Abstract

This paper reviews recent work in the area of silicon photonic devices and circuits for monolithic and heterogeneous integration of circuits and systems on a chip. In this context, it presents fabrication results for producing low-loss silicon waveguides without etching. Resonators and add–drop distributed filters utilizing sidewall modulation fabricated in a single lithography and etching step are demonstrated. It also presents an optical pulse compressor that monolithically integrates self-phase modulation and anomalous dispersion compensation devices on a silicon chip. As an example of heterogeneous integration, we demonstrate vertical emitting metallo-dielectric nanolasers integrated onto a silicon platform. Future research directions toward large-scale photonic circuits and systems on a chip also are discussed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  4. M. Bruel, “Silicon-on-insulator material technology,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1201–1202 (1995).
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  6. G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, 12035–12039 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
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  8. K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express 20, 8681–8688 (2012).
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  9. D. T. H. Tan, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Monolithic nonlinear pulse compressor on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 1, 116 (2010).
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  11. R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
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  13. M. P. Nezhad, O. Bondarenko, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, and Y. Fainman, “Etch-free low loss silicon waveguides using hydrogen silsesquioxane oxidation masks,” Opt. Express 19, 18827–18832 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. O. Bondarenko, A. Simic, Q. Gu, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wafer bonded subwavelength metallo-dielectric laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 608–616 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of submicron square-like silicon waveguide using optimized LOCOS process,” Opt. Express 18, 18592–18597 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. R. McKinnon, D.-X. Xu, C. Storey, E. Post, A. Densmore, A. Delage, P. Waldron, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 18971–18982 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Chip-scale dispersion engineering using chirped vertical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 33, 3013–3015 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Cladding-modulated Bragg gratings in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1357–1359 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Coupled chirped vertical gratings for on-chip group velocity dispersion engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Zamek, D. T. H. Tan, M. Khajavikhan, M. Ayache, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Compact chip-scale filter based on curved waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3477–3479 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Ikeda and Y. Fainman, “Nonlinear Fabry–Perot resonator with a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3486–3488 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, “Optical bistability on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2387–2389 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. Priem, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Optical bistability and pulsating behaviour in silicon-on-insulator ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 13, 9623–9628 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Q. F. Xu and M. Lipson, “Carrier-induced optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31, 341–343(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, D. T. H. Tan, S. Zamek, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Optical bistability in a silicon waveguide distributed Bragg reflector Fabry–Perot resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2352–2355 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Y. Wang, A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, B. Rao, Y. Fainman, and T. Nguyen, “Design and analysis of a narrowband filter for optical platform,” in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1633–1636.
  34. M. Peccianti, M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Subpicosecond optical pulse compression via an integrated nonlinear chirper,” Opt. Express 18, 7625–7633 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  35. T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514–519 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  36. P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. D. Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4, 862–868 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  40. D. Pasquariello and K. Hjort, “Plasma-assisted InP-to-Si low temperature wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 118–131 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  41. D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, D. C. Chapman, C.-L. Chen, P. W. Juodawlkis, and O. Raday, “High-quality 150 mm InP-to-silicon epitaxial transfer for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 12, H101–H104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  42. J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 21524–21531 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  43. I. Richter, P. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design considerations of form birefringent microstructures,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2421–2429 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  44. F. Xu, R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, Y. Fainman, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication, modeling, and characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2457–2459 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  45. R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, A. Scherer, and Y. Fainman, “Polarizing beam splitter based on the anisotropic spectral reflectivity characteristic of form-birefringent multilayer gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 761–763 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  46. R. C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. P. Chou, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627–1636 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  47. U. Levy and Y. Fainman, “Dispersion properties of inhomogeneous nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 881–889 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  48. U. Levy, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Engineering space-variant inhomogeneous media for polarization control,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1718–1720 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  49. U. Levy, M. Nezhad, H. C. Kim, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Implementation of a graded-index medium by use of subwavelength structures with graded fill factor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 724–733 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  50. U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  51. C. H. Chen, L. Pang, C. H. Tsai, U. Levy, and Y. Fainman, “Compact and integrated TM-pass waveguide polarizer,” Opt. Express 13, 5347–5352 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, 12035–12039 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express 20, 8681–8688 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, D. T. H. Tan, S. Zamek, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Optical bistability in a silicon waveguide distributed Bragg reflector Fabry–Perot resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2352–2355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. P. Nezhad, O. Bondarenko, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, and Y. Fainman, “Etch-free low loss silicon waveguides using hydrogen silsesquioxane oxidation masks,” Opt. Express 19, 18827–18832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, S. Zamek, A. Mizrahi, M. P. Nezhad, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, and Y. Fainman, “Wide bandwidth, low loss 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer on silicon for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 19, 2401–2409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Bondarenko, A. Simic, Q. Gu, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wafer bonded subwavelength metallo-dielectric laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 608–616 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. T. H. Tan, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Monolithic nonlinear pulse compressor on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 1, 116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Subpicosecond optical pulse compression via an integrated nonlinear chirper,” Opt. Express 18, 7625–7633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. D. Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4, 862–868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of submicron square-like silicon waveguide using optimized LOCOS process,” Opt. Express 18, 18592–18597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zamek, D. T. H. Tan, M. Khajavikhan, M. Ayache, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Compact chip-scale filter based on curved waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3477–3479 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

