B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
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R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

Flor, H.

C. Hirth, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Muhlnickel, H. Flor, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Non-invasive functional mapping of the human motor cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroReport 7, 1977–1981 (1996).
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Franceschini, M. A.

T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “HomER: a review of time-series analysis methods for near-infrared spectroscopy of the brain,” Appl. Opt. 48, D280–D298 (2009).
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M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, “Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging,” Psychophysiology 40, 548–560 (2003).
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Fukuda, M.

K. Matsuo, T. Kato, M. Fukuda, and N. Kato, “Alteration of hemoglobin oxygenation in the frontal region in elderly depressed patients as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 12, 465–471 (2000).
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Gartus, A.

A. Gartus, T. Foki, A. Geissler, and R. Beisteiner, “Improvement of clinical language localization with an overt semantic and syntactic language functional MRI imaging paradigm,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 30, 1977–1985 (2009).
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A. Gartus, T. Foki, A. Geissler, and R. Beisteiner, “Improvement of clinical language localization with an overt semantic and syntactic language functional MRI imaging paradigm,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 30, 1977–1985 (2009).
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M. Bax, M. Goldstein, P. Rosenbaum, A. Leviton, N. Paneth, B. Dan, B. Jacobsson, and D. Damiano, “Executive committee for the definition of cerebral palsy, proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 47, 571–576 (2005).
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Greenfeld, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
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Heekeren, H.

J. Ruben, R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, J. Bernarding, C. Hirth, H. Heekeren, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Hemoglobin oxygenation changes during visual stimulation in the occipital cortex,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 181–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heekeren, H. R.

H. R. Heekeren, H. Obrig, R. Wenzel, K. Eberle, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, R. Kurth, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation during sustained visual stimulation—a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 352, 743–750 (1997).
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Hirth, C.

J. Ruben, R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, J. Bernarding, C. Hirth, H. Heekeren, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Hemoglobin oxygenation changes during visual stimulation in the occipital cortex,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 181–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Obrig, C. Hirth, J. G. Junge-Hulsing, C. Doge, T. Wolf, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral oxygenation changes in response to motor stimulation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1174–1183 (1996).

C. Hirth, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Muhlnickel, H. Flor, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Non-invasive functional mapping of the human motor cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroReport 7, 1977–1981 (1996).
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A. H. Hoon and M. V. Johnston, “Cerebral palsy,” in Diseases of the Nervous System: Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutic Principles, A. K. Asbury, G. M. McKhann, and W. I. McDonald, eds. (Cambridge University, 2002), p. 568.

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Jacobsson, B.

M. Bax, M. Goldstein, P. Rosenbaum, A. Leviton, N. Paneth, B. Dan, B. Jacobsson, and D. Damiano, “Executive committee for the definition of cerebral palsy, proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 47, 571–576 (2005).
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J. D. Janis and L. R. Robert, “Construction of efficacious gait and upper limb functional interventions based on brain plasticity evidence and model-based measures for stroke patients,” Sci. World J. 7, 2031–2045 (2007).
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A. H. Hoon and M. V. Johnston, “Cerebral palsy,” in Diseases of the Nervous System: Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutic Principles, A. K. Asbury, G. M. McKhann, and W. I. McDonald, eds. (Cambridge University, 2002), p. 568.

M. V. Johnston, “Encephalopathies,” in Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, R. M. Kliegman, R. E. Behrman, H. B. Jenson, and B. F. Stanton, eds. (Saunders Elsevier, 2011).

Junge-Hulsing, J. G.

H. Obrig, C. Hirth, J. G. Junge-Hulsing, C. Doge, T. Wolf, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral oxygenation changes in response to motor stimulation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1174–1183 (1996).

Kato, N.

K. Matsuo, T. Kato, M. Fukuda, and N. Kato, “Alteration of hemoglobin oxygenation in the frontal region in elderly depressed patients as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 12, 465–471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

K. Matsuo, T. Kato, M. Fukuda, and N. Kato, “Alteration of hemoglobin oxygenation in the frontal region in elderly depressed patients as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 12, 465–471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, K.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, F.

