Abstract

We report a method to fabricate a mode-field adaptor (MFA) for a large-mode-area (LMA) fiber and single-mode fibers (SMFs) based on fiber tapering and the thermally expanded core (TEC) technique. Through adiabatically tapering a LMA fiber by an oxygen–hydrogen flame, the mode-field diameter is decreased effectively with nearly no extra loss, which makes it possible to realize mode-field adaptation between the LMA fiber and SMFs. Both numerical calculation and experimental results show it is workable to realize fundamental mode propagation in LMA fiber and get a low insertion loss by this method. For a LMA fiber (d=25μm, NA=0.06) and a SMF (d=4μm, NA=0.2), a low loss with less than 0.4 dB has been obtained both in the forward and backward directions experimentally.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

X. Zhou, Z. Chen, H. Chen, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Mode field adaptation between single-mode fiber and large mode area fiber by thermally expanded core technique,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 72–75 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2010 (1)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” Proc. IEEE 138, 343–354 (1991).

1989 (1)

J. D. Love, “Application of a low-loss criterion to optical waveguides and devices,” Proc. IEEE 136, 225–228 (1989).

1987 (1)

J. D. Love, “Spot size, adiabaticity and diffraction in tapered fibres,” Electron. Lett. 23, 2–4 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying loss minimisation in single-mode fibre tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 912–914 (1986).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. M. Derosier and J. Stone, “Low-loss splices in optical fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1229–1235 (1973).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

Black, R. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” Proc. IEEE 138, 343–354 (1991).

Broeng, J.

Chamorovskiy, Y.

Chang, G.

C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME2.

Chen, H.

X. Zhou, Z. Chen, H. Chen, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Mode field adaptation between single-mode fiber and large mode area fiber by thermally expanded core technique,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 72–75 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

X. Zhou, Z. Chen, H. Chen, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Mode field adaptation between single-mode fiber and large mode area fiber by thermally expanded core technique,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 72–75 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

Derosier, R. M.

R. M. Derosier and J. Stone, “Low-loss splices in optical fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1229–1235 (1973).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

Filippov, V.

Galvanauskas, A.

C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME2.

Goldberg, L.

Gonthier, F.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” Proc. IEEE 138, 343–354 (1991).

Guertin, D.

C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME2.

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” Proc. IEEE 138, 343–354 (1991).

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying loss minimisation in single-mode fibre tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 912–914 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hou, J.

X. Zhou, Z. Chen, H. Chen, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Mode field adaptation between single-mode fiber and large mode area fiber by thermally expanded core technique,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 72–75 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jacobson, N.

C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME2.

Jakobsen, C.

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Jeong, Y.

Y. Jeong, J. Sahu, D. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36  kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12, 6088–6092 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1  kW continuous-wave output power,” Electron. Lett. 40, 470–472 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kerttula, J.

Kliner, D. A. V.

Koplow, J. P.

Lacroix, S.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” Proc. IEEE 138, 343–354 (1991).

Li, J.

X. Zhou, Z. Chen, H. Chen, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Mode field adaptation between single-mode fiber and large mode area fiber by thermally expanded core technique,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 72–75 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Litchinitser, N.

C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME2.

Liu, C.-H.

C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME2.

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” Proc. IEEE 138, 343–354 (1991).

J. D. Love, “Application of a low-loss criterion to optical waveguides and devices,” Proc. IEEE 136, 225–228 (1989).

J. D. Love, “Spot size, adiabaticity and diffraction in tapered fibres,” Electron. Lett. 23, 2–4 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying loss minimisation in single-mode fibre tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 912–914 (1986).
[Crossref]

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

Nilsson, J.

Nolte, S.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Payne, D.

Payne, D. N.

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1  kW continuous-wave output power,” Electron. Lett. 40, 470–472 (2004).
[Crossref]

Petersson, A.

Reich, M.

Richardson, D. J.

Sahu, J.

Sahu, J. K.

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1  kW continuous-wave output power,” Electron. Lett. 40, 470–472 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, T.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” Proc. IEEE 138, 343–354 (1991).

Stone, J.

R. M. Derosier and J. Stone, “Low-loss splices in optical fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1229–1235 (1973).
[Crossref]

Stutzki, F.

Tankala, K.

C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME2.

Tünnermann, A.

Ustimchik, V.

Zellmer, H.

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, Z. Chen, H. Chen, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Mode field adaptation between single-mode fiber and large mode area fiber by thermally expanded core technique,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 72–75 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

R. M. Derosier and J. Stone, “Low-loss splices in optical fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1229–1235 (1973).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (3)

J. D. Love, “Spot size, adiabaticity and diffraction in tapered fibres,” Electron. Lett. 23, 2–4 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying loss minimisation in single-mode fibre tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 912–914 (1986).
[Crossref]

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1  kW continuous-wave output power,” Electron. Lett. 40, 470–472 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

X. Zhou, Z. Chen, H. Chen, J. Li, and J. Hou, “Mode field adaptation between single-mode fiber and large mode area fiber by thermally expanded core technique,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 72–75 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. IEEE (2)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” Proc. IEEE 138, 343–354 (1991).

J. D. Love, “Application of a low-loss criterion to optical waveguides and devices,” Proc. IEEE 136, 225–228 (1989).

Other (2)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jacobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of MFA between a SMF and a LMA fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of equivalent normal fiber along the tapered fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

MFD of taper fiber versus core diameter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Local taper angle as a function of normalized position for exponential tapers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic of fiber tapering by a taper rig.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic drawing of MFA property measurement.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Near-field and (b) far-field images of the output from LMA fiber for LMA1.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters of Fibers used in the Experiment (at 1.06 μm)

Equations (3)

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α=20lg(2ωSMFωLMAωSMF2+ωLMA2),
θt(z)<fθm(z)=fr(z)(β1β2)2π,
α1+α2=10lg(P1/P0),α1=10lg(P3/P0).

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