Abstract

The identification and quantification of specific molecules are crucial for studying the pathophysiology of cells, tissues, and organs as well as diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Recent advances in holographic microspectroscopy, based on quantitative phase imaging or optical coherence tomography techniques, show promise for label-free noninvasive optical detection and quantification of specific molecules in living cells and tissues (e.g., hemoglobin protein). To provide important insight into the potential employment of holographic spectroscopy techniques in biological research and for related practical applications, we review the principles of holographic microspectroscopy techniques and highlight recent studies.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  120. W. T. Gerthoffer, “Mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle cell migration,” Circ. Res. 100, 607–621 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  121. J. Garay, J. A. D’Angelo, Y. K. Park, C. M. Summa, M. L. Aiken, E. Morales, K. Badizadegan, E. Fiebiger, and B. L. Dickinson, “Crosstalk between PKA and Epac regulates the phenotypic maturation and function of human dendritic cells,” J. Immunol. 185, 3227–3238 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  122. P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31, 11846–11854 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  123. T. A. Zangle, J. Chun, J. Zhang, J. Reed, and M. A. Teitell, “Quantification of biomass and cell motion in human pluripotent stem cell colonies,” Biophys. J. 105, 593–601 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  124. J. Kühn, E. Shaffer, J. Mena, B. Breton, J. Parent, B. Rappaz, M. Chambon, Y. Emery, P. Magistretti, and C. Depeursinge, “Label-free cytotoxicity screening assay by digital holographic microscopy,” Assay Drug Dev. Technol. 11, 101–107 (2013).
  125. Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS ONE 7, e49502 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  126. T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  127. Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).
  128. H. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  129. M. K. Kim, L. Yu, and C. J. Mann, “Interference techniques in digital holography,” J. Opt. A 8, S518–S523 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  130. Y. K. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Fresnel particle tracing in three dimensions using diffraction phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32, 811–813 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  131. K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21, 32269–32278 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  132. R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6, e20869 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  133. D. Huafeng, E. Berl, W. Zhuo, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, L. Jianming, M. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of biological structure and dynamics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 909–918 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  134. Y. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 011013 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  135. H. Yu, H. Park, Y. Kim, M. W. Kim, and Y. Park, “Fourier-transform light scattering of individual colloidal clusters,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2577–2579 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  136. K. Kim and Y. Park, “Fourier transform light scattering angular spectroscopy using digital inline holography,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4161–4163 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  137. D. Fu, W. Choi, Y. Sung, S. Oh, Z. Yaqoob, Y. Park, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultraviolet refractometry using field-based light scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 18878 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  138. J. Jung and Y. Park, “Spectro-angular light scattering measurements of individual microscopic objects,” Opt. Express 22, 4108–4114 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  139. S. Alexandrov, T. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture Fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  140. K. Lee, H.-D. Kim, K. Kim, Y. Kim, T. R. Hillman, B. Min, and Y. Park, “Synthetic Fourier transform light scattering,” Opt. Express 21, 22453–22463 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  141. Y.-K. Park, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. Feld, “Speckle-field digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 12285–12292 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  142. B. Bhaduri, H. Pham, M. Mir, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy with white light,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1094–1096 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  143. T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J.-J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Engineered microsphere contrast agents for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1546–1548 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  144. N. A. Turko, A. Peled, and N. T. Shaked, “Wide-field interferometric phase microscopy with molecular specificity using plasmonic nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 111414 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  145. Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Jones phase microscopy of transparent and anisotropic samples,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1270–1272 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  146. Y. Kim, J. Jeong, J. Jang, M. W. Kim, and Y. Park, “Polarization holographic microscopy for extracting spatio-temporally resolved Jones matrix,” Opt. Express 20, 9948–9955 (2012).
  147. J. W. Kang, N. Lue, C.-R. Kong, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, S. J. Goldfless, J. C. Niles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Combined confocal Raman and quantitative phase microscopy system for biomedical diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2484–2492 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  148. A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  149. I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2309–2311 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  150. J.-H. Park, C. Park, H. Yu, J. Park, S. Han, J. Shin, S. H. Ko, K. T. Nam, Y.-H. Cho, and Y. Park, “Subwavelength light focusing using random nanoparticles,” Nat. Photonics 7, 454–458 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  151. D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, “Spatio-temporal focusing of an ultrafast pulse through a multiply scattering medium,” Nat. Commun. 2, 447 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  152. O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5, 372–377 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  153. J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Control of light transmission through opaque scattering media in space and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 103901 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  154. J. H. Park, C. H. Park, H. Yu, Y. H. Cho, and Y. K. Park, “Active spectral filtering through turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3261–3263 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  155. J. H. Park, C. Park, H. Yu, Y. H. Cho, and Y. K. Park, “Dynamic active wave plate using random nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20, 17010–17016 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  156. X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5, 154–157 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  157. T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, “Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1909 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  158. J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  159. J. Jang, J. Lim, H. Yu, H. Choi, J. Ha, J. H. Park, W. Y. Oh, W. Jang, S. D. Lee, and Y. K. Park, “Complex wavefront shaping for optimal depth-selective focusing in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21, 2890–2902 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  160. H. Yu, J. Jang, J. Lim, J.-H. Park, W. Jang, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Depth-enhanced 2-D optical coherence tomography using complex wavefront shaping,” Opt. Express 22, 7514–7523 (2014).
    [CrossRef]

