Abstract

We report a magnetic-field sensor by merging the advantages of optical fiber Michelson interferometers with that of magnetic fluid. Compact and low-cost optical fiber Michelson interferometers were first fabricated by a high-frequency CO2 laser, and then they were inserted into glass capillaries with water-based Fe3O4 magnetic fluid as sensing elements. The sensing characteristics have been investigated and the experimental results show that the reflective spectrum of the fiber-magnetic sensor linearly shifted with the change of the magnetic-field strength that is perpendicular to the axial of the devices. The fiber-magnetic sensor with interference arm’s diameter of 50 μm is most sensitive to the external magnetic field, and the sensitivity is up to 64.9pm/mT, which is 20 times higher than that of 125 μm diameter.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. B. Kwon, C. G. Kim, and C. S. Hong, “Simultaneous sensing of the strain and points of failure in composite beams with an embedded fiber optic Michelson sensor,” Compos. Sci. Techol. 57, 1639–1651 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Xie, X. Chen, and L. Zhang, “High stability interleaved fiber Michelson interferometer for on-line precision displacement measurements,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1301–1306 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, X. W. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators B 160, 720–723 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. B. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. H. Liu, and J. X. Sun, “In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2692–2694 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576–1580 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, J. L. Wang, and Y. Song, “A highly sensitive fiber-optic refractive index sensor based on an edge-written long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1946–1948 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. B. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H-P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1105–1107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, and H. E. Horng, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Du, S. Yuan, and W. Luo, “Thermal lens coupled magneto-optical effect in a ferrofluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1844–1846 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. M. Mairov, “Faraday effect in magnetic fluids at a frequency 10 GHz,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 111–113 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Xu and P. J. Ridler, “Linear dichroism and birefringence effects in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 326–332 (1997).
  12. H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, and S. Y. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. W. Seo, H. Kim, and S. Sung, “Design and fabrication of a magnetic microfluidic light modulator using magnetic fluid,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272–276, e1787–e1789 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Y. Hong, “Optical switch devices using the magnetic fluid thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 178–181 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).
  17. Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Temperature tenability of photonic crystal fiber filled with Fe3O4nanoparticle fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021103 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210–213 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 491–498 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. X. Jin, Y. F. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber sensor based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 37, 398–400 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Hu, Y. Zhao, X. Li, J. J. Chen, and Z. W. Lii, “Novel optical fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 392–394 (2010).
  23. H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, “Designing the refractive indices by using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2423–2436 (2003).
  24. S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204–5206 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using a single ultra-long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2700–2702 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, C. H. Shi, Y. Song, and M. Liu, “Characterization of long-period fiber gratings written by CO2 laser in twisted single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4863–4869 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, and Y. P. Chen, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. C. Li, H. P. Xu, X. Z. He, and H. Q. Lan, “Theoretical and experimental study on the magnetic fluid seal of reciprocating shaft,” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 289, 399–402 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. X. Jin, Y. F. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber sensor based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 37, 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Temperature tenability of photonic crystal fiber filled with Fe3O4nanoparticle fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, X. W. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators B 160, 720–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, X. Li, J. J. Chen, and Z. W. Lii, “Novel optical fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 392–394 (2010).

2009

T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, C. H. Shi, Y. Song, and M. Liu, “Characterization of long-period fiber gratings written by CO2 laser in twisted single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4863–4869 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Xie, X. Chen, and L. Zhang, “High stability interleaved fiber Michelson interferometer for on-line precision displacement measurements,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1301–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z. B. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H-P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1105–1107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, J. L. Wang, and Y. Song, “A highly sensitive fiber-optic refractive index sensor based on an edge-written long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1946–1948 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

2006

L. B. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. H. Liu, and J. X. Sun, “In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2692–2694 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, and S. Y. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, and Y. P. Chen, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Li, H. P. Xu, X. Z. He, and H. Q. Lan, “Theoretical and experimental study on the magnetic fluid seal of reciprocating shaft,” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 289, 399–402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using a single ultra-long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2700–2702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Seo, H. Kim, and S. Sung, “Design and fabrication of a magnetic microfluidic light modulator using magnetic fluid,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272–276, e1787–e1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, “Designing the refractive indices by using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2423–2436 (2003).

