Abstract

A novel imaging keratometer by the aid of modern optoelectronic technology is proposed. The optical system consists of an annular object, a first imaging subsystem, a second imaging subsystem, and a CCD detector. The measurement range of corneal refraction is from 30D to 60D (5.5–11 mm in radius of curvature), and the accuracy reaches 0.156D, 0.072D, and 0.036D, respectively, for the corneal surface of the steepest, the radius of curvature of 7.8 mm, and the corneal surface of the flattest. The accuracy of corneal astigmatism is verified to be 0.05D for cylindrical refraction of 0.75D. Compared with the traditional keratometer, the proposed keratometer possesses advantages of high accuracy.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

R. Gutmark and D. L. Guyton, “Origins of the keratometer and its evolving role in ophthalmology,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 55, 481–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

W. H. Seiple and J. P. Szlyk, “Clinical investigation into the vision performance provided by the iZon spectacle lens system,” Rev. Ophthalmol. 145(2), 1 (2008).

2005 (4)

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, “Chromatic dispersions of the ocular media of human eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 29–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, Z. Wang, Q. Zhao, W. Quan, and Y. Wang, “Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration,” Optik 116, 80–85 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lackner, G. Schmidinger, S. Pieh, M. A. Funvoics, and C. Skorpik, “Repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness measurement with Pentacam, Orbscan, and ultrasound,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 892–899 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, “Wavefront technology for spectacle lenses,” Rev. Ophthalmol. 12(3), 91 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. G. Pérez, A. Cerviño, M. J. Giraldez, M. Parafita, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “Accuracy and precision of EyeSys and Orbscan systems on calibrated spherical test surfaces,” Eye Contact Lens 30, 74–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, S. Duthaler, and B. J. Nelson, “Autofocusing in computer microscopy: selecting the optimal focus algorithm,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 139–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vision 4(4), 329–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

Z. Liu, A. Huang, and S. Pflugfelder, “Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 774–778 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1989 (1)

S. B. Hannush, S. L. Crawford, G. O. Waring, M. C. Gemmill, M. J. Lynn, and A. Nizam, “Accuracy and precision of keratometry, photokeratoscopy, and corneal modeling on calibrated steel balls,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1235–1239 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vision 4(4), 329–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. MacRae, R. R. Krueger, and R. A. Applegate, Customized Corneal Ablation: The Quest for Supervision (Slack, 2001).

Atchison, D. A.

Bille, J. F.

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vision 4(4), 329–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cerviño, A.

J. G. Pérez, A. Cerviño, M. J. Giraldez, M. Parafita, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “Accuracy and precision of EyeSys and Orbscan systems on calibrated spherical test surfaces,” Eye Contact Lens 30, 74–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, S. L.

S. B. Hannush, S. L. Crawford, G. O. Waring, M. C. Gemmill, M. J. Lynn, and A. Nizam, “Accuracy and precision of keratometry, photokeratoscopy, and corneal modeling on calibrated steel balls,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1235–1239 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Duthaler, S.

Y. Sun, S. Duthaler, and B. J. Nelson, “Autofocusing in computer microscopy: selecting the optimal focus algorithm,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 139–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Funvoics, M. A.

B. Lackner, G. Schmidinger, S. Pieh, M. A. Funvoics, and C. Skorpik, “Repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness measurement with Pentacam, Orbscan, and ultrasound,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 892–899 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gemmill, M. C.

S. B. Hannush, S. L. Crawford, G. O. Waring, M. C. Gemmill, M. J. Lynn, and A. Nizam, “Accuracy and precision of keratometry, photokeratoscopy, and corneal modeling on calibrated steel balls,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1235–1239 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Giraldez, M. J.

J. G. Pérez, A. Cerviño, M. J. Giraldez, M. Parafita, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “Accuracy and precision of EyeSys and Orbscan systems on calibrated spherical test surfaces,” Eye Contact Lens 30, 74–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goelz, S.

Grimm, B.

Guo, H.

H. Guo, Z. Wang, Q. Zhao, W. Quan, and Y. Wang, “Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration,” Optik 116, 80–85 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gutmark, R.

R. Gutmark and D. L. Guyton, “Origins of the keratometer and its evolving role in ophthalmology,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 55, 481–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guyton, D. L.

R. Gutmark and D. L. Guyton, “Origins of the keratometer and its evolving role in ophthalmology,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 55, 481–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gwiazda, J.

Hannush, S. B.

S. B. Hannush, S. L. Crawford, G. O. Waring, M. C. Gemmill, M. J. Lynn, and A. Nizam, “Accuracy and precision of keratometry, photokeratoscopy, and corneal modeling on calibrated steel balls,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1235–1239 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Harner, C. F. H.

J. F. Bille, C. F. H. Harner, and F. F. Loesel, Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery: New Frontiers in Vision (Springer, 2002).

He, J.

Held, R.

Hong, X.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vision 4(4), 329–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, A.

Z. Liu, A. Huang, and S. Pflugfelder, “Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 774–778 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, R. R.

S. MacRae, R. R. Krueger, and R. A. Applegate, Customized Corneal Ablation: The Quest for Supervision (Slack, 2001).

Lackner, B.

B. Lackner, G. Schmidinger, S. Pieh, M. A. Funvoics, and C. Skorpik, “Repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness measurement with Pentacam, Orbscan, and ultrasound,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 892–899 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, “Wavefront technology for spectacle lenses,” Rev. Ophthalmol. 12(3), 91 (2005).

Liang, J.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, A. Huang, and S. Pflugfelder, “Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 774–778 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Loesel, F. F.

J. F. Bille, C. F. H. Harner, and F. F. Loesel, Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery: New Frontiers in Vision (Springer, 2002).