W. R. McKinnon, D.-X. Xu, C. Storey, E. Post, A. Densmore, A. Delage, P. Waldron, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 18971–18982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Cladding-modulated Bragg gratings in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1357–1359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Coupled chirped vertical gratings for on-chip group velocity dispersion engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Low loss etchless silicon photonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 4752–4757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, D. C. Chapman, C.-L. Chen, P. W. Juodawlkis, and O. Raday, “High-quality 150 mm InP-to-silicon epitaxial transfer for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 12, H101–H104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Ikeda, M. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wavelength selective coupler with vertical gratings on silicon chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Chip-scale dispersion engineering using chirped vertical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 33, 3013–3015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Kim, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Resonant waveguide device with vertical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 539–541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Kim, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Tunable transmission resonant filter and modulator with vertical gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1147–1151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Xu and M. Lipson, “Carrier-induced optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31, 341–343(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikeda and Y. Fainman, “Nonlinear Fabry–Perot resonator with a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3486–3488 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. Priem, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Optical bistability and pulsating behaviour in silicon-on-insulator ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 13, 9623–9628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, L. Pang, C. H. Tsai, U. Levy, and Y. Fainman, “Compact and integrated TM-pass waveguide polarizer,” Opt. Express 13, 5347–5352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, M. Nezhad, H. C. Kim, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Implementation of a graded-index medium by use of subwavelength structures with graded fill factor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 724–733 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

U. Levy and Y. Fainman, “Dispersion properties of inhomogeneous nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 881–889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Engineering space-variant inhomogeneous media for polarization control,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1718–1720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514–519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, “Optical bistability on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2387–2389 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. Pasquariello and K. Hjort, “Plasma-assisted InP-to-Si low temperature wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 118–131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. P. Chou, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627–1636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, A. Scherer, and Y. Fainman, “Polarizing beam splitter based on the anisotropic spectral reflectivity characteristic of form-birefringent multilayer gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 761–763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

I. Richter, P. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design considerations of form birefringent microstructures,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2421–2429 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, Y. Fainman, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication, modeling, and characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2457–2459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Bruel, “Silicon-on-insulator material technology,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1201–1202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

N. Sankey, D. Prelewitz, and T. Brown, “All-optical switching in a nonlinear periodic-wave-guide structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1427–1429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

B. Weiss, G. Reed, S. Toh, R. Soref, and F. Namavar, “Optical wave-guides in SIMOX structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 19–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. Soref and J. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 873–879 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abashin, M.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, “Optical bistability on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2387–2389 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ayache, M.