E. Watanabe, A. Maki, F. Kawaguchi, Y. Yamashita, H. Koizumi, and Y. Mayanagi, “Noninvasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multichannel near infrared spectroscopic topography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 287–290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khan, B.

B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Tian, M. R. Delgado, S. C. Dhamne, G. Alexandrakis, M. I. Romero, L. Smith, B. Khan, D. Reid, N. J. Clegg, and H. Liu, “Quantification of functional near infrared spectroscopy to assess cortical reorganization in children with cerebral palsy,” Opt. Express 18, 25973–25986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. J.

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral hemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kirby, R. S.

R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

Koizumi, H.

E. Watanabe, A. Maki, F. Kawaguchi, Y. Yamashita, H. Koizumi, and Y. Mayanagi, “Noninvasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multichannel near infrared spectroscopic topography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 287–290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kurth, R.

H. R. Heekeren, H. Obrig, R. Wenzel, K. Eberle, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, R. Kurth, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation during sustained visual stimulation—a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 352, 743–750 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lauronen, L.

P. Nevalainen, E. Pihko, H. Maenpaa, L. Valanne, L. Nummenmaa, and L. Lauronen, “Bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical processing in hemiplegic cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. 54, 361–367 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, J. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leviton, A.

M. Bax, M. Goldstein, P. Rosenbaum, A. Leviton, N. Paneth, B. Dan, B. Jacobsson, and D. Damiano, “Executive committee for the definition of cerebral palsy, proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 47, 571–576 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levy, W.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, G.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, and J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light: technical note,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lichty, W.

K. Sakatani, S. Chen, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, and Y. P. Wang, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by auditory stimulation in newborn infants measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Early Hum. Dev. 55, 229–236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Tian, M. R. Delgado, S. C. Dhamne, G. Alexandrakis, M. I. Romero, L. Smith, B. Khan, D. Reid, N. J. Clegg, and H. Liu, “Quantification of functional near infrared spectroscopy to assess cortical reorganization in children with cerebral palsy,” Opt. Express 18, 25973–25986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luerssen, T. G.

D. K. Sokol, O. N. Markand, E. C. Daly, T. G. Luerssen, and M. D. Malkoff, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) distinguishes seizure types,” Seizure 9, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maenner, M. J.

R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

Maenpaa, H.

P. Nevalainen, E. Pihko, H. Maenpaa, L. Valanne, L. Nummenmaa, and L. Lauronen, “Bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical processing in hemiplegic cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. 54, 361–367 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A.

E. Watanabe, A. Maki, F. Kawaguchi, Y. Yamashita, H. Koizumi, and Y. Mayanagi, “Noninvasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multichannel near infrared spectroscopic topography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 287–290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Malkoff, M. D.

D. K. Sokol, O. N. Markand, E. C. Daly, T. G. Luerssen, and M. D. Malkoff, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) distinguishes seizure types,” Seizure 9, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Markand, O. N.

D. K. Sokol, O. N. Markand, E. C. Daly, T. G. Luerssen, and M. D. Malkoff, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) distinguishes seizure types,” Seizure 9, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, K.

K. Matsuo, T. Kato, M. Fukuda, and N. Kato, “Alteration of hemoglobin oxygenation in the frontal region in elderly depressed patients as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 12, 465–471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mayanagi, Y.

E. Watanabe, A. Maki, F. Kawaguchi, Y. Yamashita, H. Koizumi, and Y. Mayanagi, “Noninvasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multichannel near infrared spectroscopic topography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 287–290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, P. W.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, and J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light: technical note,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meek, J. H.

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral hemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, J.

P. D. Adelson, E. Nemoto, M. Scheuer, M. Painter, J. Morgan, and H. Yonas, “Noninvasive continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation perictally using near-infrared spectroscopy: a preliminary report,” Epilepsia 40, 1484–1489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Muhlnickel, W.

