Abstract

The use of a Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) interferometer with an Echelle grating provides the ability to simultaneously image the 558 and 630 nm emission lines (e.g., at grating orders of n=8 and n=7, respectively) of atomic oxygen in the thermosphere. By measuring the Doppler shifts of these lines (expected relative change in wavelength on the order of 108), we are able to determine the thermospheric winds. Because the expected wavelength changes due to the Doppler shift are so small, understanding, monitoring, and accounting for thermal effects is expected to be important. Previously, the thermal behavior of a temperature-compensated monolithic DASH interferometer was found to have a higher thermal sensitivity than predicted by a simple model [Opt. Express 18, 26430, 2010]. A follow-up study [Opt. Express 20, 9535, 2012] suggested that this is due to thermal distortion of the interferometer, which consists of materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion. In this work, we characterize the thermal drift of a nonmonolithic Echelle DASH interferometer and discuss the implications of these results on the use of only a single wavelength source during calibration. Furthermore, we perform a finite element analysis of the earlier monolithic interferometer in order to determine how distortion would affect the thermal sensitivity of that device. Incorporating that data into the model, we find good agreement between the modified model and the measured thermal sensitivities. These findings emphasize the fact that distortion needs to be considered for the design of thermally compensated, monolithic DASH interferometers.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. W. Meriwether, J. J. Makela, M. Castelaz, J. T. Emmert, D. P. Drob, and K. D. Marr, “Coincident thermospheric wind measurements using ground-based Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) and Fabry–Perot instruments,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 86, 92–98, (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Marr, C. R. Englert, and J. M. Harlander, “Flat-fields in DASH interferometry,” Opt. Express 20, 9535–9544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry–Perot interferometer network: a review,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry–Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, “WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: the influence of dynamics on composition,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 655–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, and D. A. Gell, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, V. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, and D. A. Gell, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alunni, J. M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, D. D.

Breed, A. M.

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry–Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. M.

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. W. Meriwether, J. J. Makela, M. Castelaz, J. T. Emmert, D. P. Drob, and K. D. Marr, “Coincident thermospheric wind measurements using ground-based Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) and Fabry–Perot instruments,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 86, 92–98, (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. J. Makela, K. D. Marr, and T. J. Immel, “The Michelson interferometer for global high-resolution thermospheric imaging (MIGHTI): wind and temperature observations from the ionospheric connection explorer (ICON),” poster session presented at AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 3–7 December, 2012.

Brun, J. F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brune, S.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Castelaz, M.

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. W. Meriwether, J. J. Makela, M. Castelaz, J. T. Emmert, D. P. Drob, and K. D. Marr, “Coincident thermospheric wind measurements using ground-based Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) and Fabry–Perot instruments,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 86, 92–98, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Charlot, P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Conde, M. G.

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry–Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Desaulniers, L. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, M. E.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, and D. A. Gell, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Drob, D. P.

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. W. Meriwether, J. J. Makela, M. Castelaz, J. T. Emmert, D. P. Drob, and K. D. Marr, “Coincident thermospheric wind measurements using ground-based Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) and Fabry–Perot instruments,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 86, 92–98, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dyson, P. L.

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry–Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Emmert, J. T.

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. W. Meriwether, J. J. Makela, M. Castelaz, J. T. Emmert, D. P. Drob, and K. D. Marr, “Coincident thermospheric wind measurements using ground-based Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) and Fabry–Perot instruments,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 86, 92–98, (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. T. Emmert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Initial ground-based thermospheric wind measurements using Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH),” Opt. Express 18, 27416–27430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

England, S. L.

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Englert, C. R.

K. D. Marr, C. R. Englert, and J. M. Harlander, “Flat-fields in DASH interferometry,” Opt. Express 20, 9535–9544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. W. Meriwether, J. J. Makela, M. Castelaz, J. T. Emmert, D. P. Drob, and K. D. Marr, “Coincident thermospheric wind measurements using ground-based Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) and Fabry–Perot instruments,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 86, 92–98, (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Design and laboratory tests of a Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) interferometer for upper atmospheric wind and temperature observations,” Opt. Express 18, 26430–26440 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. T. Emmert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Initial ground-based thermospheric wind measurements using Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH),” Opt. Express 18, 27416–27430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and J. M. Harlander, “Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH): concept and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7297–7307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. J. Makela, K. D. Marr, and T. J. Immel, “The Michelson interferometer for global high-resolution thermospheric imaging (MIGHTI): wind and temperature observations from the ionospheric connection explorer (ICON),” poster session presented at AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 3–7 December, 2012.

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gattinger, R. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gell, D. A.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, and D. A. Gell, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Girod, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Greet, P. A.

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry–Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harlander, J. M.

K. D. Marr, C. R. Englert, and J. M. Harlander, “Flat-fields in DASH interferometry,” Opt. Express 20, 9535–9544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. W. Meriwether, J. J. Makela, M. Castelaz, J. T. Emmert, D. P. Drob, and K. D. Marr, “Coincident thermospheric wind measurements using ground-based Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) and Fabry–Perot instruments,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 86, 92–98, (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Design and laboratory tests of a Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) interferometer for upper atmospheric wind and temperature observations,” Opt. Express 18, 26430–26440 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. T. Emmert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Initial ground-based thermospheric wind measurements using Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH),” Opt. Express 18, 27416–27430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and J. M. Harlander, “Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH): concept and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7297–7307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. J. Makela, K. D. Marr, and T. J. Immel, “The Michelson interferometer for global high-resolution thermospheric imaging (MIGHTI): wind and temperature observations from the ionospheric connection explorer (ICON),” poster session presented at AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 3–7 December, 2012.