S. Zamek, D. T. H. Tan, M. Khajavikhan, M. Ayache, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Compact chip-scale filter based on curved waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3477–3479 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

G. Priem, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Optical bistability and pulsating behaviour in silicon-on-insulator ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 13, 9623–9628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express 20, 8681–8688 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, J. T.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

G. Priem, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Optical bistability and pulsating behaviour in silicon-on-insulator ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 13, 9623–9628 (2005).
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M. P. Nezhad, O. Bondarenko, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, and Y. Fainman, “Etch-free low loss silicon waveguides using hydrogen silsesquioxane oxidation masks,” Opt. Express 19, 18827–18832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Bondarenko, A. Simic, Q. Gu, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wafer bonded subwavelength metallo-dielectric laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 608–616 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
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D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, D. C. Chapman, C.-L. Chen, P. W. Juodawlkis, and O. Raday, “High-quality 150 mm InP-to-silicon epitaxial transfer for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 12, H101–H104 (2009).
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A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
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T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514–519 (2004).
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D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, D. C. Chapman, C.-L. Chen, P. W. Juodawlkis, and O. Raday, “High-quality 150 mm InP-to-silicon epitaxial transfer for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 12, H101–H104 (2009).
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C. H. Chen, L. Pang, C. H. Tsai, U. Levy, and Y. Fainman, “Compact and integrated TM-pass waveguide polarizer,” Opt. Express 13, 5347–5352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-L.

D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, D. C. Chapman, C.-L. Chen, P. W. Juodawlkis, and O. Raday, “High-quality 150 mm InP-to-silicon epitaxial transfer for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 12, H101–H104 (2009).
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Chen, L.

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Low loss etchless silicon photonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 4752–4757 (2009).
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R. C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. P. Chou, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627–1636 (1997).
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F. Xu, R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, Y. Fainman, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication, modeling, and characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2457–2459 (1995).
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R. C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. P. Chou, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627–1636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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M. Peccianti, M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Subpicosecond optical pulse compression via an integrated nonlinear chirper,” Opt. Express 18, 7625–7633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
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Colman, P.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. D. Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4, 862–868 (2010).
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P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. D. Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4, 862–868 (2010).
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B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
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U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, 12035–12039 (2012).
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D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, S. Zamek, A. Mizrahi, M. P. Nezhad, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, and Y. Fainman, “Wide bandwidth, low loss 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer on silicon for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 19, 2401–2409 (2011).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
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W. R. McKinnon, D.-X. Xu, C. Storey, E. Post, A. Densmore, A. Delage, P. Waldron, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 18971–18982 (2009).
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W. R. McKinnon, D.-X. Xu, C. Storey, E. Post, A. Densmore, A. Delage, P. Waldron, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 18971–18982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Desiatov, B.

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of submicron square-like silicon waveguide using optimized LOCOS process,” Opt. Express 18, 18592–18597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

G. Priem, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Optical bistability and pulsating behaviour in silicon-on-insulator ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 13, 9623–9628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, D. T. H. Tan, S. Zamek, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Optical bistability in a silicon waveguide distributed Bragg reflector Fabry–Perot resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2352–2355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, O. Bondarenko, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, and Y. Fainman, “Etch-free low loss silicon waveguides using hydrogen silsesquioxane oxidation masks,” Opt. Express 19, 18827–18832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, S. Zamek, A. Mizrahi, M. P. Nezhad, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, and Y. Fainman, “Wide bandwidth, low loss 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer on silicon for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 19, 2401–2409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Bondarenko, A. Simic, Q. Gu, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wafer bonded subwavelength metallo-dielectric laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 608–616 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zamek, D. T. H. Tan, M. Khajavikhan, M. Ayache, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Compact chip-scale filter based on curved waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3477–3479 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Monolithic nonlinear pulse compressor on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 1, 116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Coupled chirped vertical gratings for on-chip group velocity dispersion engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Cladding-modulated Bragg gratings in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1357–1359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikeda, M. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wavelength selective coupler with vertical gratings on silicon chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Chip-scale dispersion engineering using chirped vertical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 33, 3013–3015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Kim, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Tunable transmission resonant filter and modulator with vertical gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1147–1151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Kim, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Resonant waveguide device with vertical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 539–541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikeda and Y. Fainman, “Nonlinear Fabry–Perot resonator with a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3486–3488 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, L. Pang, C. H. Tsai, U. Levy, and Y. Fainman, “Compact and integrated TM-pass waveguide polarizer,” Opt. Express 13, 5347–5352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, M. Nezhad, H. C. Kim, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Implementation of a graded-index medium by use of subwavelength structures with graded fill factor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 724–733 (2005).
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U. Levy, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Engineering space-variant inhomogeneous media for polarization control,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1718–1720 (2004).
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R. C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. P. Chou, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627–1636 (1997).
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R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, A. Scherer, and Y. Fainman, “Polarizing beam splitter based on the anisotropic spectral reflectivity characteristic of form-birefringent multilayer gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 761–763 (1996).
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F. Xu, R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, Y. Fainman, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication, modeling, and characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2457–2459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, B. Rao, Y. Fainman, and T. Nguyen, “Design and analysis of a narrowband filter for optical platform,” in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1633–1636.

