Abstract

This study investigated the discomfort glare produced by the high-brightness LED billboards in relation to four factors: flicker frequency, panel luminance, viewing angular sub-tense, and ambient illuminance. The results showed that visual comfort is not affected by ambient illuminance but by the other three factors. Also, interaction was found between luminance and viewing angle. The experimental data were curve fitted to construct visual comfort models of LED billboard displays. By modulating the operating conditions, comfort display with LED billboards can be achieved.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Digitimes Research Report, 13December2013, http://www.digitimes.com/news/a20131212PD200.html .
  2. , “Guide on the limitation of the effects of obtrusive light from outdoor lighting installations,” 2003.
  3. , “Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems,” 2008, pp. 33–38.
  4. S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88, 4502–4505 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Lewis, Melatonin and the Biological Clock (McGraw-Hill, 1999).
  6. S. W. Hsu, T. Y. Chung, B. J. Pong, Y. C. Chen, P. H. Hsieh, and M. W. Lin, “Relations between flicker, glare, and perceptual ratings of LED billboards under various conditions,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 428–434.
  7. P. H. Hsieh, M. W. Lin, E. C. Chang, and Y. C. Chen, “Flicker and visual comfort evaluations of LED panel display,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 435–441.
  8. P. Y. Lai, C. H. Wen, B. J. Pong, and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of discomfort glare of RGB LED billboard at night,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 442–451.
  9. J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Technol. 40, 225–242 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. D. Binnie, R. A. de Korte, and T. Wisman, “Fluorescent lighting and epilepsy,” Epilepsia 20, 725–727 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. F. A. Harding and P. F. Harding, “Televised material and photosensitive epilepsy,” Epilepsia 40, 65–69, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. J. Schmidt-Clausen and J. Th. H. Bindels, “Assessment of discomfort glare in motor vehicle lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol. 6, 79–88 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. , “Discomfort glare in interior lighting,” 1995.
  14. J. B. de Boer, ed. “Visual perception in road traffic and the field of vision of the motorist,” in Public Lighting (Philips, 1967), pp. 11–96.
  15. T. B. Barker, “Quality engineering by design: Taguchi’s philosophy,” Qual. Prog. 19, 32–42 (1986).
  16. J. J. Shaughnessy, E. B. Zechmeister, and J. S. Zechmeister, Research Methods in Psychology (McGraw-Hill, 2008), pp. 245–259.
  17. W. M. Hart, “The temporal responsiveness of vision,” in Adler’s Physiology of the eye, Clinical Application, R. A. Moses and W. M. Hart, eds. (C. V. Mosby, 1987).
  18. B. B. Lee and H. Sun, “Contrast sensitivity and retinal ganglion cell responses in the primate,” Psychol. Neurosci. 4, 11–18 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

B. B. Lee and H. Sun, “Contrast sensitivity and retinal ganglion cell responses in the primate,” Psychol. Neurosci. 4, 11–18 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Technol. 40, 225–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88, 4502–4505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. F. A. Harding and P. F. Harding, “Televised material and photosensitive epilepsy,” Epilepsia 40, 65–69, (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986

T. B. Barker, “Quality engineering by design: Taguchi’s philosophy,” Qual. Prog. 19, 32–42 (1986).

1979

C. D. Binnie, R. A. de Korte, and T. Wisman, “Fluorescent lighting and epilepsy,” Epilepsia 20, 725–727 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974

H. J. Schmidt-Clausen and J. Th. H. Bindels, “Assessment of discomfort glare in motor vehicle lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol. 6, 79–88 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Barker, T. B.

T. B. Barker, “Quality engineering by design: Taguchi’s philosophy,” Qual. Prog. 19, 32–42 (1986).

Bindels, J. Th. H.

H. J. Schmidt-Clausen and J. Th. H. Bindels, “Assessment of discomfort glare in motor vehicle lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol. 6, 79–88 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Binnie, C. D.

C. D. Binnie, R. A. de Korte, and T. Wisman, “Fluorescent lighting and epilepsy,” Epilepsia 20, 725–727 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, G. C.

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88, 4502–4505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brons, J. A.

J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Technol. 40, 225–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bullough, J. D.

J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Technol. 40, 225–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, E. C.

P. H. Hsieh, M. W. Lin, E. C. Chang, and Y. C. Chen, “Flicker and visual comfort evaluations of LED panel display,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 435–441.

Chen, Y. C.

P. H. Hsieh, M. W. Lin, E. C. Chang, and Y. C. Chen, “Flicker and visual comfort evaluations of LED panel display,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 435–441.

