Abstract

A ground-based airglow imaging interferometer (GBAII) is proposed to measure simultaneously the temperature and wind in the mesopause region by using airglow emissions of the O2(01) band. Since it employs a wide angle Michelson interferometer with a large air gap, combined with the rotational temperature measurement, both the phase and spectral information can be obtained from the imaging results. Based on the optimization and calibrations for the optical system in the laboratory, we developed and assembled a prototype of a GBAII, and carried out one observation at the observatory of Xi’an University of Technology on 12 June 2012. The observed temperatures fall mainly on the range of 167–196 K, while both the zonal and meridional winds faintly show the feature of half-day oscillation. The consistent trends between the observation results and the standard atmospheric models suggest that the GBAII has achieved our basic design goals.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

2004

2003

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 3-1–3-64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. G. Shepherd, M. Hagan, and Y. Portnyagin, “Planetary scale mesopause observing system: PSMOS 2000 workshop,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1183–1199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Panchevaa, N. J. Mitchella, and M. E. Haganb, “Global-scale tidal structure in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere during the PSMOS campaign of June–August 1999 and comparisons with the global-scale wave model,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1011–1035 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. E. Ward, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, and N. Rowlands, “Waves Michelson interferometer: a visible/near-IR interferometer for observing middle atmosphere dynamics and constituents,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 100–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Shiokawa, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, M. K. Ejiri, T. Ogawa, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, and R. H. Wiens, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

1997

1996

1995

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. H. Wiens, S. P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985

1969

I. Takeuchi, K. Misawa, and I. Aoyama, “Rotational temperatures and intensities of OH(6-2) and OH(8-3) bands in the night airglow,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 41, 387–395 (1969).

Alexander, M. J.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 3-1–3-64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alunni, J. M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aoyama, I.

I. Takeuchi, K. Misawa, and I. Aoyama, “Rotational temperatures and intensities of OH(6-2) and OH(8-3) bands in the night airglow,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 41, 387–395 (1969).

Arsenault, D. L.

Batista, P.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beig, G.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bird, J. C.

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bourg, L.

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Herse, and L. Bourg, “MICADO wind measurements from observatoire de Haute-provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bremer, J.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S.

Brun, J.-F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brune, S.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. G.

Y. H. Tang, H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, H. C. Liu, X. G. Cao, X. D. Duan, Q. J. Jia, O. Y. Qu, and Y. Wu, “The forward model for the ground based airglow imaging interferometer for the upper atmospheric wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Chang, L. C.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Charlot, P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. M.

Cho, Y.-M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clemesha, B.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clemesha, B. R.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Doushkina, V. V.

Du, J.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. D.

Y. H. Tang, H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, H. C. Liu, X. G. Cao, X. D. Duan, Q. J. Jia, O. Y. Qu, and Y. Wu, “The forward model for the ground based airglow imaging interferometer for the upper atmospheric wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Duboin, M.-L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eckermann, S.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Ejiri, M. K.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, M. K. Ejiri, T. Ogawa, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, and R. H. Wiens, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

Ern, M.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fadnavis, S.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fauliot, V.

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Herse, and L. Bourg, “MICADO wind measurements from observatoire de Haute-provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fomichev, V. I.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

French, W. J. R.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fritts, D. C.

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 3-1–3-64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H. Y.

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, and H. C. Liu, “Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5655–5661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Tang, H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, H. C. Liu, X. G. Cao, X. D. Duan, Q. J. Jia, O. Y. Qu, and Y. Wu, “The forward model for the ground based airglow imaging interferometer for the upper atmospheric wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Gattinger, R. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, and N. Rowlands, “Waves Michelson interferometer: a visible/near-IR interferometer for observing middle atmosphere dynamics and constituents,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 100–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, S. Brown, A. Moise, D. Liang, G. Sellar, G. G. Shepherd, and J. Wimperis, “ERWIN: an E-region wind interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2913–2922 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Kendall, and J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Geller, M.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Girod, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, D.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Goncharenko, L. P.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, M.

G. G. Shepherd, M. Hagan, and Y. Portnyagin, “Planetary scale mesopause observing system: PSMOS 2000 workshop,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1183–1199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haganb, M. E.

D. Panchevaa, N. J. Mitchella, and M. E. Haganb, “Global-scale tidal structure in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere during the PSMOS campaign of June–August 1999 and comparisons with the global-scale wave model,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1011–1035 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harvie, D.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Herse, M.

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Herse, and L. Bourg, “MICADO wind measurements from observatoire de Haute-provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hersom, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hertzog, A.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Hoffmann, P.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hua, D. X.

