Abstract

As further application investigations on fixed abrasive diamond pellets (FADPs), this work exhibits their potential capability for diminishing mid-spatial frequency errors (MSFEs, i.e., periodic small structure) of optical surfaces. Benefitting from its high surficial rigidness, the FADPs tool has a natural smoothing effect to periodic small errors. Compared with the previous design, this proposed new tool employs more compliance to aspherical surfaces due to the pellets being mutually separated and bonded on a steel plate with elastic back of silica rubber adhesive. Moreover, a unicursal Peano-like path is presented for improving MSFEs, which can enhance the multidirectionality and uniformity of the tool’s motion. Experiments were conducted to validate the effectiveness of FADPs for diminishing MSFEs. In the lapping of a Φ=420mm Zerodur paraboloid workpiece, the grinding ripples were quickly diminished (210 min) by both visual inspection and profile metrology, as well as the power spectrum density (PSD) analysis, RMS was reduced from 4.35 to 0.55 μm. In the smoothing of a Φ=101mm fused silica workpiece, MSFEs were obviously improved from the inspection of surface form maps, interferometric fringe patterns, and PSD analysis. The mid-spatial frequency RMS was diminished from 0.017λ to 0.014λ (λ=632.8nm).

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

T. Wang, H. B. Cheng, Z. C. Dong, and H. Y. Tam, “Removal character of vertical jet polishing with eccentric rotation motion using magnetorheological fluid,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 213, 1532–1537 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Tam, H. B. Cheng, and Z. C. Dong, “Peano-like paths for sub-aperture polishing of optical aspherical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3624–3636 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

G. Y. Yu, D. D. Walker, and H. Y. Li, “Implementing a grolishing process in Zeeko IRP machines,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6637–6641 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Dong, H. B. Cheng, and H. Y. Tam, “Investigation on removal features of multidistribution fixed abrasive diamond pellets used in the polishing of SiC mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 9373–9382 (2012).

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

C. R. Dunn and D. D. Walker, “Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications,” Opt. Express 16, 18942–18949 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Cheng, Y. Yeung, and B. H. Tong, “Viscosity behavior of magnetic suspensions in fluid-assisted finishing,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 18, 91–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Kanaoka, C. Liu, K. Nomura, M. Ando, H. Takino, and Y. Fukuda, “Figuring and smoothing capabilities of elastic emission machining for low-thermal-expansion glass optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2110–2113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

W. Kordonski, A. Shorey, and A. Sekeres, “New magnetically assisted finishing method: material removal with magnetorheological fluid jet,” Proc. SPIE 5180, 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, and C. J. Stolz, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5431, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

W. Kordonski and D. Golini, “Progress update in magnetorheological finishing,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 13, 2205–2212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, and Z. Sui, “Status of the SG-III solid state laser project,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 25–33 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. L. André, “Status of the LMJ project,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 38–42 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D. M. Aikens, C. R. Wolfe, and J. K. Lawson, “The use of power spectral density (PSD) functions in specifying optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Proc. SPIE 2576, 281–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Lawson, C. R. Wolfe, K. R. Manes, J. B. Trertholme, D. M. Aikens, and R. E. English, “Specification of optical components using the power spectral density function,” Proc. SPIE 2536, 38–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

H. M. Martin, D. S. Andersen, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, and R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 682–690 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

N. J. Brown and R. E. Parks, “Polishing-to-figuring transition in turned optics,” Proc. SPIE 306, 58–65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Aikens, D. M.

D. M. Aikens, C. R. Wolfe, and J. K. Lawson, “The use of power spectral density (PSD) functions in specifying optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Proc. SPIE 2576, 281–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Lawson, C. R. Wolfe, K. R. Manes, J. B. Trertholme, D. M. Aikens, and R. E. English, “Specification of optical components using the power spectral density function,” Proc. SPIE 2536, 38–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

An, H. K.

Andersen, D. S.

H. M. Martin, D. S. Andersen, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, and R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 682–690 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ando, M.