S. W. Hsu, T. Y. Chung, B. J. Pong, Y. C. Chen, P. H. Hsieh, and M. W. Lin, “Relations between flicker, glare, and perceptual ratings of LED billboards under various conditions,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 428–434.

Chung, T. Y.

S. W. Hsu, T. Y. Chung, B. J. Pong, Y. C. Chen, P. H. Hsieh, and M. W. Lin, “Relations between flicker, glare, and perceptual ratings of LED billboards under various conditions,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 428–434.

Czeisler, C. A.

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88, 4502–4505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Korte, R. A.

C. D. Binnie, R. A. de Korte, and T. Wisman, “Fluorescent lighting and epilepsy,” Epilepsia 20, 725–727 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Harding, G. F. A.

G. F. A. Harding and P. F. Harding, “Televised material and photosensitive epilepsy,” Epilepsia 40, 65–69, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harding, P. F.

G. F. A. Harding and P. F. Harding, “Televised material and photosensitive epilepsy,” Epilepsia 40, 65–69, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hart, W. M.

W. M. Hart, “The temporal responsiveness of vision,” in Adler’s Physiology of the eye, Clinical Application, R. A. Moses and W. M. Hart, eds. (C. V. Mosby, 1987).

Hsieh, P. H.

S. W. Hsu, T. Y. Chung, B. J. Pong, Y. C. Chen, P. H. Hsieh, and M. W. Lin, “Relations between flicker, glare, and perceptual ratings of LED billboards under various conditions,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 428–434.

P. H. Hsieh, M. W. Lin, E. C. Chang, and Y. C. Chen, “Flicker and visual comfort evaluations of LED panel display,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 435–441.

Hsu, S. W.

S. W. Hsu, T. Y. Chung, B. J. Pong, Y. C. Chen, P. H. Hsieh, and M. W. Lin, “Relations between flicker, glare, and perceptual ratings of LED billboards under various conditions,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 428–434.

Lai, P. Y.

P. Y. Lai, C. H. Wen, B. J. Pong, and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of discomfort glare of RGB LED billboard at night,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 442–451.

Lee, B. B.

B. B. Lee and H. Sun, “Contrast sensitivity and retinal ganglion cell responses in the primate,” Psychol. Neurosci. 4, 11–18 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis, Melatonin and the Biological Clock (McGraw-Hill, 1999).

Lin, M. W.

S. W. Hsu, T. Y. Chung, B. J. Pong, Y. C. Chen, P. H. Hsieh, and M. W. Lin, “Relations between flicker, glare, and perceptual ratings of LED billboards under various conditions,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 428–434.

P. H. Hsieh, M. W. Lin, E. C. Chang, and Y. C. Chen, “Flicker and visual comfort evaluations of LED panel display,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 435–441.

Lockley, S. W.

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88, 4502–4505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

P. Y. Lai, C. H. Wen, B. J. Pong, and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of discomfort glare of RGB LED billboard at night,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 442–451.

Pong, B. J.

P. Y. Lai, C. H. Wen, B. J. Pong, and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of discomfort glare of RGB LED billboard at night,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 442–451.

S. W. Hsu, T. Y. Chung, B. J. Pong, Y. C. Chen, P. H. Hsieh, and M. W. Lin, “Relations between flicker, glare, and perceptual ratings of LED billboards under various conditions,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 428–434.

Qi, R.

J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Technol. 40, 225–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rea, M. S.

J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Technol. 40, 225–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Clausen, H. J.

H. J. Schmidt-Clausen and J. Th. H. Bindels, “Assessment of discomfort glare in motor vehicle lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol. 6, 79–88 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shaughnessy, J. J.

J. J. Shaughnessy, E. B. Zechmeister, and J. S. Zechmeister, Research Methods in Psychology (McGraw-Hill, 2008), pp. 245–259.

Sun, H.

B. B. Lee and H. Sun, “Contrast sensitivity and retinal ganglion cell responses in the primate,” Psychol. Neurosci. 4, 11–18 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wen, C. H.

P. Y. Lai, C. H. Wen, B. J. Pong, and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of discomfort glare of RGB LED billboard at night,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 442–451.

Wisman, T.

C. D. Binnie, R. A. de Korte, and T. Wisman, “Fluorescent lighting and epilepsy,” Epilepsia 20, 725–727 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zechmeister, E. B.

J. J. Shaughnessy, E. B. Zechmeister, and J. S. Zechmeister, Research Methods in Psychology (McGraw-Hill, 2008), pp. 245–259.

