Abstract

We present a system for the measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) angular distribution function (ADF) of scattered or emitted light using a digital camera. The 3D ADF can be determined from the digital image captured from a reflective flat screen. With the developed camera-based system we can quantify the transmitted light scattered by textured samples or the light emitted from light sources in a few second’s time. In the paper, the setup of the camera-based system is presented, the main transformations of the acquired digital image to obtain the 3D ADF are explained, and sensitivity issues are discussed. The system is applied to and validated on randomly nanotextured transparent samples and a calibrated light emitting device. Good matching is obtained with the measurements carried out with a conventional goniometric angular resolved scattering system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Abou-Ras, Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells (Wiley-VCH-Verl., 2011).
  2. G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Krč, M. Zeman, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Optical modelling of thin-film silicon solar cells deposited on textured substrates,” Thin Solid Films 451/452, 298–302 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. “CIE 127-2007 measurement of LEDs, Second Edition,” http://www.slashdocs.com/musiwz/cie-127-2007-measurement-of-leds-second-edition.html .
  6. J. Krč and M. Topič, Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices (CRC Press, 2013).
  7. J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Krč, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296–304 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, H. Blaschke, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering: an effective method for characterizing thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50, C164–C171 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Amra, D. Torricini, and P. Roche, “Multiwavelength (0.45–10.6  μm) angle-resolved scatterometer or how to extend the optical window,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5462–5474 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Foldyna, M. Moreno, P. R. i Cabarrocas, and A. De Martino, “Scattered light measurements on textured crystalline silicon substrates using an angle-resolved Mueller matrix polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 49, 505–512 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Berner, M. Sämann, A. Garamoun, and M. B. Schubert, “Quantification of optical deflection by laser-structured ZnO:Al,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3, 590–592 (2013).
  13. “Table-top system for light scatter measurement “Albatross-TT”—Fraunhofer IOF,” http://www.iof.fraunhofer.de/en/competences/messverfahren-und-charakterisierung/oberflaechen-schichtcharakterisierung/light_scatteringmeasurementandanalysis/albatross-tt.html .
  14. M. Bokalič, J. Raguse, J. R. Sites, and M. Topič, “Analysis of electroluminescence images in small-area circular CdTe solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 123102 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Informacije MIDEM 41, 264–271 (2011).
  16. J. Peatross and M. Ware, “Physics of light and optics: a free online textbook,” in Frontiers in Optics 2010/Laser Science XXVI, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JWA64.
  17. O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. A. Sap, O. Isabella, K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “Extraction of optical properties of flat and surface-textured transparent conductive oxide films in a broad wavelength range,” Thin Solid Films 520, 1096–1101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. “Spectroradiometric Components,” http://www.oceanoptics.com/Products/spectroradiometric.asp .

2013 (3)

G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Berner, M. Sämann, A. Garamoun, and M. B. Schubert, “Quantification of optical deflection by laser-structured ZnO:Al,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3, 590–592 (2013).

M. Bokalič, J. Raguse, J. R. Sites, and M. Topič, “Analysis of electroluminescence images in small-area circular CdTe solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 123102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Informacije MIDEM 41, 264–271 (2011).

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sap, O. Isabella, K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “Extraction of optical properties of flat and surface-textured transparent conductive oxide films in a broad wavelength range,” Thin Solid Films 520, 1096–1101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, H. Blaschke, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering: an effective method for characterizing thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50, C164–C171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2004 (1)

J. Krč, M. Zeman, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Optical modelling of thin-film silicon solar cells deposited on textured substrates,” Thin Solid Films 451/452, 298–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Krč, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Abou-Ras, D.

D. Abou-Ras, Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells (Wiley-VCH-Verl., 2011).

Amra, C.

Beneking, C.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berner, M.

M. Berner, M. Sämann, A. Garamoun, and M. B. Schubert, “Quantification of optical deflection by laser-structured ZnO:Al,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3, 590–592 (2013).

Bjork, D. R.

J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Blaschke, H.

Bokalic, M.

M. Bokalič, J. Raguse, J. R. Sites, and M. Topič, “Analysis of electroluminescence images in small-area circular CdTe solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 123102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cady, F. M.