C. Hirth, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Muhlnickel, H. Flor, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Non-invasive functional mapping of the human motor cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroReport 7, 1977–1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mulvihill, B.

R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

Nemoto, E.

P. D. Adelson, E. Nemoto, M. Scheuer, M. Painter, J. Morgan, and H. Yonas, “Noninvasive continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation perictally using near-infrared spectroscopy: a preliminary report,” Epilepsia 40, 1484–1489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nevalainen, P.

P. Nevalainen, E. Pihko, H. Maenpaa, L. Valanne, L. Nummenmaa, and L. Lauronen, “Bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical processing in hemiplegic cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. 54, 361–367 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nummenmaa, L.

P. Nevalainen, E. Pihko, H. Maenpaa, L. Valanne, L. Nummenmaa, and L. Lauronen, “Bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical processing in hemiplegic cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. 54, 361–367 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Obrig, H.

H. R. Heekeren, H. Obrig, R. Wenzel, K. Eberle, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, R. Kurth, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation during sustained visual stimulation—a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 352, 743–750 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruben, R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, J. Bernarding, C. Hirth, H. Heekeren, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Hemoglobin oxygenation changes during visual stimulation in the occipital cortex,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 181–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Obrig, C. Hirth, J. G. Junge-Hulsing, C. Doge, T. Wolf, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral oxygenation changes in response to motor stimulation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1174–1183 (1996).

C. Hirth, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Muhlnickel, H. Flor, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Non-invasive functional mapping of the human motor cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroReport 7, 1977–1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oeseburg, B.

W. N. Colier, V. Quaresima, B. Oeseburg, and M. Ferrari, “Human motor-cortex oxygenation changes induced by cyclic coupled movements of hand and foot,” Exp. Brain Res. 129, 457–461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Owen, A. M.

J. Duncan and A. M. Owen, “Common regions of the human frontal lobe recruited by diverse cognitive demands,” Trends Neurosci. 23, 475–483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Painter, M.

P. D. Adelson, E. Nemoto, M. Scheuer, M. Painter, J. Morgan, and H. Yonas, “Noninvasive continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation perictally using near-infrared spectroscopy: a preliminary report,” Epilepsia 40, 1484–1489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paneth, N.

M. Bax, M. Goldstein, P. Rosenbaum, A. Leviton, N. Paneth, B. Dan, B. Jacobsson, and D. Damiano, “Executive committee for the definition of cerebral palsy, proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 47, 571–576 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patz, J. A.

R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

Pihko, E.

P. Nevalainen, E. Pihko, H. Maenpaa, L. Valanne, L. Nummenmaa, and L. Lauronen, “Bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical processing in hemiplegic cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. 54, 361–367 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Quaresima, V.

W. N. Colier, V. Quaresima, B. Oeseburg, and M. Ferrari, “Human motor-cortex oxygenation changes induced by cyclic coupled movements of hand and foot,” Exp. Brain Res. 129, 457–461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D.

F. Tian, M. R. Delgado, S. C. Dhamne, G. Alexandrakis, M. I. Romero, L. Smith, B. Khan, D. Reid, N. J. Clegg, and H. Liu, “Quantification of functional near infrared spectroscopy to assess cortical reorganization in children with cerebral palsy,” Opt. Express 18, 25973–25986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, E. O. R.

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, and P. Van der Zee, “Methods of quantitating cerebral near infrared spectroscopy data,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 222, 183–189 (1987).

Robert, L. R.

J. D. Janis and L. R. Robert, “Construction of efficacious gait and upper limb functional interventions based on brain plasticity evidence and model-based measures for stroke patients,” Sci. World J. 7, 2031–2045 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romaya, J.

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral hemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Romero, M. I.

B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Tian, M. R. Delgado, S. C. Dhamne, G. Alexandrakis, M. I. Romero, L. Smith, B. Khan, D. Reid, N. J. Clegg, and H. Liu, “Quantification of functional near infrared spectroscopy to assess cortical reorganization in children with cerebral palsy,” Opt. Express 18, 25973–25986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbaum, P.