2002

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, and H. E. Horng, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Mairov, “Faraday effect in magnetic fluids at a frequency 10 GHz,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Y. Hong, “Optical switch devices using the magnetic fluid thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 178–181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Xu and P. J. Ridler, “Linear dichroism and birefringence effects in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 326–332 (1997).

I. B. Kwon, C. G. Kim, and C. S. Hong, “Simultaneous sensing of the strain and points of failure in composite beams with an embedded fiber optic Michelson sensor,” Compos. Sci. Techol. 57, 1639–1651 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. Du, S. Yuan, and W. Luo, “Thermal lens coupled magneto-optical effect in a ferrofluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1844–1846 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. X. Jin, Y. F. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber sensor based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 37, 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chao, Y. H.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, and S. Y. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. S.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

Chen, J. J.

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, X. Li, J. J. Chen, and Z. W. Lii, “Novel optical fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 392–394 (2010).

Chen, L. H.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. X. Jin, Y. F. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber sensor based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 37, 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

F. Xie, X. Chen, and L. Zhang, “High stability interleaved fiber Michelson interferometer for on-line precision displacement measurements,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1301–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

Chen, X. F.

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, and Y. P. Chen, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, and H. E. Horng, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. P.

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, and Y. P. Chen, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, C. H. Shi, Y. Song, and M. Liu, “Characterization of long-period fiber gratings written by CO2 laser in twisted single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4863–4869 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chieh, J. J.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, and S. Y. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. X.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. X. Jin, Y. F. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber sensor based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 37, 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Du, T.

T. Du, S. Yuan, and W. Luo, “Thermal lens coupled magneto-optical effect in a ferrofluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1844–1846 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fang, K. L.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, X. Z.

D. C. Li, H. P. Xu, X. Z. He, and H. Q. Lan, “Theoretical and experimental study on the magnetic fluid seal of reciprocating shaft,” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 289, 399–402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. S.

I. B. Kwon, C. G. Kim, and C. S. Hong, “Simultaneous sensing of the strain and points of failure in composite beams with an embedded fiber optic Michelson sensor,” Compos. Sci. Techol. 57, 1639–1651 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, “Designing the refractive indices by using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2423–2436 (2003).

C. Y. Hong, “Optical switch devices using the magnetic fluid thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 178–181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H. E.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, and S. Y. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, “Designing the refractive indices by using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2423–2436 (2003).

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, and H. E. Horng, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T.

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, X. Li, J. J. Chen, and Z. W. Lii, “Novel optical fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 392–394 (2010).

Huang, X.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, X. W. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators B 160, 720–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y. X.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. X. Jin, Y. F. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber sensor based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 37, 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kale, S. N.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. G.

I. B. Kwon, C. G. Kim, and C. S. Hong, “Simultaneous sensing of the strain and points of failure in composite beams with an embedded fiber optic Michelson sensor,” Compos. Sci. Techol. 57, 1639–1651 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J. W. Seo, H. Kim, and S. Sung, “Design and fabrication of a magnetic microfluidic light modulator using magnetic fluid,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272–276, e1787–e1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitture, R.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, I. B.

I. B. Kwon, C. G. Kim, and C. S. Hong, “Simultaneous sensing of the strain and points of failure in composite beams with an embedded fiber optic Michelson sensor,” Compos. Sci. Techol. 57, 1639–1651 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lan, H. Q.

D. C. Li, H. P. Xu, X. Z. He, and H. Q. Lan, “Theoretical and experimental study on the magnetic fluid seal of reciprocating shaft,” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 289, 399–402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lew, W. S.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. C.

D. C. Li, H. P. Xu, X. Z. He, and H. Q. Lan, “Theoretical and experimental study on the magnetic fluid seal of reciprocating shaft,” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 289, 399–402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, X. Li, J. J. Chen, and Z. W. Lii, “Novel optical fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 392–394 (2010).

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

Li, X. B.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liew, H. F.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. X. Jin, Y. F. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber sensor based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 37, 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lii, Z. W.

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, X. Li, J. J. Chen, and Z. W. Lii, “Novel optical fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 392–394 (2010).