Harvie, D.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, and D. A. Gell, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hersom, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huba, J. D.

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hum, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Immel, T. J.

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. J. Makela, K. D. Marr, and T. J. Immel, “The Michelson interferometer for global high-resolution thermospheric imaging (MIGHTI): wind and temperature observations from the ionospheric connection explorer (ICON),” poster session presented at AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 3–7 December, 2012.

Innis, J. L.

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry–Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joyce, G.

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Killeen, T. L.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krall, J.

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Makela, J. J.

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. W. Meriwether, J. J. Makela, M. Castelaz, J. T. Emmert, D. P. Drob, and K. D. Marr, “Coincident thermospheric wind measurements using ground-based Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) and Fabry–Perot instruments,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 86, 92–98, (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. J. Makela, K. D. Marr, and T. J. Immel, “The Michelson interferometer for global high-resolution thermospheric imaging (MIGHTI): wind and temperature observations from the ionospheric connection explorer (ICON),” poster session presented at AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 3–7 December, 2012.

Marr, K. D.

K. D. Marr, C. R. Englert, and J. M. Harlander, “Flat-fields in DASH interferometry,” Opt. Express 20, 9535–9544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. W. Meriwether, J. J. Makela, M. Castelaz, J. T. Emmert, D. P. Drob, and K. D. Marr, “Coincident thermospheric wind measurements using ground-based Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) and Fabry–Perot instruments,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 86, 92–98, (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. J. Makela, K. D. Marr, and T. J. Immel, “The Michelson interferometer for global high-resolution thermospheric imaging (MIGHTI): wind and temperature observations from the ionospheric connection explorer (ICON),” poster session presented at AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 3–7 December, 2012.

McLandress, C.

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, “WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: the influence of dynamics on composition,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 655–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meriwether, J. W.

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. W. Meriwether, J. J. Makela, M. Castelaz, J. T. Emmert, D. P. Drob, and K. D. Marr, “Coincident thermospheric wind measurements using ground-based Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) and Fabry–Perot instruments,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 86, 92–98, (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry–Perot interferometer network: a review,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, D. J.

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry–Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niciejewski, R. J.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohrt, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ortland, D. A.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ossakow, S. L.

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pasternak, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peillet, O.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. J.

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roble, R. G.

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, “WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: the influence of dynamics on composition,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 655–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

Shepherd, G. G.

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, “WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: the influence of dynamics on composition,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 655–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, W. R.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S. C.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W. E.

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, “WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: the influence of dynamics on composition,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 655–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

J. D. Huba, S. L. Ossakow, G. Joyce, J. Krall, and S. L. England, “Three-dimensional equatorial spread F modeling: zonal neutral wind effects,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. (4)

J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry–Perot interferometer network: a review,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Greet, M. G. Conde, P. L. Dyson, J. L. Innis, A. M. Breed, and D. J. Murphy, “Thermospheric wind field over Mawson and Davis, Antarctica; simultaneous observations by two Fabry–Perot spectrometers of 630 nm emission,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1025–1045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. W. Meriwether, J. J. Makela, M. Castelaz, J. T. Emmert, D. P. Drob, and K. D. Marr, “Coincident thermospheric wind measurements using ground-based Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne (DASH) and Fabry–Perot instruments,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 86, 92–98, (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, “WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: the influence of dynamics on composition,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 655–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J. F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, and D. A. Gell, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S01 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Other (5)

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, C. M. Brown, J. J. Makela, K. D. Marr, and T. J. Immel, “The Michelson interferometer for global high-resolution thermospheric imaging (MIGHTI): wind and temperature observations from the ionospheric connection explorer (ICON),” poster session presented at AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 3–7 December, 2012.

T. J. Immel, http://icon.ssl.berkeley.edu/ , 2013, University of California.

Heliophysics Roadmap Team, “Heliophysics: the solar and space physics of a new era,” NASA Advisory Council (2009).

B. H. Nachfl, GmbH. Berlin, Germany, 2012, www.b-halle.de .

Radiant Zemax, LLC. Redmond, Washington, 2013, http://radiantzemax.com/ , Version 13.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the laboratory DASH interferometer. The double-prism beam splitter and field-widening (F-W) prism are made of fused silica. The grating is replicated on a BK7 substrate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Image of the DASH interferometer components.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral power density of a sample interferogram. Identified are the neon line and the krypton line. Also shown are four neon artifacts and one krypton artifact.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Primary neon signal (50 fringes) in the interferogram at two different temperatures. Also shown is a neon artifact (25 fringes) that responds oppositely to an increase in temperature.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

As the temperature increases, the phases of the neon components of the interferogram change linearly. Included are data from both the equilibrium test and the gradual temperature increase test. Because neon artifacts 2 and 3 (see Fig. 3) shift in the opposite direction of the main neon line, those phases have been inverted for ease of comparison.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Change in phase at the center of the viewing region resulting from changing the temperature of the model (red/green). Also shown for reference is some of the data from the equilibrium test (black/blue).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Details of the Laboratory DASH Interferometer

Tables Icon

Table 2. Properties of the Primary Materials Used in the Laboratory DASH and REDDI Interferometers

Tables Icon

Table 3. Comparison of Model Predictions and Measured Thermal Responses from the REDDI Interferometer for a 2°C Change in Temperature

Metrics