M. Bax, M. Goldstein, P. Rosenbaum, A. Leviton, N. Paneth, B. Dan, B. Jacobsson, and D. Damiano, “Executive committee for the definition of cerebral palsy, proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 47, 571–576 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruben, J.

H. R. Heekeren, H. Obrig, R. Wenzel, K. Eberle, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, R. Kurth, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation during sustained visual stimulation—a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 352, 743–750 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruben, R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, J. Bernarding, C. Hirth, H. Heekeren, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Hemoglobin oxygenation changes during visual stimulation in the occipital cortex,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 181–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K. L.

H. Sato, T. Takeuchi, and K. L. Sakai, “Temporal cortex activation during speech recognition: an optical topography study,” Cognition 73, B55–B66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakatani, K.

K. Sakatani, S. Chen, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, and Y. P. Wang, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by auditory stimulation in newborn infants measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Early Hum. Dev. 55, 229–236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

H. Sato, T. Takeuchi, and K. L. Sakai, “Temporal cortex activation during speech recognition: an optical topography study,” Cognition 73, B55–B66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, M.

P. D. Adelson, E. Nemoto, M. Scheuer, M. Painter, J. Morgan, and H. Yonas, “Noninvasive continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation perictally using near-infrared spectroscopy: a preliminary report,” Epilepsia 40, 1484–1489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, W.

G. W. Eschweiler, C. Wegerer, W. Schlotter, C. Spandl, A. Stevens, M. Bartels, and G. Buchkremer, “Left prefrontal activation predicts therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression,” Psychiatry Res. 99, 161–172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, T. H.

T. H. Schwartz, “The application of optical recording of intrinsic signals to simultaneously acquire functional, pathological and localizing information and its potential role in neurosurgery,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 83, 36–44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L.

B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Tian, M. R. Delgado, S. C. Dhamne, G. Alexandrakis, M. I. Romero, L. Smith, B. Khan, D. Reid, N. J. Clegg, and H. Liu, “Quantification of functional near infrared spectroscopy to assess cortical reorganization in children with cerebral palsy,” Opt. Express 18, 25973–25986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smiths, D. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sokol, D. K.

D. K. Sokol, O. N. Markand, E. C. Daly, T. G. Luerssen, and M. D. Malkoff, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) distinguishes seizure types,” Seizure 9, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spandl, C.

G. W. Eschweiler, C. Wegerer, W. Schlotter, C. Spandl, A. Stevens, M. Bartels, and G. Buchkremer, “Left prefrontal activation predicts therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression,” Psychiatry Res. 99, 161–172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, A.

G. W. Eschweiler, C. Wegerer, W. Schlotter, C. Spandl, A. Stevens, M. Bartels, and G. Buchkremer, “Left prefrontal activation predicts therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression,” Psychiatry Res. 99, 161–172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M.

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, and J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light: technical note,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Strangman, G.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, J. P.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

H. Sato, T. Takeuchi, and K. L. Sakai, “Temporal cortex activation during speech recognition: an optical topography study,” Cognition 73, B55–B66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, A.

C. Hirth, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Muhlnickel, H. Flor, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Non-invasive functional mapping of the human motor cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroReport 7, 1977–1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, J. H.

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, “Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging,” Psychophysiology 40, 548–560 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tian, F.

F. Tian, M. R. Delgado, S. C. Dhamne, G. Alexandrakis, M. I. Romero, L. Smith, B. Khan, D. Reid, N. J. Clegg, and H. Liu, “Quantification of functional near infrared spectroscopy to assess cortical reorganization in children with cerebral palsy,” Opt. Express 18, 25973–25986 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Umphred, D. A.

D. A. Umphred, Neurological Rehabilitation, 5th ed. (Mosby Elsevier, 2007).

Valanne, L.

