Abstract

A high-sensitivity temperature sensor based on an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The shift of the oscillation frequency in the OEO is inversely proportional to the variation of temperature. An injection-locking method is employed to set up the initial oscillation frequency of the sensor to overcome the uncertainty of the initial oscillation frequency. The experiment results show that high sensitivity of 43.91 kHz/°C with an accuracy of ±0.12°C is achieved between 20°C and 240°C. The system features high temperature sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and high reliability.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. L. D. Nguyen, K. Nakatani, and B. Journet, “Refractive index measurement by using an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 857–859 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. L. J. Paciorek, “Injection locking of oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 53, 1723–1727 (1965).
    [CrossRef]

2014

2013

2010

Z. Yin, L. Gao, S. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber ring laser sensor for temperature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3403–3408 (2010).

L. D. Nguyen, K. Nakatani, and B. Journet, “Refractive index measurement by using an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 857–859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, “Injection-locked hybrid optoelectronic oscillators for single-mode oscillation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1645–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1965

L. J. Paciorek, “Injection locking of oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 53, 1723–1727 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Z. Yin, L. Gao, S. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber ring laser sensor for temperature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3403–3408 (2010).

L. Huang, L. Qian, L. Chen, L. Gao, and X. Chen, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser sensor for temperature measurement,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

Chen, X.

Z. Yin, L. Gao, S. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber ring laser sensor for temperature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3403–3408 (2010).

L. Huang, L. Qian, L. Chen, L. Gao, and X. Chen, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser sensor for temperature measurement,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

Choi, W. Y.

K. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, “Injection-locked hybrid optoelectronic oscillators for single-mode oscillation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1645–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dante, A.

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dias, J. A. S.

Ferreira, E. C.

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

Z. Yin, L. Gao, S. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber ring laser sensor for temperature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3403–3408 (2010).

L. Huang, L. Qian, L. Chen, L. Gao, and X. Chen, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser sensor for temperature measurement,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

Huang, L.

L. Huang, L. Qian, L. Chen, L. Gao, and X. Chen, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser sensor for temperature measurement,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

Journet, B.

L. D. Nguyen, K. Nakatani, and B. Journet, “Refractive index measurement by using an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 857–859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

K. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, “Injection-locked hybrid optoelectronic oscillators for single-mode oscillation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1645–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kong, F.

Koo, K.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, M.

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

K. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, “Injection-locked hybrid optoelectronic oscillators for single-mode oscillation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1645–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Liu, S.

Maleki, L.

Nakatani, K.

L. D. Nguyen, K. Nakatani, and B. Journet, “Refractive index measurement by using an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 857–859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, L. D.

L. D. Nguyen, K. Nakatani, and B. Journet, “Refractive index measurement by using an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 857–859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paciorek, L. J.

L. J. Paciorek, “Injection locking of oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 53, 1723–1727 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pfrimer, F. W. D.

Putnam, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L.

L. Huang, L. Qian, L. Chen, L. Gao, and X. Chen, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser sensor for temperature measurement,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

Wu, F.

Yao, J.

Yao, X. S.

Yin, Z.

Zhang, L.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. D. Nguyen, K. Nakatani, and B. Journet, “Refractive index measurement by using an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 857–859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, “Injection-locked hybrid optoelectronic oscillators for single-mode oscillation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1645–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

L. J. Paciorek, “Injection locking of oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 53, 1723–1727 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Huang, L. Qian, L. Chen, L. Gao, and X. Chen, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser sensor for temperature measurement,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the proposed OEO-based temperature sensor with injection locking. PC, polarization controller; DEMZM, dual-electrode Mach–Zehnder modulator; SMF, single mode fiber; PD, photodetector; BPF, bandpass filter; EA, electrical amplifier; LO, local oscillator; ADC, analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Relationship between the oscillation frequency and the applied temperature on the sensor head; the frequency dynamic range of the system defined within ±FSR/2 offset the oscillation frequency.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electrical spectrum of the signal at the output of the mixer, with SNR up to 62.65 dB and phase noise of 79.53dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset carrier.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured oscillation frequency as a function of applied temperature on the sensor head from 20°C to 240°C with 10°C steps.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured initial oscillation frequency of the OEO at 20°C with and without injection locking (IL) method, respectively, by switching on and off the OEO system at one-minute intervals for 30 times.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Stability of the OEO’s oscillation frequency at temporal duration of 10 min and the corresponding measurement accuracy at temperatures from 20°C to 240°C. Left axis, maximum frequency offset of OEO; right axis, temperature accuracy.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FSR=1/τg=1/(τe+τo)=c/nL,
fo=N×FSR=Nc/nL,
Δf=fo(ΔLL+Δnn)=foLhL(α+ξ)ΔT,
DR=FSR/|(Δf/ΔT)|=L/(NLh(ξ+α)).
B=ωo2QPLPo=2πfo2×2πfoτgPLPo=12τgPLPo,
BFSRPL4Po,

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