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, and H. C. Liu, “Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5655–5661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Tang, H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, H. C. Liu, X. G. Cao, X. D. Duan, Q. J. Jia, O. Y. Qu, and Y. Wu, “The forward model for the ground based airglow imaging interferometer for the upper atmospheric wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Hum, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Q. J.

Y. H. Tang, H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, H. C. Liu, X. G. Cao, X. D. Duan, Q. J. Jia, O. Y. Qu, and Y. Wu, “The forward model for the ground based airglow imaging interferometer for the upper atmospheric wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Johnston, S. F.

Katoh, T.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Katoh, Y.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

K. Shiokawa, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, M. K. Ejiri, T. Ogawa, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, and R. H. Wiens, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

Kawatani, Y.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Keckhut, P.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, J. W.

Kosteniuk, P. R.

Langille, J. A.

Lathuillère, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

Liang, F.

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, and H. C. Liu, “Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5655–5661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Tang, H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, H. C. Liu, X. G. Cao, X. D. Duan, Q. J. Jia, O. Y. Qu, and Y. Wu, “The forward model for the ground based airglow imaging interferometer for the upper atmospheric wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Gonzalez, M. J.

Lowe, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lubken, F. J.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manson, A. H.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McDade, I. C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McLandress, C.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Miller, D. W.

Misawa, K.

I. Takeuchi, K. Misawa, and I. Aoyama, “Rotational temperatures and intensities of OH(6-2) and OH(8-3) bands in the night airglow,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 41, 387–395 (1969).

Mitchella, N. J.

D. Panchevaa, N. J. Mitchella, and M. E. Haganb, “Global-scale tidal structure in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere during the PSMOS campaign of June–August 1999 and comparisons with the global-scale wave model,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1011–1035 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mlynczak, M. G.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moise, A.

Nakamura, T.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

K. Shiokawa, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, M. K. Ejiri, T. Ogawa, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, and R. H. Wiens, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

Oberheide, J.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Offermann, D.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

K. Shiokawa, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, M. K. Ejiri, T. Ogawa, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, and R. H. Wiens, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

Ohr, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, Y.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Oznovich, I.

Panchevaa, D.

D. Panchevaa, N. J. Mitchella, and M. E. Haganb, “Global-scale tidal structure in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere during the PSMOS campaign of June–August 1999 and comparisons with the global-scale wave model,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1011–1035 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pasternak, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pasturczyk, Z.

Peillet, O.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, R. N.

V. V. Doushkina, R. H. Wiens, P. J. Thomas, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “Spectral imaging of O2 infrared atmospheric airglow with an InGaAs array detector,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6115–6119 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S. P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Polavarapu, S.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Portnyagin, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, M. Hagan, and Y. Portnyagin, “Planetary scale mesopause observing system: PSMOS 2000 workshop,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1183–1199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Preusse, P.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Pulido, M.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Qu, O. Y.

Y. H. Tang, H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, H. C. Liu, X. G. Cao, X. D. Duan, Q. J. Jia, O. Y. Qu, and Y. Wu, “The forward model for the ground based airglow imaging interferometer for the upper atmospheric wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Remsberg, E. E.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riggin, D. M.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roble, R. G.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rowlands, N.

W. E. Ward, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, and N. Rowlands, “Waves Michelson interferometer: a visible/near-IR interferometer for observing middle atmosphere dynamics and constituents,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 100–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sargoytchev, S. I.

Sassi, F.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Sato, K.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Satoh, M.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

K. Shiokawa, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, M. K. Ejiri, T. Ogawa, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, and R. H. Wiens, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

Scheer, J.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scott, A.

Sellar, G.

Semenov, A. I.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sesaulniers, D.-L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, T. A.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

She, C. Y.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

She, C.-Y.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Shepherd, G. G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, B. H. Solheim, Y. M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, and M. J. Lopez-Gonzalez, “Spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI): a ground-based instrument for the monitoring of mesosphere temperature,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5712–5721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, M. Hagan, and Y. Portnyagin, “Planetary scale mesopause observing system: PSMOS 2000 workshop,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1183–1199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, and N. Rowlands, “Waves Michelson interferometer: a visible/near-IR interferometer for observing middle atmosphere dynamics and constituents,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 100–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Doushkina, R. H. Wiens, P. J. Thomas, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “Spectral imaging of O2 infrared atmospheric airglow with an InGaAs array detector,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6115–6119 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, S. Brown, A. Moise, D. Liang, G. Sellar, G. G. Shepherd, and J. Wimperis, “ERWIN: an E-region wind interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2913–2922 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S. P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Kendall, and J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, Spectral Imaging of the Atmosphere (Academic, 2003).