2014

K. Kim, H.-O. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. Dasari, and Y.-K. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 011005 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Kim, R. J. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Jung and Y. Park, “Spectro-angular light scattering measurements of individual microscopic objects,” Opt. Express 22, 4108–4114 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, J. Jang, J. Lim, J.-H. Park, W. Jang, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Depth-enhanced 2-D optical coherence tomography using complex wavefront shaping,” Opt. Express 22, 7514–7523 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

J. Jang, J. Lim, H. Yu, H. Choi, J. Ha, J. H. Park, W. Y. Oh, W. Jang, S. D. Lee, and Y. K. Park, “Complex wavefront shaping for optimal depth-selective focusing in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21, 2890–2902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, H.-D. Kim, K. Kim, Y. Kim, T. R. Hillman, B. Min, and Y. Park, “Synthetic Fourier transform light scattering,” Opt. Express 21, 22453–22463 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21, 32269–32278 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).

T. A. Zangle, J. Chun, J. Zhang, J. Reed, and M. A. Teitell, “Quantification of biomass and cell motion in human pluripotent stem cell colonies,” Biophys. J. 105, 593–601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Kühn, E. Shaffer, J. Mena, B. Breton, J. Parent, B. Rappaz, M. Chambon, Y. Emery, P. Magistretti, and C. Depeursinge, “Label-free cytotoxicity screening assay by digital holographic microscopy,” Assay Drug Dev. Technol. 11, 101–107 (2013).

N. A. Turko, A. Peled, and N. T. Shaked, “Wide-field interferometric phase microscopy with molecular specificity using plasmonic nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 111414 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, C. Park, H. Yu, J. Park, S. Han, J. Shin, S. H. Ko, K. T. Nam, Y.-H. Cho, and Y. Park, “Subwavelength light focusing using random nanoparticles,” Nat. Photonics 7, 454–458 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, “Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1796–1798 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. H. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. J. Jo, H. Park, and Y. K. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors 13, 4170–4191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

Y. Jang, J. Jang, and Y. Park, “Dynamic spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentration and dynamic membrane fluctuation in red blood cells,” Opt. Express 20, 9673–9681 (2012).

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, T. R. Hillman, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Single-shot quantitative dispersion phase microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 084101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Pham, B. Bhaduri, H. F. Ding, and G. Popescu, “Spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3438–3440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, J. Kim, C. T. Jin, P. H. Leong, and A. McEwan, “Review: near infrared spectroscopy in optical coherence tomography,” J. Near Infrared Spectrosc. 20, 237–247 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Diez-Silva, Y. Park, S. Huang, O. Mercereau-Puijalon, G. Deplaine, C. Lavazec, S. Perrot, S. Bonnefoy, M. Dao, M. S. Feld, J. Han, and S. Suresh, “Pf155/RESA protein influences the dynamic microcirculatory behavior of ring-stage Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells,” Sci. Rep. 2, 614 (2012).

H. S. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. K. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8, 4130–4138 (2012).