J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chausse, P. D.

J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cheever, D. R.

J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

De Martino, A.

Duparré, A.

Foldyna, M.

Garamoun, A.

M. Berner, M. Sämann, A. Garamoun, and M. B. Schubert, “Quantification of optical deflection by laser-structured ZnO:Al,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3, 590–592 (2013).

Herffurth, T.

Houben, L.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hüpkes, J.

G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
[CrossRef]

i Cabarrocas, P. R.

Isabella, O.

J. A. Sap, O. Isabella, K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “Extraction of optical properties of flat and surface-textured transparent conductive oxide films in a broad wavelength range,” Thin Solid Films 520, 1096–1101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, K.

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sap, O. Isabella, K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “Extraction of optical properties of flat and surface-textured transparent conductive oxide films in a broad wavelength range,” Thin Solid Films 520, 1096–1101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jost, G.

G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kirchner, K. H.

J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Klicker, K. A.

J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kluth, O.

J. Krč, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krc, J.

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Informacije MIDEM 41, 264–271 (2011).

J. Krč, M. Zeman, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Optical modelling of thin-film silicon solar cells deposited on textured substrates,” Thin Solid Films 451/452, 298–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Krč, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Krč and M. Topič, Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices (CRC Press, 2013).

Lipovšek, B.

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Informacije MIDEM 41, 264–271 (2011).

Löffl, A.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Merdzhanova, T.

G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, M.

Peatross, J.

J. Peatross and M. Ware, “Physics of light and optics: a free online textbook,” in Frontiers in Optics 2010/Laser Science XXVI, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JWA64.

Raguse, J.

M. Bokalič, J. Raguse, J. R. Sites, and M. Topič, “Analysis of electroluminescence images in small-area circular CdTe solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 123102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rech, B.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rifkin, J.

J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Roche, P.

Sämann, M.

M. Berner, M. Sämann, A. Garamoun, and M. B. Schubert, “Quantification of optical deflection by laser-structured ZnO:Al,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3, 590–592 (2013).

Sap, J. A.

J. A. Sap, O. Isabella, K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “Extraction of optical properties of flat and surface-textured transparent conductive oxide films in a broad wavelength range,” Thin Solid Films 520, 1096–1101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, T. F.

J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schock, H. W.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schöpe, G.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, S.

Schubert, M. B.

M. Berner, M. Sämann, A. Garamoun, and M. B. Schubert, “Quantification of optical deflection by laser-structured ZnO:Al,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3, 590–592 (2013).

Sites, J. R.

M. Bokalič, J. Raguse, J. R. Sites, and M. Topič, “Analysis of electroluminescence images in small-area circular CdTe solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 123102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smole, F.

J. Krč, M. Zeman, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Optical modelling of thin-film silicon solar cells deposited on textured substrates,” Thin Solid Films 451/452, 298–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Krč, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stover, J. C.

J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Topic, M.

M. Bokalič, J. Raguse, J. R. Sites, and M. Topič, “Analysis of electroluminescence images in small-area circular CdTe solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 123102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Informacije MIDEM 41, 264–271 (2011).

J. Krč, M. Zeman, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Optical modelling of thin-film silicon solar cells deposited on textured substrates,” Thin Solid Films 451/452, 298–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Krč, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Krč and M. Topič, Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices (CRC Press, 2013).

Torricini, D.

van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, H.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ware, M.

J. Peatross and M. Ware, “Physics of light and optics: a free online textbook,” in Frontiers in Optics 2010/Laser Science XXVI, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JWA64.

Wieder, S.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. J.

J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zeman, M.

J. A. Sap, O. Isabella, K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “Extraction of optical properties of flat and surface-textured transparent conductive oxide films in a broad wavelength range,” Thin Solid Films 520, 1096–1101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Krč, M. Zeman, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Optical modelling of thin-film silicon solar cells deposited on textured substrates,” Thin Solid Films 451/452, 298–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Krč, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, T.

G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Photovolt. (1)

M. Berner, M. Sämann, A. Garamoun, and M. B. Schubert, “Quantification of optical deflection by laser-structured ZnO:Al,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3, 590–592 (2013).

