Abstract

A multi-element double ring detector which can track a target effectively under infrared (IR) countermeasure conditions is presented. Dual band IR counter-countermeasures can be performed by the detector to distinguish the target from target–flare mixed signals. Middle and short IR wavelengths are used for target and IR countermeasure detection, respectively. With a special design, unique dual band signals will be outputted by the detector when a target spot is located on the center of the detector. By comparison, the typical single element ring detector has a “dead spot” in this case, which is undesirable for target identification. Relatively high tracking accuracy and low cost indicate that the presented method has a potential application.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Deyerle, “Advanced infrared missile counter-countermeasures,” J. Electron. Def. 17, 47 (1994).
  2. J. Heikell, “Electronic Warfare Self-Protection of Battlefield Helicopters: A Holistic View,” Series E: Electronic Publications E18 (Helsinki University of Technology, 2005).
  3. J. Jackman, M. Richardson, B. Butters, and R. Walmsley, “Countermeasure effectiveness against a man-portable air-defense system containing a two-color spinscan infrared seeker,” Opt. Eng. 50, 126401 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. D. Hudson, Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, 1969).
  5. P. E. Buchsbaum and M. J. Morris, “Method for making monolithic patterned dichroic filter detector arrays for spectroscopic imaging,” U.S. patent5,711,889 (14May2001).
  6. J. Lane, P. Buchsbaum, and J. M. Eichenholz, “Micro-lithographically patterned optical thin film coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 72050G (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. O. Carpenter, “Comparison of AM and FM reticle systems,” Appl. Opt. 2, 229–236 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. S. Ab-Rahman and M. R. Hassan, “Lock-on range of infrared heat seeker missile,” in International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 472–477.
  9. U. G. Hingst, B. F. Andresen, and G. F. Fulop, “Fast cool-down dual gas spray-cooler for pivoted IR-detectors,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 620–629 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Olsson, “Simulation of reticle systems by means of an image processing system,” Opt. Eng. 33, 730–736 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Li, W. Sun, H. Chen, and J. Si, “Counter-countermeasure identification based on multi-element dual band infrared detector,” Appl. Opt. 52, 5201–5207 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. S. Oh, S. H. Lee, J. T. Kim, and J. S. Choi, “Two-color infrared counter-countermeasure based on the signal ratio between two detection bands for a crossed-array tracker,” Opt. Eng. 44, 096401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

J. Jackman, M. Richardson, B. Butters, and R. Walmsley, “Countermeasure effectiveness against a man-portable air-defense system containing a two-color spinscan infrared seeker,” Opt. Eng. 50, 126401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Lane, P. Buchsbaum, and J. M. Eichenholz, “Micro-lithographically patterned optical thin film coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 72050G (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. S. Oh, S. H. Lee, J. T. Kim, and J. S. Choi, “Two-color infrared counter-countermeasure based on the signal ratio between two detection bands for a crossed-array tracker,” Opt. Eng. 44, 096401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

U. G. Hingst, B. F. Andresen, and G. F. Fulop, “Fast cool-down dual gas spray-cooler for pivoted IR-detectors,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 620–629 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

G. Olsson, “Simulation of reticle systems by means of an image processing system,” Opt. Eng. 33, 730–736 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Deyerle, “Advanced infrared missile counter-countermeasures,” J. Electron. Def. 17, 47 (1994).

1963 (1)

Ab-Rahman, M. S.

M. S. Ab-Rahman and M. R. Hassan, “Lock-on range of infrared heat seeker missile,” in International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 472–477.

Andresen, B. F.

U. G. Hingst, B. F. Andresen, and G. F. Fulop, “Fast cool-down dual gas spray-cooler for pivoted IR-detectors,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 620–629 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buchsbaum, P.

J. Lane, P. Buchsbaum, and J. M. Eichenholz, “Micro-lithographically patterned optical thin film coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 72050G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buchsbaum, P. E.

P. E. Buchsbaum and M. J. Morris, “Method for making monolithic patterned dichroic filter detector arrays for spectroscopic imaging,” U.S. patent5,711,889 (14May2001).

Butters, B.

J. Jackman, M. Richardson, B. Butters, and R. Walmsley, “Countermeasure effectiveness against a man-portable air-defense system containing a two-color spinscan infrared seeker,” Opt. Eng. 50, 126401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, R. O.

Chen, H.

Choi, J. S.

J. S. Oh, S. H. Lee, J. T. Kim, and J. S. Choi, “Two-color infrared counter-countermeasure based on the signal ratio between two detection bands for a crossed-array tracker,” Opt. Eng. 44, 096401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deyerle, C.

C. Deyerle, “Advanced infrared missile counter-countermeasures,” J. Electron. Def. 17, 47 (1994).

Eichenholz, J. M.

J. Lane, P. Buchsbaum, and J. M. Eichenholz, “Micro-lithographically patterned optical thin film coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 72050G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fulop, G. F.

U. G. Hingst, B. F. Andresen, and G. F. Fulop, “Fast cool-down dual gas spray-cooler for pivoted IR-detectors,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 620–629 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, M. R.

M. S. Ab-Rahman and M. R. Hassan, “Lock-on range of infrared heat seeker missile,” in International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 472–477.