P. Nevalainen, E. Pihko, H. Maenpaa, L. Valanne, L. Nummenmaa, and L. Lauronen, “Bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical processing in hemiplegic cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. 54, 361–367 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van der Zee, P.

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, and P. Van der Zee, “Methods of quantitating cerebral near infrared spectroscopy data,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 222, 183–189 (1987).

Van Naarden Braun, K.

R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

Villringer, A.

H. R. Heekeren, H. Obrig, R. Wenzel, K. Eberle, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, R. Kurth, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation during sustained visual stimulation—a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 352, 743–750 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruben, R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, J. Bernarding, C. Hirth, H. Heekeren, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Hemoglobin oxygenation changes during visual stimulation in the occipital cortex,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 181–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Obrig, C. Hirth, J. G. Junge-Hulsing, C. Doge, T. Wolf, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral oxygenation changes in response to motor stimulation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1174–1183 (1996).

C. Hirth, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Muhlnickel, H. Flor, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Non-invasive functional mapping of the human motor cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroReport 7, 1977–1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Villringer, K.

J. Ruben, R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, J. Bernarding, C. Hirth, H. Heekeren, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Hemoglobin oxygenation changes during visual stimulation in the occipital cortex,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 181–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Heekeren, H. Obrig, R. Wenzel, K. Eberle, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, R. Kurth, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation during sustained visual stimulation—a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 352, 743–750 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Hirth, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Muhlnickel, H. Flor, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Non-invasive functional mapping of the human motor cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroReport 7, 1977–1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. P.

K. Sakatani, S. Chen, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, and Y. P. Wang, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by auditory stimulation in newborn infants measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Early Hum. Dev. 55, 229–236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, E.

E. Watanabe, A. Maki, F. Kawaguchi, Y. Yamashita, H. Koizumi, and Y. Mayanagi, “Noninvasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multichannel near infrared spectroscopic topography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 287–290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wegerer, C.

G. W. Eschweiler, C. Wegerer, W. Schlotter, C. Spandl, A. Stevens, M. Bartels, and G. Buchkremer, “Left prefrontal activation predicts therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression,” Psychiatry Res. 99, 161–172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wenzel, R.

H. R. Heekeren, H. Obrig, R. Wenzel, K. Eberle, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, R. Kurth, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation during sustained visual stimulation—a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 352, 743–750 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruben, R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, J. Bernarding, C. Hirth, H. Heekeren, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Hemoglobin oxygenation changes during visual stimulation in the occipital cortex,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 181–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wingate, M. S.

R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

Wolf, T.

H. Obrig, C. Hirth, J. G. Junge-Hulsing, C. Doge, T. Wolf, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral oxygenation changes in response to motor stimulation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1174–1183 (1996).

Wray, S.

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, and P. Van der Zee, “Methods of quantitating cerebral near infrared spectroscopy data,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 222, 183–189 (1987).

Wyatt, J.

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, and P. Van der Zee, “Methods of quantitating cerebral near infrared spectroscopy data,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 222, 183–189 (1987).

Wyatt, J. S.

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral hemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, Y.

E. Watanabe, A. Maki, F. Kawaguchi, Y. Yamashita, H. Koizumi, and Y. Mayanagi, “Noninvasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multichannel near infrared spectroscopic topography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 287–290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yeargin-Allsopp, M.

R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

Yonas, H.

P. D. Adelson, E. Nemoto, M. Scheuer, M. Painter, J. Morgan, and H. Yonas, “Noninvasive continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation perictally using near-infrared spectroscopy: a preliminary report,” Epilepsia 40, 1484–1489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Young, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zeki, S.

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral hemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, H.

K. Sakatani, S. Chen, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, and Y. P. Wang, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by auditory stimulation in newborn infants measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Early Hum. Dev. 55, 229–236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2)

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, and P. Van der Zee, “Methods of quantitating cerebral near infrared spectroscopy data,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 222, 183–189 (1987).