Fang, A.

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, M.

M. Peccianti, M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Subpicosecond optical pulse compression via an integrated nonlinear chirper,” Opt. Express 18, 7625–7633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, 1985).

Goykhman, I.

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of submicron square-like silicon waveguide using optimized LOCOS process,” Opt. Express 18, 18592–18597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grieco, A.

A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, D. T. H. Tan, S. Zamek, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Optical bistability in a silicon waveguide distributed Bragg reflector Fabry–Perot resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2352–2355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, B. Rao, Y. Fainman, and T. Nguyen, “Design and analysis of a narrowband filter for optical platform,” in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1633–1636.

Gu, Q.

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Bondarenko, A. Simic, Q. Gu, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wafer bonded subwavelength metallo-dielectric laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 608–616 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hjort, K.

D. Pasquariello and K. Hjort, “Plasma-assisted InP-to-Si low temperature wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 118–131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Husko, C.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. D. Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4, 862–868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, K.

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, S. Zamek, A. Mizrahi, M. P. Nezhad, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, and Y. Fainman, “Wide bandwidth, low loss 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer on silicon for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 19, 2401–2409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Coupled chirped vertical gratings for on-chip group velocity dispersion engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Cladding-modulated Bragg gratings in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1357–1359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikeda, M. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wavelength selective coupler with vertical gratings on silicon chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Chip-scale dispersion engineering using chirped vertical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 33, 3013–3015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Kim, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Tunable transmission resonant filter and modulator with vertical gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1147–1151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Kim, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Resonant waveguide device with vertical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 539–541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikeda and Y. Fainman, “Nonlinear Fabry–Perot resonator with a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3486–3488 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

W. R. McKinnon, D.-X. Xu, C. Storey, E. Post, A. Densmore, A. Delage, P. Waldron, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 18971–18982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Juodawlkis, P. W.

D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, D. C. Chapman, C.-L. Chen, P. W. Juodawlkis, and O. Raday, “High-quality 150 mm InP-to-silicon epitaxial transfer for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 12, H101–H104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karle, T. J.

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514–519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khajavikhan, M.

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, O. Bondarenko, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, and Y. Fainman, “Etch-free low loss silicon waveguides using hydrogen silsesquioxane oxidation masks,” Opt. Express 19, 18827–18832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zamek, D. T. H. Tan, M. Khajavikhan, M. Ayache, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Compact chip-scale filter based on curved waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3477–3479 (2010).
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G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, 12035–12039 (2012).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
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U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901 (2007).
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U. Levy and Y. Fainman, “Dispersion properties of inhomogeneous nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 881–889 (2004).
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U. Levy, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Engineering space-variant inhomogeneous media for polarization control,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1718–1720 (2004).
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G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, 12035–12039 (2012).
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K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express 20, 8681–8688 (2012).
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S. Zamek, D. T. H. Tan, M. Khajavikhan, M. Ayache, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Compact chip-scale filter based on curved waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3477–3479 (2010).
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M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
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A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
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D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, D. C. Chapman, C.-L. Chen, P. W. Juodawlkis, and O. Raday, “High-quality 150 mm InP-to-silicon epitaxial transfer for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 12, H101–H104 (2009).
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M. Peccianti, M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Subpicosecond optical pulse compression via an integrated nonlinear chirper,” Opt. Express 18, 7625–7633 (2010).
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J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Low loss etchless silicon photonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 4752–4757 (2009).
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W. R. McKinnon, D.-X. Xu, C. Storey, E. Post, A. Densmore, A. Delage, P. Waldron, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 18971–18982 (2009).
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M. Peccianti, M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Subpicosecond optical pulse compression via an integrated nonlinear chirper,” Opt. Express 18, 7625–7633 (2010).
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R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
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P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. D. Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4, 862–868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. D. Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4, 862–868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salvekar, A. A.

R. C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. P. Chou, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627–1636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sankey, N.