Heikell, J.

J. Heikell, “Electronic Warfare Self-Protection of Battlefield Helicopters: A Holistic View,” Series E: Electronic Publications E18 (Helsinki University of Technology, 2005).

Hingst, U. G.

U. G. Hingst, B. F. Andresen, and G. F. Fulop, “Fast cool-down dual gas spray-cooler for pivoted IR-detectors,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 620–629 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, R. D.

R. D. Hudson, Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, 1969).

Jackman, J.

J. Jackman, M. Richardson, B. Butters, and R. Walmsley, “Countermeasure effectiveness against a man-portable air-defense system containing a two-color spinscan infrared seeker,” Opt. Eng. 50, 126401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. T.

J. S. Oh, S. H. Lee, J. T. Kim, and J. S. Choi, “Two-color infrared counter-countermeasure based on the signal ratio between two detection bands for a crossed-array tracker,” Opt. Eng. 44, 096401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lane, J.

J. Lane, P. Buchsbaum, and J. M. Eichenholz, “Micro-lithographically patterned optical thin film coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 72050G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

J. S. Oh, S. H. Lee, J. T. Kim, and J. S. Choi, “Two-color infrared counter-countermeasure based on the signal ratio between two detection bands for a crossed-array tracker,” Opt. Eng. 44, 096401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Morris, M. J.

P. E. Buchsbaum and M. J. Morris, “Method for making monolithic patterned dichroic filter detector arrays for spectroscopic imaging,” U.S. patent5,711,889 (14May2001).

Oh, J. S.

J. S. Oh, S. H. Lee, J. T. Kim, and J. S. Choi, “Two-color infrared counter-countermeasure based on the signal ratio between two detection bands for a crossed-array tracker,” Opt. Eng. 44, 096401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, G.

G. Olsson, “Simulation of reticle systems by means of an image processing system,” Opt. Eng. 33, 730–736 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

J. Jackman, M. Richardson, B. Butters, and R. Walmsley, “Countermeasure effectiveness against a man-portable air-defense system containing a two-color spinscan infrared seeker,” Opt. Eng. 50, 126401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Si, J.

Sun, W.

Walmsley, R.

J. Jackman, M. Richardson, B. Butters, and R. Walmsley, “Countermeasure effectiveness against a man-portable air-defense system containing a two-color spinscan infrared seeker,” Opt. Eng. 50, 126401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Electron. Def. (1)

C. Deyerle, “Advanced infrared missile counter-countermeasures,” J. Electron. Def. 17, 47 (1994).

Opt. Eng. (3)

J. Jackman, M. Richardson, B. Butters, and R. Walmsley, “Countermeasure effectiveness against a man-portable air-defense system containing a two-color spinscan infrared seeker,” Opt. Eng. 50, 126401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Oh, S. H. Lee, J. T. Kim, and J. S. Choi, “Two-color infrared counter-countermeasure based on the signal ratio between two detection bands for a crossed-array tracker,” Opt. Eng. 44, 096401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Olsson, “Simulation of reticle systems by means of an image processing system,” Opt. Eng. 33, 730–736 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Lane, P. Buchsbaum, and J. M. Eichenholz, “Micro-lithographically patterned optical thin film coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7205, 72050G (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. G. Hingst, B. F. Andresen, and G. F. Fulop, “Fast cool-down dual gas spray-cooler for pivoted IR-detectors,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 620–629 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. S. Ab-Rahman and M. R. Hassan, “Lock-on range of infrared heat seeker missile,” in International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 472–477.

R. D. Hudson, Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, 1969).

P. E. Buchsbaum and M. J. Morris, “Method for making monolithic patterned dichroic filter detector arrays for spectroscopic imaging,” U.S. patent5,711,889 (14May2001).

J. Heikell, “Electronic Warfare Self-Protection of Battlefield Helicopters: A Holistic View,” Series E: Electronic Publications E18 (Helsinki University of Technology, 2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Nutation of the IR target spot on the typical ring detector. O is the center of the detector, O’ is the target position within the FOV, and P is the off-axis distance of the target.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Layout of the presented detector. (a) Structure of the presented detector. (b) IR seeker with the presented IR detector.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pulse signals of the presented detector. (a) IR target spots are located within the FOV of the presented detectors. (b) Pulse signals of dual band detector elements. Figures at top, middle, and bottom are pulse signals generated by spots a, b, and c, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Layout of an IR seeker including a J-T spray cooler and follow-up detector.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Performance of dual band IRCCM of the presented detector. (a) Pulse signals of the presented detector in MWIR detection band in the case where the target spot and IR flare spot are located simultaneously within the FOV of the detectors. (b), (c) Demodulation signals of outputs of the typical single element detector and the presented detector, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Performance of anti-interference of the multi-element detector. (a) Flare spot and target spot are located simultaneously within the FOV of the presented detectors. (b) The top figure is the output of the single element detector in MWIR; the middle and bottom figures are the output of two different detector elements of the presented detector in MWIR.

Equations (4)

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He=AdΔfA0τ0Dλp*k×SN,
L=JητaHe,
A0=πD024,
Ad=wf2,

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