Shepherd, M. G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shimomai, T.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Shiokawa, K.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

K. Shiokawa, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, M. K. Ejiri, T. Ogawa, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, and R. H. Wiens, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

Sigernes, F.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sigmond, M.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Singer, W.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, B. H. Solheim, Y. M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, and M. J. Lopez-Gonzalez, “Spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI): a ground-based instrument for the monitoring of mesosphere temperature,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5712–5721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stegman, J.

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Taguchi, M.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Takahashi, H.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Takeuchi, I.

I. Takeuchi, K. Misawa, and I. Aoyama, “Rotational temperatures and intensities of OH(6-2) and OH(8-3) bands in the night airglow,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 41, 387–395 (1969).

Tang, Y. H.

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, and H. C. Liu, “Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5655–5661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Tang, H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, H. C. Liu, X. G. Cao, X. D. Duan, Q. J. Jia, O. Y. Qu, and Y. Wu, “The forward model for the ground based airglow imaging interferometer for the upper atmospheric wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Thomas, P. J.

Thuillier, G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Herse, and L. Bourg, “MICADO wind measurements from observatoire de Haute-provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, T.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiokawa, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, M. K. Ejiri, T. Ogawa, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, and R. H. Wiens, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

Vincent, R.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Wang, D. Y.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.-Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W. E.

J. A. Langille, W. E. Ward, A. Scott, and D. L. Arsenault, “Measurement of two-dimensional Doppler wind fields using a field widened Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1617–1628 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, and N. Rowlands, “Waves Michelson interferometer: a visible/near-IR interferometer for observing middle atmosphere dynamics and constituents,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 100–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Wiens, R. H.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, M. K. Ejiri, T. Ogawa, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, and R. H. Wiens, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

V. V. Doushkina, R. H. Wiens, P. J. Thomas, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “Spectral imaging of O2 infrared atmospheric airglow with an InGaAs array detector,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6115–6119 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S. P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. P.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Wimperis, J.

W. A. Gault, S. Brown, A. Moise, D. Liang, G. Sellar, G. G. Shepherd, and J. Wimperis, “ERWIN: an E-region wind interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2913–2922 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J. R.

Wu, Y.

Y. H. Tang, H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, H. C. Liu, X. G. Cao, X. D. Duan, Q. J. Jia, O. Y. Qu, and Y. Wu, “The forward model for the ground based airglow imaging interferometer for the upper atmospheric wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Yuan, T.

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. P.

R. H. Wiens, S. P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Earth Planets Space

K. Shiokawa, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, M. K. Ejiri, T. Ogawa, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, and R. H. Wiens, “Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI),” Earth Planets Space 51, 887–896 (1999).

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.

G. G. Shepherd, M. Hagan, and Y. Portnyagin, “Planetary scale mesopause observing system: PSMOS 2000 workshop,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1183–1199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Panchevaa, N. J. Mitchella, and M. E. Haganb, “Global-scale tidal structure in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere during the PSMOS campaign of June–August 1999 and comparisons with the global-scale wave model,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 1011–1035 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Takeuchi, K. Misawa, and I. Aoyama, “Rotational temperatures and intensities of OH(6-2) and OH(8-3) bands in the night airglow,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 41, 387–395 (1969).

J. Geophys. Res.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Sesaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohr, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, J. Oberheide, L. P. Goncharenko, T. Nakamura, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, L. C. Chang, J. Du, D. Y. Wang, P. Batista, B. Clemesha, A. H. Manson, D. M. Riggin, C.-Y. She, T. Tsuda, and T. Yuan, “On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D07107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Herse, and L. Bourg, “MICADO wind measurements from observatoire de Haute-provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci.

R. H. Wiens, S. P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

W. E. Ward, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, and N. Rowlands, “Waves Michelson interferometer: a visible/near-IR interferometer for observing middle atmosphere dynamics and constituents,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 100–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

M. J. Alexander, M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, “Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 1103–1124 (2010).

Rev. Geophys.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Beig, P. Keckhut, R. P. Lowe, R. G. Roble, M. G. Mlynczak, J. Scheer, V. I. Fomichev, D. Offermann, W. J. R. French, M. G. Shepherd, A. I. Semenov, E. E. Remsberg, C. Y. She, F. J. Lubken, J. Bremer, B. R. Clemesha, J. Stegman, F. Sigernes, and S. Fadnavis, “Review of mesospheric temperature trends,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1-1–1-41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 3-1–3-64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

National large research infrastructure–Meridian Project, 2008: http://www.meridianproject.ac.cn/ .

Sondrestrom Upper Atmospheric Research Facility in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, 1983, http://isr.sri.com/ .

Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC), 2005, http://www.candac.ca/candac/index.php .