N. Sankey, D. Prelewitz, and T. Brown, “All-optical switching in a nonlinear periodic-wave-guide structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1427–1429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saperstein, R. E.

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Chip-scale dispersion engineering using chirped vertical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 33, 3013–3015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

R. C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. P. Chou, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627–1636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, A. Scherer, and Y. Fainman, “Polarizing beam splitter based on the anisotropic spectral reflectivity characteristic of form-birefringent multilayer gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 761–763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, Y. Fainman, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication, modeling, and characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2457–2459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

W. R. McKinnon, D.-X. Xu, C. Storey, E. Post, A. Densmore, A. Delage, P. Waldron, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 18971–18982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express 20, 8681–8688 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express 20, 8681–8688 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, I.

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, 12035–12039 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, S. Zamek, A. Mizrahi, M. P. Nezhad, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, and Y. Fainman, “Wide bandwidth, low loss 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer on silicon for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 19, 2401–2409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simic, A.

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Bondarenko, A. Simic, Q. Gu, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wafer bonded subwavelength metallo-dielectric laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 608–616 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, O. Bondarenko, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, and Y. Fainman, “Etch-free low loss silicon waveguides using hydrogen silsesquioxane oxidation masks,” Opt. Express 19, 18827–18832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, D. T. H. Tan, S. Zamek, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Optical bistability in a silicon waveguide distributed Bragg reflector Fabry–Perot resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2352–2355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Bondarenko, A. Simic, Q. Gu, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wafer bonded subwavelength metallo-dielectric laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 608–616 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Chip-scale dispersion engineering using chirped vertical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 33, 3013–3015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, B. Rao, Y. Fainman, and T. Nguyen, “Design and analysis of a narrowband filter for optical platform,” in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1633–1636.

Slutsky, B. A.

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Weiss, G. Reed, S. Toh, R. Soref, and F. Namavar, “Optical wave-guides in SIMOX structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 19–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref and J. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 873–879 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Storey, C.

W. R. McKinnon, D.-X. Xu, C. Storey, E. Post, A. Densmore, A. Delage, P. Waldron, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 18971–18982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P.

I. Richter, P. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design considerations of form birefringent microstructures,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2421–2429 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P. C.

D. T. H. Tan, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Monolithic nonlinear pulse compressor on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 1, 116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. P. Chou, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627–1636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, A. Scherer, and Y. Fainman, “Polarizing beam splitter based on the anisotropic spectral reflectivity characteristic of form-birefringent multilayer gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 761–763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, Y. Fainman, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication, modeling, and characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2457–2459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D. T. H.

A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, D. T. H. Tan, S. Zamek, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Optical bistability in a silicon waveguide distributed Bragg reflector Fabry–Perot resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2352–2355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, S. Zamek, A. Mizrahi, M. P. Nezhad, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, and Y. Fainman, “Wide bandwidth, low loss 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer on silicon for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 19, 2401–2409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zamek, D. T. H. Tan, M. Khajavikhan, M. Ayache, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Compact chip-scale filter based on curved waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3477–3479 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Monolithic nonlinear pulse compressor on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 1, 116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Cladding-modulated Bragg gratings in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1357–1359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Coupled chirped vertical gratings for on-chip group velocity dispersion engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Chip-scale dispersion engineering using chirped vertical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 33, 3013–3015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, 12035–12039 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Toh, S.

B. Weiss, G. Reed, S. Toh, R. Soref, and F. Namavar, “Optical wave-guides in SIMOX structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 19–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. H.

U. Levy, M. Nezhad, H. C. Kim, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Implementation of a graded-index medium by use of subwavelength structures with graded fill factor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 724–733 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, L. Pang, C. H. Tsai, U. Levy, and Y. Fainman, “Compact and integrated TM-pass waveguide polarizer,” Opt. Express 13, 5347–5352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Engineering space-variant inhomogeneous media for polarization control,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1718–1720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tyan, R. C.