M. Kanaoka, C. Liu, K. Nomura, M. Ando, H. Takino, and Y. Fukuda, “Figuring and smoothing capabilities of elastic emission machining for low-thermal-expansion glass optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2110–2113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

André, M. L.

M. L. André, “Status of the LMJ project,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 38–42 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R. P.

H. M. Martin, D. S. Andersen, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, and R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 682–690 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Baselt, D. R.

Beaucamp, A. T. H.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T. G.

Black, J. P.

Brooks, D.

Brown, N. J.

N. J. Brown and R. E. Parks, “Polishing-to-figuring transition in turned optics,” Proc. SPIE 306, 58–65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Burge, J. H.

Campbell, J. H.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, and C. J. Stolz, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5431, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. B.

H. Y. Tam, H. B. Cheng, and Z. C. Dong, “Peano-like paths for sub-aperture polishing of optical aspherical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3624–3636 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, H. B. Cheng, Z. C. Dong, and H. Y. Tam, “Removal character of vertical jet polishing with eccentric rotation motion using magnetorheological fluid,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 213, 1532–1537 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Dong, H. B. Cheng, and H. Y. Tam, “Investigation on removal features of multidistribution fixed abrasive diamond pellets used in the polishing of SiC mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 9373–9382 (2012).

H. Y. Tam and H. B. Cheng, “An investigation of the effects of the tool path on the removal of material in polishing,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 210, 807–818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Cheng, Y. Yeung, and B. H. Tong, “Viscosity behavior of magnetic suspensions in fluid-assisted finishing,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 18, 91–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z. C.

T. Wang, H. B. Cheng, Z. C. Dong, and H. Y. Tam, “Removal character of vertical jet polishing with eccentric rotation motion using magnetorheological fluid,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 213, 1532–1537 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Tam, H. B. Cheng, and Z. C. Dong, “Peano-like paths for sub-aperture polishing of optical aspherical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3624–3636 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Dong, H. B. Cheng, and H. Y. Tam, “Investigation on removal features of multidistribution fixed abrasive diamond pellets used in the polishing of SiC mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 9373–9382 (2012).

Doubrovski, V.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, C.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, C. R.

English, R. E.

J. K. Lawson, C. R. Wolfe, K. R. Manes, J. B. Trertholme, D. M. Aikens, and R. E. English, “Specification of optical components using the power spectral density function,” Proc. SPIE 2536, 38–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, M. R.

Freeman, R.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S. W. Kim, “The ‘Precessions’ tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11, 958–964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

M. Kanaoka, C. Liu, K. Nomura, M. Ando, H. Takino, and Y. Fukuda, “Figuring and smoothing capabilities of elastic emission machining for low-thermal-expansion glass optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2110–2113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Golini, D.

W. Kordonski and D. Golini, “Progress update in magnetorheological finishing,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 13, 2205–2212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hawley-Fedder, R. A.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, and C. J. Stolz, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5431, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Horenstein, M. N.

Jing, F.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, and Z. Sui, “Status of the SG-III solid state laser project,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 25–33 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. A.

Jungling, K. C.

Kanaoka, M.

M. Kanaoka, C. Liu, K. Nomura, M. Ando, H. Takino, and Y. Fukuda, “Figuring and smoothing capabilities of elastic emission machining for low-thermal-expansion glass optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2110–2113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

Kim, S. W.

King, A.

Kordonski, W.

W. Kordonski, A. Shorey, and A. Sekeres, “New magnetically assisted finishing method: material removal with magnetorheological fluid jet,” Proc. SPIE 5180, 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Kordonski and D. Golini, “Progress update in magnetorheological finishing,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 13, 2205–2212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, J. K.

D. M. Aikens, C. R. Wolfe, and J. K. Lawson, “The use of power spectral density (PSD) functions in specifying optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Proc. SPIE 2576, 281–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Lawson, C. R. Wolfe, K. R. Manes, J. B. Trertholme, D. M. Aikens, and R. E. English, “Specification of optical components using the power spectral density function,” Proc. SPIE 2536, 38–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. Y.

Liu, C.