S. Cho, S. Kim, Y. Kim, and Y. K. Park, “Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria,” Trends Biotechnol. 30, 71–79 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, K. Seekell, H. K. Yuan, F. E. Robles, and A. Wax, “Multispectral nanoparticle contrast agents for true-color spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1914–1923 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Singh Mehta and V. Srivastava, “Quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells using phase-shifting white light interference microscopy with colour fringe analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 203701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Rinehart, Y. Zhu, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 958–965 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. K. Park, R. R. Dassari, and M. S. Feld, “Label-free imaging of membrane potential using membrane electromotility,” Biophys. J. 103, 11–18 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, C. H. Park, H. Yu, Y. H. Cho, and Y. K. Park, “Active spectral filtering through turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3261–3263 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, C. Park, H. Yu, Y. H. Cho, and Y. K. Park, “Dynamic active wave plate using random nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20, 17010–17016 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bhaduri, H. Pham, M. Mir, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy with white light,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1094–1096 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J. Jeong, J. Jang, M. W. Kim, and Y. Park, “Polarization holographic microscopy for extracting spatio-temporally resolved Jones matrix,” Opt. Express 20, 9948–9955 (2012).

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6, 283–292 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS ONE 7, e49502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Park, Y. Kim, M. W. Kim, and Y. Park, “Fourier-transform light scattering of individual colloidal clusters,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2577–2579 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim and Y. Park, “Fourier transform light scattering angular spectroscopy using digital inline holography,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4161–4163 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6, e20869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31, 11846–11854 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kang, N. Lue, C.-R. Kong, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, S. J. Goldfless, J. C. Niles, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Combined confocal Raman and quantitative phase microscopy system for biomedical diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2484–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5, 154–157 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McCabe, A. Tajalli, D. R. Austin, P. Bondareff, I. A. Walmsley, S. Gigan, and B. Chatel, “Spatio-temporal focusing of an ultrafast pulse through a multiply scattering medium,” Nat. Commun. 2, 447 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5, 372–377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Control of light transmission through opaque scattering media in space and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 103901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ben-Isaac, Y. K. Park, G. Popescu, F. L. H. Brown, N. S. Gov, and Y. Shokef, “Effective temperature of red-blood-cell membrane fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 238103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E 83, 051925 (2011).

M. Mir, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Blood testing at the single cell level using quantitative phase and amplitude microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 3259–3266 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Robles, L. L. Satterwhite, and A. Wax, “Nonlinear phase dispersion spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4665–4667 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Debnath and Y. Park, “Real-time quantitative phase imaging with a spatial phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4677–4679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5, 744–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yaqoob, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, D. Fu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single-shot full-field reflection phase microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 7587–7595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, C. A. Best-Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and G. Popescu, “Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 011013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, D. Fu, G. Popescu, W. Choi, I. Barman, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 020506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Shaked, J. D. Finan, F. Guilak, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase microscopy of articular chondrocyte dynamics by wide-field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 010505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Fu, W. Choi, Y. Sung, Z. Yaqoob, R. R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Quantitative dispersion microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 347–353 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fritzsche and C.-F. Mandenius, “Fluorescent cell-based sensing approaches for toxicity testing,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 398, 181–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kou, L. Waller, G. Barbastathis, and C. J. Sheppard, “Transport-of-intensity approach to differential interference contrast (TI-DIC) microscopy for quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35, 447–449 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Garay, J. A. D’Angelo, Y. K. Park, C. M. Summa, M. L. Aiken, E. Morales, K. Badizadegan, E. Fiebiger, and B. L. Dickinson, “Crosstalk between PKA and Epac regulates the phenotypic maturation and function of human dendritic cells,” J. Immunol. 185, 3227–3238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Robles, S. Chowdhury, and A. Wax, “Assessing hemoglobin concentration using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography for feasibility of tissue diagnostics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 310–317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Rinehart, N. T. Shaked, N. J. Jenness, R. L. Clark, and A. Wax, “Simultaneous two-wavelength transmission quantitative phase microscopy with a color camera,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2612–2614 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Masihzadeh, P. Schlup, and R. A. Bartels, “Label-free second harmonic generation holographic microscopy of biological specimens,” Opt. Express 18, 9840–9851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Huafeng, E. Berl, W. Zhuo, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, L. Jianming, M. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of biological structure and dynamics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 909–918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. Fu, W. Choi, Y. Sung, S. Oh, Z. Yaqoob, Y. Park, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultraviolet refractometry using field-based light scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 18878 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Park, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. Feld, “Speckle-field digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 12285–12292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Oldenburg, M. N. Hansen, T. S. Ralston, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, “Imaging gold nanorods in excised human breast carcinoma by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Mater. Chem. 19, 6407–6411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Shaked, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, and A. Wax, “Two-step-only phase-shifting interferometry with optimized detector bandwidth for microscopy of live cells,” Opt. Express 17, 15585–15591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Gerrits, A. J. Smit, and H. J. Bilo, “AGEs, autofluorescence and renal function,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 24, 710–713 (2009).