R. C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. P. Chou, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627–1636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, A. Scherer, and Y. Fainman, “Polarizing beam splitter based on the anisotropic spectral reflectivity characteristic of form-birefringent multilayer gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 761–763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, Y. Fainman, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication, modeling, and characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2457–2459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
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G. Priem, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Optical bistability and pulsating behaviour in silicon-on-insulator ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 13, 9623–9628 (2005).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

W. R. McKinnon, D.-X. Xu, C. Storey, E. Post, A. Densmore, A. Delage, P. Waldron, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 18971–18982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, B. Rao, Y. Fainman, and T. Nguyen, “Design and analysis of a narrowband filter for optical platform,” in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1633–1636.

Weiss, B.

B. Weiss, G. Reed, S. Toh, R. Soref, and F. Namavar, “Optical wave-guides in SIMOX structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 19–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514–519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. D. Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4, 862–868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

W. R. McKinnon, D.-X. Xu, C. Storey, E. Post, A. Densmore, A. Delage, P. Waldron, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 18971–18982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

R. C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. P. Chou, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627–1636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, Y. Fainman, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication, modeling, and characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2457–2459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Richter, P. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design considerations of form birefringent microstructures,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2421–2429 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express 20, 8681–8688 (2012).
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Q. F. Xu and M. Lipson, “Carrier-induced optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31, 341–343(2006).
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G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, 12035–12039 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
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Yoon, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
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Yoshimoto, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zamek, S.

A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, D. T. H. Tan, S. Zamek, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Optical bistability in a silicon waveguide distributed Bragg reflector Fabry–Perot resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2352–2355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, S. Zamek, A. Mizrahi, M. P. Nezhad, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, and Y. Fainman, “Wide bandwidth, low loss 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer on silicon for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 19, 2401–2409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zamek, D. T. H. Tan, M. Khajavikhan, M. Ayache, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Compact chip-scale filter based on curved waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3477–3479 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, 12035–12039 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, S. Zamek, A. Mizrahi, M. P. Nezhad, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, and Y. Fainman, “Wide bandwidth, low loss 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer on silicon for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 19, 2401–2409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
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Appl. Opt.

I. Richter, P. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design considerations of form birefringent microstructures,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2421–2429 (1995).
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K. Ikeda, M. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wavelength selective coupler with vertical gratings on silicon chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201111 (2008).
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D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Coupled chirped vertical gratings for on-chip group velocity dispersion engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141109 (2009).
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B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
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[CrossRef]

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IEEE Photonics J.

O. Bondarenko, A. Simic, Q. Gu, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Wafer bonded subwavelength metallo-dielectric laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 608–616 (2011).
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H.-C. Kim, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Tunable transmission resonant filter and modulator with vertical gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1147–1151 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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R. C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. P. Chou, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627–1636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy and Y. Fainman, “Dispersion properties of inhomogeneous nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 881–889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, M. Nezhad, H. C. Kim, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Implementation of a graded-index medium by use of subwavelength structures with graded fill factor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 724–733 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

D. T. H. Tan, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Monolithic nonlinear pulse compressor on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 1, 116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

P. Colman, C. Husko, S. Combrié, I. Sagnes, C. W. Wong, and A. D. Rossi, “Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4, 862–868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433, 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, O. Bondarenko, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, and Y. Fainman, “Etch-free low loss silicon waveguides using hydrogen silsesquioxane oxidation masks,” Opt. Express 19, 18827–18832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, J. Yao, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Lee, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macrochip interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, 12035–12039 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express 20, 8681–8688 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Low loss etchless silicon photonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 4752–4757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of submicron square-like silicon waveguide using optimized LOCOS process,” Opt. Express 18, 18592–18597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. R. McKinnon, D.-X. Xu, C. Storey, E. Post, A. Densmore, A. Delage, P. Waldron, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Extracting coupling and loss coefficients from a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 17, 18971–18982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Subpicosecond optical pulse compression via an integrated nonlinear chirper,” Opt. Express 18, 7625–7633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Priem, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Optical bistability and pulsating behaviour in silicon-on-insulator ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 13, 9623–9628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, S. Zamek, A. Mizrahi, M. P. Nezhad, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, and Y. Fainman, “Wide bandwidth, low loss 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer on silicon for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 19, 2401–2409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, L. Pang, C. H. Tsai, U. Levy, and Y. Fainman, “Compact and integrated TM-pass waveguide polarizer,” Opt. Express 13, 5347–5352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