J. Ruben, R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, J. Bernarding, C. Hirth, H. Heekeren, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Hemoglobin oxygenation changes during visual stimulation in the occipital cortex,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 181–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Neuroradiol. (1)

A. Gartus, T. Foki, A. Geissler, and R. Beisteiner, “Improvement of clinical language localization with an overt semantic and syntactic language functional MRI imaging paradigm,” Am. J. Neuroradiol. 30, 1977–1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biol. Psychiatry (1)

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cognition (1)

H. Sato, T. Takeuchi, and K. L. Sakai, “Temporal cortex activation during speech recognition: an optical topography study,” Cognition 73, B55–B66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Conscious. Cogn. (1)

B. Faw, “Pre-frontal executive committee for perception, working memory, attention, long-term memory, motor control, and thinking: a tutorial review,” Conscious. Cogn. 12, 83–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dev. Med. Child Neurol. (1)

M. Bax, M. Goldstein, P. Rosenbaum, A. Leviton, N. Paneth, B. Dan, B. Jacobsson, and D. Damiano, “Executive committee for the definition of cerebral palsy, proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 47, 571–576 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. (1)

P. Nevalainen, E. Pihko, H. Maenpaa, L. Valanne, L. Nummenmaa, and L. Lauronen, “Bilateral alterations in somatosensory cortical processing in hemiplegic cerebral palsy,” Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. 54, 361–367 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Early Hum. Dev. (1)

K. Sakatani, S. Chen, W. Lichty, H. Zuo, and Y. P. Wang, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by auditory stimulation in newborn infants measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Early Hum. Dev. 55, 229–236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Epilepsia (1)

P. D. Adelson, E. Nemoto, M. Scheuer, M. Painter, J. Morgan, and H. Yonas, “Noninvasive continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation perictally using near-infrared spectroscopy: a preliminary report,” Epilepsia 40, 1484–1489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Brain Res. (1)

W. N. Colier, V. Quaresima, B. Oeseburg, and M. Ferrari, “Human motor-cortex oxygenation changes induced by cyclic coupled movements of hand and foot,” Exp. Brain Res. 129, 457–461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

H. Obrig, C. Hirth, J. G. Junge-Hulsing, C. Doge, T. Wolf, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral oxygenation changes in response to motor stimulation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1174–1183 (1996).

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

E. Watanabe, A. Maki, F. Kawaguchi, Y. Yamashita, H. Koizumi, and Y. Mayanagi, “Noninvasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multichannel near infrared spectroscopic topography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 287–290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Khan, F. Tian, K. Behbehani, M. I. Romero, M. R. Delgado, N. J. Clegg, L. Smith, D. Reid, H. Liu, and G. Alexandrakis, “Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 036008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. (1)

K. Matsuo, T. Kato, M. Fukuda, and N. Kato, “Alteration of hemoglobin oxygenation in the frontal region in elderly depressed patients as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 12, 465–471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosurg. (1)

P. W. McCormick, M. Stewart, G. Lewis, M. Dujovny, and J. I. Ausman, “Intracerebral penetration of infrared light: technical note,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 315–318 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neuroimage (1)

D. A. Boas and M. A. Dale Franceschini, “Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy,” Neuroimage 23, S275–S288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

NeuroReport (1)

C. Hirth, H. Obrig, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Muhlnickel, H. Flor, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, “Non-invasive functional mapping of the human motor cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy,” NeuroReport 7, 1977–1981 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (1)

H. R. Heekeren, H. Obrig, R. Wenzel, K. Eberle, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, R. Kurth, and A. Villringer, “Cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation during sustained visual stimulation—a near-infrared spectroscopy study,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 352, 743–750 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smiths, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (1)

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and S. Zeki, “Regional changes in cerebral hemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 261, 351–356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Psychiatry Res. (1)

G. W. Eschweiler, C. Wegerer, W. Schlotter, C. Spandl, A. Stevens, M. Bartels, and G. Buchkremer, “Left prefrontal activation predicts therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression,” Psychiatry Res. 99, 161–172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Psychophysiology (1)

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, “Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging,” Psychophysiology 40, 548–560 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Res. Dev. Disabil. (1)

R. S. Kirby, M. S. Wingate, K. Van Naarden Braun, N. S. Doernberg, C. L. Arneson, R. E. Benedict, B. Mulvihill, M. S. Durkin, R. T. Fitzgerald, M. J. Maenner, J. A. Patz, and M. Yeargin-Allsopp, “Prevalence and functioning of children with cerebral palsy in four areas of the United States in 2006: a report from the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network,” Res. Dev. Disabil. 32, 462–469 (2011).