Zechmeister, J. S.

J. J. Shaughnessy, E. B. Zechmeister, and J. S. Zechmeister, Research Methods in Psychology (McGraw-Hill, 2008), pp. 245–259.

Epilepsia

C. D. Binnie, R. A. de Korte, and T. Wisman, “Fluorescent lighting and epilepsy,” Epilepsia 20, 725–727 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. F. A. Harding and P. F. Harding, “Televised material and photosensitive epilepsy,” Epilepsia 40, 65–69, (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88, 4502–4505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lighting Res. Technol.

H. J. Schmidt-Clausen and J. Th. H. Bindels, “Assessment of discomfort glare in motor vehicle lighting,” Lighting Res. Technol. 6, 79–88 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Technol. 40, 225–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Neurosci.

B. B. Lee and H. Sun, “Contrast sensitivity and retinal ganglion cell responses in the primate,” Psychol. Neurosci. 4, 11–18 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qual. Prog.

T. B. Barker, “Quality engineering by design: Taguchi’s philosophy,” Qual. Prog. 19, 32–42 (1986).

Other

J. J. Shaughnessy, E. B. Zechmeister, and J. S. Zechmeister, Research Methods in Psychology (McGraw-Hill, 2008), pp. 245–259.

W. M. Hart, “The temporal responsiveness of vision,” in Adler’s Physiology of the eye, Clinical Application, R. A. Moses and W. M. Hart, eds. (C. V. Mosby, 1987).

Digitimes Research Report, 13December2013, http://www.digitimes.com/news/a20131212PD200.html .

, “Guide on the limitation of the effects of obtrusive light from outdoor lighting installations,” 2003.

, “Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems,” 2008, pp. 33–38.

, “Discomfort glare in interior lighting,” 1995.

J. B. de Boer, ed. “Visual perception in road traffic and the field of vision of the motorist,” in Public Lighting (Philips, 1967), pp. 11–96.

A. Lewis, Melatonin and the Biological Clock (McGraw-Hill, 1999).

S. W. Hsu, T. Y. Chung, B. J. Pong, Y. C. Chen, P. H. Hsieh, and M. W. Lin, “Relations between flicker, glare, and perceptual ratings of LED billboards under various conditions,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 428–434.

P. H. Hsieh, M. W. Lin, E. C. Chang, and Y. C. Chen, “Flicker and visual comfort evaluations of LED panel display,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 435–441.

P. Y. Lai, C. H. Wen, B. J. Pong, and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of discomfort glare of RGB LED billboard at night,” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2013), pp. 442–451.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Physical characteristics of the LED panel. (a) RGB arrangement in 20 pixels and (b) RGB spectra.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Side view of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental procedure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Posteriori comparison of flicker frequency versus (a) flicker comfort and (b) overall display comfort in experiment A.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized de Boer rating of Exp. B1 and B2: (a) flicker comfort and (b) overall display comfort.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Posteriori comparisons of flicker comfort and overall display as a function of (a) flicker frequency and (b) luminance in experiment C. The error bars in the figures are the standard deviations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Interaction between the luminance and viewing angle.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Quantities explained by each term in (a)  R f and (b)  R a .

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Levels of Independent Variables in Experiments A, B1, and B2

Tables Icon

Table 2. Levels of Independent Variables in Experiment C

Tables Icon

Table 3. Twenty-Five Conditions from the Orthogonal Design

Tables Icon

Table 4. De Boer Rating for Flicker and Overall Display

Tables Icon

Table 5. Participant Statistics

Tables Icon

Table 6. Significance Analysis of Exp. A and Posteriori Comparisons

Tables Icon

Table 7. Significance Analysis of Exp. C and Posteriori Comparisons

Tables Icon

Table 8. Coefficients of the Fitting Functions

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R f = C f 1 F + C f 2 F 2 + C f 3 L + C f 4 A + C f 5 L × A + C f 6 ,
R a = C a 1 F + C a 2 F 2 + C a 3 L + C a 4 A + C a 5 L × A + C a 6 .
R f = C f 2 ( F + C f 1 2 C f 2 ) 2 + C f 3 L + C f 4 A + C f 5 L × A + ( C f 6 C f 1 2 4 C f 2 ) ,
R a = C a 2 ( F + C a 1 2 C a 2 ) 2 + C a 3 L + C a 4 A + C a 5 L × A + ( C a 6 C a 1 2 4 C a 2 ) .

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