F. Xu, R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, Y. Fainman, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication, modeling, and characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2457–2459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, A. Scherer, and Y. Fainman, “Polarizing beam splitter based on the anisotropic spectral reflectivity characteristic of form-birefringent multilayer gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 761–763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Levy, C. H. Tsai, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Engineering space-variant inhomogeneous media for polarization control,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1718–1720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Zamek, D. T. H. Tan, M. Khajavikhan, M. Ayache, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Compact chip-scale filter based on curved waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3477–3479 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Xu and M. Lipson, “Carrier-induced optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31, 341–343(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikeda and Y. Fainman, “Nonlinear Fabry–Perot resonator with a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3486–3488 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, “Optical bistability on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2387–2389 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman, “Chip-scale dispersion engineering using chirped vertical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 33, 3013–3015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Cladding-modulated Bragg gratings in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1357–1359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Kim, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, “Resonant waveguide device with vertical gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 539–541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Wang, A. Grieco, B. Slutsky, B. Rao, Y. Fainman, and T. Nguyen, “Design and analysis of a narrowband filter for optical platform,” in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1633–1636.

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Thick HSQ after processing in standard exposure and development recipe, which results in a clogged waveguide–ring gap due to proximity effects. Note that the sidewalls are also sloping. (b) Vertical sidewalls and clear gap as a result of using a high-contrast HSQ development recipe.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Different waveguide profiles obtained by changing the oxidation time and mask thickness. (a) Rib waveguide. (b) Buried channel waveguide.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Normalized transmission through etch-free ring-loaded waveguide. (b) Resonant dip at 1598 nm with FWHM of 1.3 pm. (c) Resonance at 1604 nm exhibits mode splitting with FWHM of 1.1 pm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Top and cross-sectional views of the resonator under consideration.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Coupling coefficient κ and its reciprocal, the Bragg length L B , for the dimensions in Fig. 3(a) and W s = 500 nm , λ = 1.55 μm , in relation to the modulation depth Δ W s . (b) Transmission spectrum of the resonator calculated with the waveguide attenuation α = 10 cm 1 and the grating length L = 2.1 L B .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Scanning electron micrograph before sputtering the SiO 2 upper-cladding of the fabricated device. (b) Transmission spectrum of the fabricated device.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Device schematic of the add–drop filter.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured drop port spectra for two devices with W 2 of 380 and 400 nm, and other parameters, L = 400 μm and G = 60 nm .

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured spectra of a 1 × 4 WDM filter.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Power dependence of a resonance peak of a silicon waveguide DBR Fabry–Perot resonator. The asymmetry that develops at high pump powers is indicative of bistability.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Experimental and theoretical response of a silicon waveguide DBR Fabry–Perot resonator. The switching between high and low states in the experimental runs is driven by noise in the driving laser as the power is tuned.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(a) Schematic of the nonlinear optical pulse compressor. (b) Mode profile of the silicon waveguide. (c) Scanning electron micrograph of the dispersive grating.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

(a) Spectral and (b) temporal evolution of the optical pulse compressor as the input peak power is increased. The inset shows the input (top), measured (middle), and modeled (bottom) output pulses.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

(a) Output pulse FWHM as a function of input peak power. (b) Ratio of the output peak power to the input peak power.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

(a) Schematic drawing of the wafer-bonded metallo-dielectric resonator design. (b) Finite element method simulation of TE 021 mode in metallo-dielectric resonator with R out 460 nm optimized for 1550 nm wavelength.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Scanning electron microscope pictures of (a) a laser pillar after two step RIE and (b) the same pillar after PECVD of a 200 nm thick SiO 2 layer.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

(a) Room temperature light–light curve for a nanolaser with gain core radius of R core 450 nm . The same data set is shown in the bottom inset as a log–log plot. The upper inset is the lasing spectrum obtained with a spectrometer; measured linewidth is 4.5 nm. (b) Light–light curve for a laser with R core 250 nm at 77 K with the corresponding log–log plot in the inset graph.

Equations (1)

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E 1 ( z ) z = i β 1 ( λ ) | β 1 ( λ ) | κ ( z ) E 2 ( z ) e i Δ β ( λ ) z E 2 ( z ) z = i β 2 ( λ ) | β 2 ( λ ) | κ * ( z ) E 1 ( z ) e i Δ β ( λ ) z ,

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