Sci. World J. (1)

J. D. Janis and L. R. Robert, “Construction of efficacious gait and upper limb functional interventions based on brain plasticity evidence and model-based measures for stroke patients,” Sci. World J. 7, 2031–2045 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seizure (1)

D. K. Sokol, O. N. Markand, E. C. Daly, T. G. Luerssen, and M. D. Malkoff, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) distinguishes seizure types,” Seizure 9, 323–327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. (1)

T. H. Schwartz, “The application of optical recording of intrinsic signals to simultaneously acquire functional, pathological and localizing information and its potential role in neurosurgery,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 83, 36–44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trends Neurosci. (1)

J. Duncan and A. M. Owen, “Common regions of the human frontal lobe recruited by diverse cognitive demands,” Trends Neurosci. 23, 475–483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. H. Hoon and M. V. Johnston, “Cerebral palsy,” in Diseases of the Nervous System: Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutic Principles, A. K. Asbury, G. M. McKhann, and W. I. McDonald, eds. (Cambridge University, 2002), p. 568.

M. V. Johnston, “Encephalopathies,” in Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, R. M. Kliegman, R. E. Behrman, H. B. Jenson, and B. F. Stanton, eds. (Saunders Elsevier, 2011).

D. A. Umphred, Neurological Rehabilitation, 5th ed. (Mosby Elsevier, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of the in-house developed NIRS system for performing CW-based brain imaging studies.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Source detector placement is same as the 10–20 system of electrode placement for the prefrontal region of the brain. Each source–detector pair is called a channel. Fp1 and Fp2 represent the detector placed on the left and right prefrontal, respectively. Fpz represents the source placed on the mid prefrontal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relative changes in total hemoglobin [ΔHbT(t)] as a function of time across the right (Fp1–Fpz, shown by dashed black) and left (Fp2–Fpz, shown by solid red) prefrontal cortex obtained from A, right-handed controls; B, left-handed controls; C, right-handed individual with CP; and D, left-handed individual with CP. In all the plots, the first 30 s corresponds to the relative change in total hemoglobin during the ball throwing task (T) and the last 30 s during the rest period (R).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Bar plots depicting the mean relative changes in HbT across the central 20 s window of each of the 30 s stimulus (ball throwing task and rest) performed by A, right- and left-handed controls; and B, right- and left-handed individuals with CP. The black and gray bars represent the data from a ball throwing task and a rest task, respectively, and are provided along with mean relative changes in HbT values. A depicts the histogram plot corresponding to the right-handed and left-handed controls across the source–detector pair Fp1–Fpz and Fp2–Fpz. B depicts the histogram plot corresponding to the right-handed and left-handed individuals with CP across the source–detector pair Fp1–Fpz and Fp2–Fpz.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Prefrontal Cortical Lateralization or Dominance in Response to Planning and Execution of Motor Skill Task and Rest Task in Controls and Individual(s) with CP

Equations (7)

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IR=1TI,
TI=Tex+TTI,
IN(t)=I(t)I0,
ΔOD(t)=log(IN(t)).
ΔOD(t)Isosbestic point=Δ[HbT(t)],
Δ[HbT(t)]Avg=j=1m[i=1n[HbT(t)]in]jm,
L(t)=(Δ[HbT(t)]leftΔ[HbT(t)]right)(|(Δ[HbT(t)]left)|)+(|(Δ[HbT(t)]right)|),

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