Liu, B.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Temperature tenability of photonic crystal fiber filled with Fe3O4nanoparticle fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. L.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, C. H. Shi, Y. Song, and M. Liu, “Characterization of long-period fiber gratings written by CO2 laser in twisted single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4863–4869 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

Liu, Y.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Temperature tenability of photonic crystal fiber filled with Fe3O4nanoparticle fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. H.

L. B. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. H. Liu, and J. X. Sun, “In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2692–2694 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loock, H-P.

Z. B. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H-P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1105–1107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, W.

T. Du, S. Yuan, and W. Luo, “Thermal lens coupled magneto-optical effect in a ferrofluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1844–1846 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mairov, M. M.

M. M. Mairov, “Faraday effect in magnetic fluids at a frequency 10 GHz,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H. Y.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, X. W. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators B 160, 720–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miao, Y. P.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Temperature tenability of photonic crystal fiber filled with Fe3O4nanoparticle fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mo, Q. J.

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using a single ultra-long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2700–2702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nalawade, S. M.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pu, S. L.

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, and Y. P. Chen, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, C. H. Shi, Y. Song, and M. Liu, “Characterization of long-period fiber gratings written by CO2 laser in twisted single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4863–4869 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, J. L. Wang, and Y. Song, “A highly sensitive fiber-optic refractive index sensor based on an edge-written long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1946–1948 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using a single ultra-long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2700–2702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ridler, P. J.

M. Xu and P. J. Ridler, “Linear dichroism and birefringence effects in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 326–332 (1997).

Seo, J. W.

J. W. Seo, H. Kim, and S. Sung, “Design and fabrication of a magnetic microfluidic light modulator using magnetic fluid,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272–276, e1787–e1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, X. W. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators B 160, 720–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C. H.

T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, C. H. Shi, Y. Song, and M. Liu, “Characterization of long-period fiber gratings written by CO2 laser in twisted single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4863–4869 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Siang, L. W.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. X. Jin, Y. F. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber sensor based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 37, 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, C. H. Shi, Y. Song, and M. Liu, “Characterization of long-period fiber gratings written by CO2 laser in twisted single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4863–4869 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, J. L. Wang, and Y. Song, “A highly sensitive fiber-optic refractive index sensor based on an edge-written long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1946–1948 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. X.

L. B. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. H. Liu, and J. X. Sun, “In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2692–2694 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sung, S.

J. W. Seo, H. Kim, and S. Sung, “Design and fabrication of a magnetic microfluidic light modulator using magnetic fluid,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272–276, e1787–e1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tan, C.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, X. W. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators B 160, 720–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, H. V.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z. B.

Z. B. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H-P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1105–1107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. L.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. L.

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, J. L. Wang, and Y. Song, “A highly sensitive fiber-optic refractive index sensor based on an edge-written long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1946–1948 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, X. W. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators B 160, 720–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. C.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. X. Jin, Y. F. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber sensor based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 37, 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. W.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, X. W. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators B 160, 720–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xie, F.

F. Xie, X. Chen, and L. Zhang, “High stability interleaved fiber Michelson interferometer for on-line precision displacement measurements,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1301–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. P.

D. C. Li, H. P. Xu, X. Z. He, and H. Q. Lan, “Theoretical and experimental study on the magnetic fluid seal of reciprocating shaft,” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 289, 399–402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

M. Xu and P. J. Ridler, “Linear dichroism and birefringence effects in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 326–332 (1997).

Yam, S. S.-H.

Z. B. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H-P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1105–1107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. C.

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, “Designing the refractive indices by using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2423–2436 (2003).

Yang, J.

L. B. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. H. Liu, and J. X. Sun, “In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2692–2694 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M. H.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, and S. Y. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, “Designing the refractive indices by using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2423–2436 (2003).

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, and H. E. Horng, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L. B.

L. B. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. H. Liu, and J. X. Sun, “In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2692–2694 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

T. Du, S. Yuan, and W. Luo, “Thermal lens coupled magneto-optical effect in a ferrofluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1844–1846 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yun, D.

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

Zhang, G. B.

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, X. W. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators B 160, 720–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Temperature tenability of photonic crystal fiber filled with Fe3O4nanoparticle fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

Zhang, K.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Temperature tenability of photonic crystal fiber filled with Fe3O4nanoparticle fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

F. Xie, X. Chen, and L. Zhang, “High stability interleaved fiber Michelson interferometer for on-line precision displacement measurements,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1301–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. F.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. X. Jin, Y. F. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber sensor based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 37, 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, X. Li, J. J. Chen, and Z. W. Lii, “Novel optical fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 392–394 (2010).