C. Krafft, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Raman and CARS microspectroscopy of cells and tissues,” Analyst 134, 1046–1057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3668–3670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. J. Mann, P. R. Bingham, V. C. Paquit, and K. W. Tobin, “Quantitative phase imaging by three-wavelength digital holography,” Opt. Express 16, 9753–9764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Rappaz, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Simultaneous cell morphometry and refractive index measurement with dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy and dye-enhanced dispersion of perfusion medium,” Opt. Lett. 33, 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J.-H. Park, C. Park, H. Yu, J. Park, S. Han, J. Shin, S. H. Ko, K. T. Nam, Y.-H. Cho, and Y. Park, “Subwavelength light focusing using random nanoparticles,” Nat. Photonics 7, 454–458 (2013).
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Y. Kim, J. Jeong, J. Jang, M. W. Kim, and Y. Park, “Polarization holographic microscopy for extracting spatio-temporally resolved Jones matrix,” Opt. Express 20, 9948–9955 (2012).

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M. Diez-Silva, Y. Park, S. Huang, O. Mercereau-Puijalon, G. Deplaine, C. Lavazec, S. Perrot, S. Bonnefoy, M. Dao, M. S. Feld, J. Han, and S. Suresh, “Pf155/RESA protein influences the dynamic microcirculatory behavior of ring-stage Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells,” Sci. Rep. 2, 614 (2012).

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6, e20869 (2011).
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S. Oh, C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, D. Fu, Y. K. Park, R. R. Dassari, and M. S. Feld, “Label-free imaging of membrane potential using membrane electromotility,” Biophys. J. 103, 11–18 (2012).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Wavelength-dependent complex RI of several materials. (a) Real parts of the refractive indices (n). (b) Imaginary parts of the refractive indices (κ) of representative biomaterials as a function of wavelength. Data are extracted from the following references: (a) melanin from cuttlefish [23], polystyrene [24], cellulose [25], oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) [26], 5CB liquid crystal [27], ethanol [28], acetic acid [29], methanol [29], human tissue (dermis) [30], and water [31]; (b) eumelanin [32], deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin (Hb and HbO2) [33], mammalian fat [34], riboflavin [35], nile red in dioxane [36], methylene blue [37], boron subphthalocyanine chloride in benzene [38], and water [39].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Principle of holographic imaging: a phase delay Δϕ results when incident light passes through a sample having RI distributions (n1, n2), and nm is the RI of surrounding medium. The amplitude of the transmitted light A is related to the imaginary part of RI κ. The diffracted light field can be measured via various interferometric imaging techniques.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Representative experimental schemes of holographic microspectroscopy. (a) Three lasers with different wavelengths in a QPM setup for spectroscopic imaging. (b) Frequency domain OCT setup. (a) and (b) are adapted from [71] and [80] with permission, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The study of cell pathophysiology using holographic microspectroscopy. (a)–(c) Quantitative phase images of an RBC measured at three different wavelengths. (d) Hb concentration in the RBC calculated from three phase images. (e) and (f) Quantitative phase images of HeLa cells measured at two different wavelengths. (g) Ratio image of the optical phase delays measured at the two wavelengths. (h) Composite image of phase images using red and green channels for the two wavelengths. (a)–(d) and (e)–(h) are modified from [19] and [17] with permission, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

In vivo retinal imaging using SOCT. (a) Typical OCT image. The white circle indicates a circular scanning trajectory for the B-scan image shown in panel (c). (b) Combined vasculature image and oxygen saturation (sO2) map of major vessels. (d) Individual quantification of sO2 in every vessel shown in (c). (a)–(d) Figures are modified from [108] with permission.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Wavelength-Dependent Complex RI of Materials

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δϕ(x,y;λ)=2πλ[nC(x,y;λ)nm(λ)]dh,
log10[A(x,y;λ)2A0(λ)2]=C(x,y)ε(x,y;λ)dh
ln[A(x,y;λ)2A0(λ)2]=4πλκ(x,y;λ)dh,
2.303εC=4πλκ.

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