M. Kanaoka, C. Liu, K. Nomura, M. Ando, H. Takino, and Y. Fukuda, “Figuring and smoothing capabilities of elastic emission machining for low-thermal-expansion glass optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2110–2113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manes, K. R.

J. K. Lawson, C. R. Wolfe, K. R. Manes, J. B. Trertholme, D. M. Aikens, and R. E. English, “Specification of optical components using the power spectral density function,” Proc. SPIE 2536, 38–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martin, H. M.

H. M. Martin, D. S. Andersen, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, and R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 682–690 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McCavana, G.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S. W. Kim, “The ‘Precessions’ tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11, 958–964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morton, R.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S. W. Kim, “The ‘Precessions’ tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11, 958–964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, R. H.

H. M. Martin, D. S. Andersen, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, and R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 682–690 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, K.

M. Kanaoka, C. Liu, K. Nomura, M. Ando, H. Takino, and Y. Fukuda, “Figuring and smoothing capabilities of elastic emission machining for low-thermal-expansion glass optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2110–2113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, W. H.

Parks, R. E.

N. J. Brown and R. E. Parks, “Polishing-to-figuring transition in turned optics,” Proc. SPIE 306, 58–65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H. S.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, and Z. Sui, “Status of the SG-III solid state laser project,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 25–33 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riley, D.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sandri, G.

Sekeres, A.

W. Kordonski, A. Shorey, and A. Sekeres, “New magnetically assisted finishing method: material removal with magnetorheological fluid jet,” Proc. SPIE 5180, 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shanbhag, P. M.

Shorey, A.

W. Kordonski, A. Shorey, and A. Sekeres, “New magnetically assisted finishing method: material removal with magnetorheological fluid jet,” Proc. SPIE 5180, 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simms, J.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soares, S. F.

Stolz, C. J.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, and C. J. Stolz, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5431, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stowell, W. K.

Sui, Z.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, and Z. Sui, “Status of the SG-III solid state laser project,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 25–33 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takino, H.

M. Kanaoka, C. Liu, K. Nomura, M. Ando, H. Takino, and Y. Fukuda, “Figuring and smoothing capabilities of elastic emission machining for low-thermal-expansion glass optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2110–2113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

T. Wang, H. B. Cheng, Z. C. Dong, and H. Y. Tam, “Removal character of vertical jet polishing with eccentric rotation motion using magnetorheological fluid,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 213, 1532–1537 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Tam, H. B. Cheng, and Z. C. Dong, “Peano-like paths for sub-aperture polishing of optical aspherical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3624–3636 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Dong, H. B. Cheng, and H. Y. Tam, “Investigation on removal features of multidistribution fixed abrasive diamond pellets used in the polishing of SiC mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 9373–9382 (2012).

H. Y. Tam and H. B. Cheng, “An investigation of the effects of the tool path on the removal of material in polishing,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 210, 807–818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tong, B. H.

H. B. Cheng, Y. Yeung, and B. H. Tong, “Viscosity behavior of magnetic suspensions in fluid-assisted finishing,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 18, 91–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trertholme, J. B.

J. K. Lawson, C. R. Wolfe, K. R. Manes, J. B. Trertholme, D. M. Aikens, and R. E. English, “Specification of optical components using the power spectral density function,” Proc. SPIE 2536, 38–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D. D.

Wang, T.

T. Wang, H. B. Cheng, Z. C. Dong, and H. Y. Tam, “Removal character of vertical jet polishing with eccentric rotation motion using magnetorheological fluid,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 213, 1532–1537 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X. F.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, and Z. Sui, “Status of the SG-III solid state laser project,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 25–33 (1999).
[CrossRef]

West, S. C.

H. M. Martin, D. S. Andersen, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, and R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 682–690 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, C. R.

D. M. Aikens, C. R. Wolfe, and J. K. Lawson, “The use of power spectral density (PSD) functions in specifying optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Proc. SPIE 2576, 281–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Lawson, C. R. Wolfe, K. R. Manes, J. B. Trertholme, D. M. Aikens, and R. E. English, “Specification of optical components using the power spectral density function,” Proc. SPIE 2536, 38–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, Y.