Lynn, M. J.

S. B. Hannush, S. L. Crawford, G. O. Waring, M. C. Gemmill, M. J. Lynn, and A. Nizam, “Accuracy and precision of keratometry, photokeratoscopy, and corneal modeling on calibrated steel balls,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1235–1239 (1989).
[CrossRef]

MacRae, S.

S. MacRae, R. R. Krueger, and R. A. Applegate, Customized Corneal Ablation: The Quest for Supervision (Slack, 2001).

Nelson, B. J.

Y. Sun, S. Duthaler, and B. J. Nelson, “Autofocusing in computer microscopy: selecting the optimal focus algorithm,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 139–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nizam, A.

S. B. Hannush, S. L. Crawford, G. O. Waring, M. C. Gemmill, M. J. Lynn, and A. Nizam, “Accuracy and precision of keratometry, photokeratoscopy, and corneal modeling on calibrated steel balls,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1235–1239 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Parafita, M.

J. G. Pérez, A. Cerviño, M. J. Giraldez, M. Parafita, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “Accuracy and precision of EyeSys and Orbscan systems on calibrated spherical test surfaces,” Eye Contact Lens 30, 74–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pérez, J. G.

J. G. Pérez, A. Cerviño, M. J. Giraldez, M. Parafita, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “Accuracy and precision of EyeSys and Orbscan systems on calibrated spherical test surfaces,” Eye Contact Lens 30, 74–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pflugfelder, S.

Z. Liu, A. Huang, and S. Pflugfelder, “Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 774–778 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pieh, S.

B. Lackner, G. Schmidinger, S. Pieh, M. A. Funvoics, and C. Skorpik, “Repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness measurement with Pentacam, Orbscan, and ultrasound,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 892–899 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quan, W.

H. Guo, Z. Wang, Q. Zhao, W. Quan, and Y. Wang, “Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration,” Optik 116, 80–85 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidinger, G.

B. Lackner, G. Schmidinger, S. Pieh, M. A. Funvoics, and C. Skorpik, “Repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness measurement with Pentacam, Orbscan, and ultrasound,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 892–899 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seiple, W. H.

W. H. Seiple and J. P. Szlyk, “Clinical investigation into the vision performance provided by the iZon spectacle lens system,” Rev. Ophthalmol. 145(2), 1 (2008).

Skorpik, C.

B. Lackner, G. Schmidinger, S. Pieh, M. A. Funvoics, and C. Skorpik, “Repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness measurement with Pentacam, Orbscan, and ultrasound,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 892–899 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, S. Duthaler, and B. J. Nelson, “Autofocusing in computer microscopy: selecting the optimal focus algorithm,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 139–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Szlyk, J. P.

W. H. Seiple and J. P. Szlyk, “Clinical investigation into the vision performance provided by the iZon spectacle lens system,” Rev. Ophthalmol. 145(2), 1 (2008).

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vision 4(4), 329–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thorn, F.

Wang, Y.

H. Guo, Z. Wang, Q. Zhao, W. Quan, and Y. Wang, “Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration,” Optik 116, 80–85 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

H. Guo, Z. Wang, Q. Zhao, W. Quan, and Y. Wang, “Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration,” Optik 116, 80–85 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waring, G. O.

S. B. Hannush, S. L. Crawford, G. O. Waring, M. C. Gemmill, M. J. Lynn, and A. Nizam, “Accuracy and precision of keratometry, photokeratoscopy, and corneal modeling on calibrated steel balls,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1235–1239 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yebra-Pimentel, E.

J. G. Pérez, A. Cerviño, M. J. Giraldez, M. Parafita, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “Accuracy and precision of EyeSys and Orbscan systems on calibrated spherical test surfaces,” Eye Contact Lens 30, 74–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

H. Guo, Z. Wang, Q. Zhao, W. Quan, and Y. Wang, “Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration,” Optik 116, 80–85 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. B. Hannush, S. L. Crawford, G. O. Waring, M. C. Gemmill, M. J. Lynn, and A. Nizam, “Accuracy and precision of keratometry, photokeratoscopy, and corneal modeling on calibrated steel balls,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1235–1239 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

Z. Liu, A. Huang, and S. Pflugfelder, “Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 774–778 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eye Contact Lens (1)

J. G. Pérez, A. Cerviño, M. J. Giraldez, M. Parafita, and E. Yebra-Pimentel, “Accuracy and precision of EyeSys and Orbscan systems on calibrated spherical test surfaces,” Eye Contact Lens 30, 74–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Vision (1)

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vision 4(4), 329–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

Y. Sun, S. Duthaler, and B. J. Nelson, “Autofocusing in computer microscopy: selecting the optimal focus algorithm,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 65, 139–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

H. Guo, Z. Wang, Q. Zhao, W. Quan, and Y. Wang, “Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration,” Optik 116, 80–85 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

B. Lackner, G. Schmidinger, S. Pieh, M. A. Funvoics, and C. Skorpik, “Repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness measurement with Pentacam, Orbscan, and ultrasound,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 892–899 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. Lee, “Wavefront technology for spectacle lenses,” Rev. Ophthalmol. 12(3), 91 (2005).

W. H. Seiple and J. P. Szlyk, “Clinical investigation into the vision performance provided by the iZon spectacle lens system,” Rev. Ophthalmol. 145(2), 1 (2008).

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. Gutmark and D. L. Guyton, “Origins of the keratometer and its evolving role in ophthalmology,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 55, 481–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. MacRae, R. R. Krueger, and R. A. Applegate, Customized Corneal Ablation: The Quest for Supervision (Slack, 2001).

J. F. Bille, C. F. H. Harner, and F. F. Loesel, Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery: New Frontiers in Vision (Springer, 2002).

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