Informacije MIDEM (1)

B. Lipovšek, J. Krč, and M. Topič, “Optical model for thin-film photovoltaic devices with large surface textures at the front side,” Informacije MIDEM 41, 264–271 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Bokalič, J. Raguse, J. R. Sites, and M. Topič, “Analysis of electroluminescence images in small-area circular CdTe solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 123102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Rifkin, K. A. Klicker, D. R. Bjork, D. R. Cheever, T. F. Schiff, J. C. Stover, F. M. Cady, D. J. Wilson, P. D. Chausse, and K. H. Kirchner, “Design review of a complete angle scatter instrument,” Proc. SPIE 1036, 116–124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (5)

J. Krč, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296–304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Jost, T. Merdzhanova, T. Zimmermann, and J. Hüpkes, “Process monitoring of texture-etched high-rate ZnO:Al front contacts for silicon thin-film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 532, 66–72 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Krč, M. Zeman, F. Smole, and M. Topič, “Optical modelling of thin-film silicon solar cells deposited on textured substrates,” Thin Solid Films 451/452, 298–302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sap, O. Isabella, K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “Extraction of optical properties of flat and surface-textured transparent conductive oxide films in a broad wavelength range,” Thin Solid Films 520, 1096–1101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

“Spectroradiometric Components,” http://www.oceanoptics.com/Products/spectroradiometric.asp .

J. Peatross and M. Ware, “Physics of light and optics: a free online textbook,” in Frontiers in Optics 2010/Laser Science XXVI, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. JWA64.

“Table-top system for light scatter measurement “Albatross-TT”—Fraunhofer IOF,” http://www.iof.fraunhofer.de/en/competences/messverfahren-und-charakterisierung/oberflaechen-schichtcharakterisierung/light_scatteringmeasurementandanalysis/albatross-tt.html .

“CIE 127-2007 measurement of LEDs, Second Edition,” http://www.slashdocs.com/musiwz/cie-127-2007-measurement-of-leds-second-edition.html .

J. Krč and M. Topič, Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices (CRC Press, 2013).

D. Abou-Ras, Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells (Wiley-VCH-Verl., 2011).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Camera-based system scheme for the case of detection of transmitted scattered light of a textured transparent sample: laser illuminates the sample and the scattered transmitted light is projected on the screen. The camera captures images of the 3D ADF from the screen.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Some of refracted and reflected beams corresponding to a single incident beam applied under 20° incident angle to the lens front surface. Relative intensities of the beams are given in the table. (b) Refraction of incident beams (no reflected beams considered in this case) applied under different incident angles. Note that the crossing of the refracted beams can occur (denoted with arrows), limiting the highest value of allowed incident angle.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) 3D ADF of a linear (1D) diffraction grating and (b) line scan from the 3D ADF (solid black line) compared with the calculated angles (dashed red line); screen angle α=20°.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

ADF line scan of the white paper screen at four incident angles β and cosine approximation for β=30°.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a), (b) CCD images; (c), (d) 3D ADF; (e), (f) ADF line scans for etched ZnO:Al—etching time 20 s (left side) and 30 s (right side), and (g), (h) comparison of ADF line scans for three samples (10, 20, and 30 s etching times). Screen angle α=20°.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Error analysis for ZnO:Al etching time 30 s, φ=90°. Error zone corresponds to the extreme cases presented in Section 3Δd=1mm with lens tilt 1° and Δd=+1mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) 3D ADF and (b) line scans for light source LS1 (t=5s), screen angle α=20°.

Tables (4)

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Table 1. Lens Transmission Considering Different Refracted Beams

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Table 2. Border Angle for Different Distance Values between the Lens and the Sample for Hemispherical Lens

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Table 3. Effect of Inaccurate Determination of the Distance between the Sample and the Lens on Angular Error in ADF as a Function of Scattering Angle

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Table 4. Effect of Inaccurate Angular Alignment of the Lens on the Angular Error in ADF as a Function of Scattering Angle

Equations (1)

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ADFscreen=(a*β+b)*cos(γ).

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