Y. H. Tang, H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, H. C. Liu, X. G. Cao, X. D. Duan, Q. J. Jia, O. Y. Qu, and Y. Wu, “The forward model for the ground based airglow imaging interferometer for the upper atmospheric wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

The high-resolution transmission molecular absorption database (HITRAN2008), 1960, http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/hitran/ .

G. G. Shepherd, Spectral Imaging of the Atmosphere (Academic, 2003).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Relative intensity variation of lines emitted from the O2(01) band with different temperatures based on the HITRAN08 database.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Layout schematic of GBAII prototype (lower right) and the setup pictures in laboratory (upper left).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic (left) and a real picture (right) of the wide-angle MI with a large air gap used by the GBAII.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

OPD variation with regard to incident angle with different wavelengths (the red circles for 557.7 nm and the blue squares for 867.8 nm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmittance profiles with regard to the incident angle for the O2(01) band. The blue dotted lines denote the individual profiles for corresponding spectral lines. The red solid line indicates the final profile attributed to the superposition of all the individual profiles.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Three dimensional structure of the GBAII simulated by the optical design software of CODE V.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Spot diagram and MTF for the GBAII optical system.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Properties of the filter used by the GBAII. The upper (a) is the transmittance profiles varied with regard to incident angle, while the lower (b) is the comparison of center wavelengths between the theoretical and experimental results.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Calibration for the fringe center in one image. The upper left (a) is the spectrum of the pencil calibration lamp within the bands of 860–875 nm. The upper right (b) is the image calibrated by using this lamp, the four columns and four rows selected for calibration are numbered as 1–8. The gray levels of these eight lines are listed in the lower figures (c) and (d).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Original flat field image and (a) its 3D form and (b) the fitting curve for optical system decay function.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Calibration of the stepped interval and the phase variation for the central part (a) and edge circle (b).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Observing geometry of one measurement example of the GBAII. It is located at latitude N34°1322.21 and longitude E108°5938.14, with altitude of 457 m, where a simply equipped observatory is built on the roof of a teaching building of Xi’an University of Technology on 12 June 2012.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Imaging result example displayed in the FLIGrab software. The upper are the images for the four different OPD steps, the lower two represent the calibration image (left) and the dark noise image (right).

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Results of temperature measurement; the data from the GBAII observation are drawn in red squares, while the data from the MSISE90 are drawn in solid circle spots.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Results of wind measurements. The upper panel is the comparison between the zonal wind and the HWM93, while the lower panel indicates the compare between the meridional wind and the HWM93.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. First-Order Parameters of the GBAII Optical System

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I0(L1)=(Crυ4/Qr)(2L1+1)exp[BυL1(L1+1)hc/kTr],
I0(L2)=(Crυ4/Qr)(2L2+1)exp[BυL2(L2+1)hc/kTr],
I(L1)=I0(L1)(1+Vcosϕtotal(L1)),
I(L2)=I0(L2)(1+Vcosϕtotal(L2)),
ϕ(L1)total=2πσ1Δ0(L1)+2πσ1Δ0(L1)v/c+2πσ1Δ=ϕ0(L1)+ϕv(L1)+ϕ(L1),
ϕ(L2)total=2πσ2Δ0(L2)+2πσ2Δ0(L2)v/c+2πσ2Δ=ϕ0(L2)+ϕv(L2)+ϕ(L2).
{I1(L1)=I0(L1)(1+Vcosϕ(L1))I2(L1)=I0(L1)(1Vsinϕ(L1))I3(L1)=I0(L1)(1Vcosϕ(L1))I4(L1)=I0(L1)(1+Vsinϕ(L1)){I1(L2)=I0(L2)(1+Vcosϕ(L2))I2(L2)=I0(L2)(1Vsinϕ(L2))I3(L2)=I0(L2)(1Vcosϕ(L2))I4(L2)=I0(L2)(1+Vsinϕ(L2)).
Tr=Bυhck[L1(L1+1)L2(L2+1)]ln[I0(L1)(2L2+1)I0(L2)(2L1+1)],
v=c2πσ1Δ0(L1)[arctan(I4(L1)I2(L1)I1(L1)I3(L1))ϕ0(L1)]=c2πσ2Δ0(L2)[arctan(I4(L2)I2(L2)I1(L2)I3(L2))ϕ0(L2)].
τf(λ,θf)=τc1+[2(λλc)Δλc+λΔλcθf2ne2]2,
D=0.9997.599×104nb+2.399×105nb21.287×106nb3+1.483×108nb46.452×1011nb5,
yc=154.944sin[π(x73.946)/106.905]+1115.956.
ye=3163.350sin[π(x44.37279)/78.590]+28269.745.

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