Zhu, T.

T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, C. H. Shi, Y. Song, and M. Liu, “Characterization of long-period fiber gratings written by CO2 laser in twisted single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4863–4869 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, J. L. Wang, and Y. Song, “A highly sensitive fiber-optic refractive index sensor based on an edge-written long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1946–1948 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using a single ultra-long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2700–2702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zu, P.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. X. Jin, Y. F. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber sensor based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 37, 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, and H. E. Horng, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Du, S. Yuan, and W. Luo, “Thermal lens coupled magneto-optical effect in a ferrofluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1844–1846 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu and P. J. Ridler, “Linear dichroism and birefringence effects in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 326–332 (1997).

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1–3 (2007).

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, K. Zhang, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Temperature tenability of photonic crystal fiber filled with Fe3O4nanoparticle fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, “Designing the refractive indices by using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2423–2436 (2003).

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Pu, X. F. Chen, and Y. P. Chen, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett.

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, X. Li, J. J. Chen, and Z. W. Lii, “Novel optical fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 392–394 (2010).

Compos. Sci. Techol.

I. B. Kwon, C. G. Kim, and C. S. Hong, “Simultaneous sensing of the strain and points of failure in composite beams with an embedded fiber optic Michelson sensor,” Compos. Sci. Techol. 57, 1639–1651 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, and Q. J. Mo, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using a single ultra-long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2700–2702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, J. L. Wang, and Y. Song, “A highly sensitive fiber-optic refractive index sensor based on an edge-written long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 1946–1948 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, C. H. Shi, Y. Song, and M. Liu, “Characterization of long-period fiber gratings written by CO2 laser in twisted single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4863–4869 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mat.

D. C. Li, H. P. Xu, X. Z. He, and H. Q. Lan, “Theoretical and experimental study on the magnetic fluid seal of reciprocating shaft,” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 289, 399–402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater.

M. M. Mairov, “Faraday effect in magnetic fluids at a frequency 10 GHz,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Seo, H. Kim, and S. Sung, “Design and fabrication of a magnetic microfluidic light modulator using magnetic fluid,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272–276, e1787–e1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hong, “Optical switch devices using the magnetic fluid thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 178–181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng.

F. Xie, X. Chen, and L. Zhang, “High stability interleaved fiber Michelson interferometer for on-line precision displacement measurements,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 1301–1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

L. B. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. H. Liu, and J. X. Sun, “In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2692–2694 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H-P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1105–1107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, and S. Y. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. X. Jin, Y. F. Zhang, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber sensor based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 37, 398–400 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

H. Y. Meng, W. Shen, G. B. Zhang, X. W. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators B 160, 720–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the Michelson interferometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modal intensity distribution for such a structure (a) along the propagation distance and (b) at Z=600μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mode-field radius distribution along the propagation distance.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized core mode intensity distribution along propagation distance.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Schematic diagram showing the setup for the fabrication of Michelson interferometers. (b) Cross section of the SMF. (c) Microscopic optical image of the fabricated micronotch.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Reflective spectra of the Michelson interferometers (a) L2=1cm, and (b) L2=2.5cm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Proposed fiber-magnetic sensor. (a) Schematic diagram and (b) fabricated sensor.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured reflective spectra of the fiber-magnetic sensor under different magnetic-field strengths.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Optical characteristics of the fiber-magnetic sensors with different arm’s diameters.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Relationship between the interference arm’s diameter and sensitivity.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Reflective spectra of the fiber-magnetic sensor with interference arm’s diameter of 50 μm.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Relationship between the wavelength shift and variation of the magnetic-field strength.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=Icore+Icladding,m+2IcoreIcladding,mcos(Φm),
Φm=4πΔneffmLλ,
λn=4πΔneffmL(2n+1)π.
δλn4δneffmL(2n+1).
nMF=εMF.
εMF=εcol(1f)εliq(f1)+[εcol(1f)+εliq(f1)]2+4(1+f)2εcolεliq2(1+f),

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