H. B. Cheng, Y. Yeung, and B. H. Tong, “Viscosity behavior of magnetic suspensions in fluid-assisted finishing,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 18, 91–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. S.

H. M. Martin, D. S. Andersen, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, and R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 682–690 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G. Y.

Zhang, X. M.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, and Z. Sui, “Status of the SG-III solid state laser project,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 25–33 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W. G.

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, and Z. Sui, “Status of the SG-III solid state laser project,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 25–33 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Int. J. Mod. Phys. B (1)

W. Kordonski and D. Golini, “Progress update in magnetorheological finishing,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 13, 2205–2212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (2)

T. Wang, H. B. Cheng, Z. C. Dong, and H. Y. Tam, “Removal character of vertical jet polishing with eccentric rotation motion using magnetorheological fluid,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 213, 1532–1537 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Tam and H. B. Cheng, “An investigation of the effects of the tool path on the removal of material in polishing,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 210, 807–818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Kanaoka, C. Liu, K. Nomura, M. Ando, H. Takino, and Y. Fukuda, “Figuring and smoothing capabilities of elastic emission machining for low-thermal-expansion glass optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2110–2113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE (9)

D. D. Walker, A. T. H. Beaucamp, V. Doubrovski, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, G. McCavana, R. Morton, D. Riley, J. Simms, G. Yu, and X. Wei, “Commissioning of the first precessions 1.2-m CNC polishing machines for large optics,” Proc. SPIE 6288, 62880P (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Kordonski, A. Shorey, and A. Sekeres, “New magnetically assisted finishing method: material removal with magnetorheological fluid jet,” Proc. SPIE 5180, 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Lawson, C. R. Wolfe, K. R. Manes, J. B. Trertholme, D. M. Aikens, and R. E. English, “Specification of optical components using the power spectral density function,” Proc. SPIE 2536, 38–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, and C. J. Stolz, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5431, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Aikens, C. R. Wolfe, and J. K. Lawson, “The use of power spectral density (PSD) functions in specifying optics for the National Ignition Facility,” Proc. SPIE 2576, 281–292 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. L. André, “Status of the LMJ project,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 38–42 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Peng, X. M. Zhang, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, F. Jing, and Z. Sui, “Status of the SG-III solid state laser project,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 25–33 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Brown and R. E. Parks, “Polishing-to-figuring transition in turned optics,” Proc. SPIE 306, 58–65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, D. S. Andersen, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, and R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 682–690 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Nat. Sci. (1)

H. B. Cheng, Y. Yeung, and B. H. Tong, “Viscosity behavior of magnetic suspensions in fluid-assisted finishing,” Prog. Nat. Sci. 18, 91–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of FADPs tool with (a) a planar surface and (b) a spherical surface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Finite element analysis. (a) The meshed model, (b) the deformation map of the model, and (c) the curve of maximal deformation that correlates with vertical pressure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Theoretical smoothing process with FADPs (a) before smoothing and (b) after smoothing.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Peano path and (b) Peano-like path covering a square region.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Peano-like paths covering (a) a rectangular region, (b) a circular region, and (c) a hexagonal region.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experiment and results for (a) the lapping and polishing setup with planetary motion, (b) the surface with a grinding ripple before lapping, and (c) the surface after the 5th lapping process with FADPs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Arc profiles before and after the lapping process.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

PSD curves of the profile in the iterative lapping operation.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Before smoothing. (a) The surface form of the overall frequency range. (b) The MSFEs from 0.03 to 0.4mm1. (c) The fringe pattern. (d) The average PSD curve along the x direction.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

After smoothing. (a) The surface form of the overall frequency range. (b) The MSFEs from 0.03 to 0.4mm1. (c) The fringe pattern. (d) The average PSD curve along the x direction.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Parameters of Diamond Pellets

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Table 2. Parameters of Silica Rubber before and after Solidifying

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Table 3. Parameters and Results of the Iterative Lapping Fabrication Process

Equations (1)

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{v<0.0303mm1low-spatial frequency0.0303mm1<v<8.333mm1mid-spatial frequencyv>8.333mm1high-spatial frequency,

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