Abstract

This paper presents the concept of constant-fluence amplification. It refers to the fact that laser fluence anywhere in the amplifier gain medium is identical to the design fluence Edesign, which represents the maximum allowed fluence in consideration of the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT). Based on this concept, we explore ideal amplifier model (IAM) and near-ideal amplifier chain (NIAC) and propose an optimal NIAC design method and analytically offer an indicator of the extraction efficiency. Finally, the paper discusses the influences of losses on the NIAC’s extraction efficiency.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284, 1488–1493 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. P. Freidberg and A. C. Kadak, “Fusion–fission hybrids revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 370–372 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B57–B61 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and E. Moses, “The Mercury laser moves toward practical laser fusion,” Laser Focus World 45, 51–56 (2009).
  6. J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).
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  10. L. Frantz and J. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346–2349 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Lowdermilk and J. Murray, “The multipass amplifier: theory and numerical analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2436–2444 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 6th ed. (Springer, 2006).
  13. M. Gong, Z. Sui, Q. Liu, and X. Fu, “Design of ultrahigh-energy laser amplifier system with high storage energy extraction,” Appl. Opt. 52, 394–399 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Orth, S. Payne, and W. Krupke, “A diode-pumped solid-state laser driver for inertial fusion energy,” Nucl. Fusion 36, 75–116 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2009 (5)

C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and E. Moses, “The Mercury laser moves toward practical laser fusion,” Laser Focus World 45, 51–56 (2009).

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

E. I. Moses, “Ignition on the national ignition facility: a path towards inertial fusion energy,” Nucl. Fusion 49, 104022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Freidberg and A. C. Kadak, “Fusion–fission hybrids revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 370–372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284, 1488–1493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Orth, S. Payne, and W. Krupke, “A diode-pumped solid-state laser driver for inertial fusion energy,” Nucl. Fusion 36, 75–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. Lowdermilk and J. Murray, “The multipass amplifier: theory and numerical analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2436–2444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

L. Frantz and J. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346–2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, R.

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

Agrawal, V.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

Armstrong, J.

Arnett, D.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284, 1488–1493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Auerbach, J.

Barty, C.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B57–B61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bayramian, A.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B57–B61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beach, R.

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

Beer, G.

Blink, J.

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

Bowers, M.

Britten, J.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

Caird, J.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and E. Moses, “The Mercury laser moves toward practical laser fusion,” Laser Focus World 45, 51–56 (2009).

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B57–B61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R.

Chai, B.

Chen, D.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

Cross, R.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B57–B61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S.

Drake, R. P.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284, 1488–1493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ebbers, C.

C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and E. Moses, “The Mercury laser moves toward practical laser fusion,” Laser Focus World 45, 51–56 (2009).

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B57–B61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G.

Erlandson, A.

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B57–B61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, J.

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

Fei, Y.

Feit, M.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

Frantz, L.

L. Frantz and J. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346–2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Freidberg, J. P.

J. P. Freidberg and A. C. Kadak, “Fusion–fission hybrids revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 370–372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freitas, B.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B57–B61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X.

Furukawa, H.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, C.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

Gong, M.

Haefner, C.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

Halsey, W.

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

Haynam, C.

Heestand, G.

Henesian, M.

Hermann, M.

Homoelle, D.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

Izawa, Y.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jancaitis, K.

Kadak, A. C.

J. P. Freidberg and A. C. Kadak, “Fusion–fission hybrids revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 370–372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanabe, T.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kent, R.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 6th ed. (Springer, 2006).

Krupke, W.

C. Orth, S. Payne, and W. Krupke, “A diode-pumped solid-state laser driver for inertial fusion energy,” Nucl. Fusion 36, 75–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurita, T.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ladran, T.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

Latkowski, J.

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

Liu, Q.

Lowdermilk, W.

W. Lowdermilk and J. Murray, “The multipass amplifier: theory and numerical analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2436–2444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

MacIntyre, A.

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

Manes, K.

Marshall, C.

Matsumoto, O.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, N.

Meier, W.

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

Menapace, J.

Miles, R.

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

Miyamoto, M.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Molander, W.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B57–B61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moses, E.

Moses, E. I.

E. I. Moses, “Ignition on the national ignition facility: a path towards inertial fusion energy,” Nucl. Fusion 49, 104022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

C. Haynam, P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, M. Bowers, S. Dixit, G. Erbert, G. Heestand, M. Henesian, M. Hermann, K. Jancaitis, K. Manes, C. Marshall, N. Mehta, J. Menapace, E. Moses, J. Murray, M. Nostrand, C. Orth, R. Patterson, R. Sacks, M. Shaw, M. Spaeth, S. Sutton, W. Williams, C. Widmayer, R. White, S. Yang, and B. M. Van Wonterghem, “National ignition facility laser performance status,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3276–3303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Lowdermilk and J. Murray, “The multipass amplifier: theory and numerical analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2436–2444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nodvik, J.

L. Frantz and J. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346–2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, M.

Orth, C.

Patterson, R.

Payne, S.

C. Orth, S. Payne, and W. Krupke, “A diode-pumped solid-state laser driver for inertial fusion energy,” Nucl. Fusion 36, 75–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Remington, B. A.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284, 1488–1493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, S.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

Sacks, R.

Sappaerts, E.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

Schaffers, K.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B57–B61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sekine, T.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M.

Siders, C.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B57–B61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spaeth, M.

Storm, E.

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

Sui, Z.

Sutton, S.

Takabe, H.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284, 1488–1493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tassano, J.

Telford, S.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B57–B61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trenholme, J.

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

Van Wonterghem, B. M.

Wegner, P.

White, R.

Widmayer, C.

Williams, W.

Yamanaka, M.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Yasuhara, R.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electr. Eng. Jpn. (1)

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, O. Matsumoto, R. Yasuhara, H. Furukawa, M. Miyamoto, T. Sekine, T. Kurita, H. Kan, M. Yamanaka, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver,” Electr. Eng. Jpn. 155, 27–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fusion Sci. Technol. (2)

J. Caird, V. Agrawal, A. Bayramian, R. Beach, J. Britten, D. Chen, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, A. Erlandson, M. Feit, B. Freitas, C. Ghosh, C. Haefner, D. Homoelle, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, W. Molander, J. Murray, S. Rubenchik, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, E. Sappaerts, S. Sutton, S. Telford, J. Trenholme, and C. Barty, “Nd:Glass laser design for laser ICF fission energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 607–617 (2009).

W. Meier, R. Abbott, R. Beach, J. Blink, J. Caird, A. Erlandson, J. Farmer, W. Halsey, T. Ladran, J. Latkowski, A. MacIntyre, R. Miles, and E. Storm, “Systems modeling for the laser fusion–fission energy (LIFE) power plant,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 647–651 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. Frantz and J. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346–2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

W. Lowdermilk and J. Murray, “The multipass amplifier: theory and numerical analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2436–2444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Focus World (1)

C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and E. Moses, “The Mercury laser moves toward practical laser fusion,” Laser Focus World 45, 51–56 (2009).

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. P. Freidberg and A. C. Kadak, “Fusion–fission hybrids revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 370–372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Fusion (2)

E. I. Moses, “Ignition on the national ignition facility: a path towards inertial fusion energy,” Nucl. Fusion 49, 104022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Orth, S. Payne, and W. Krupke, “A diode-pumped solid-state laser driver for inertial fusion energy,” Nucl. Fusion 36, 75–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284, 1488–1493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 6th ed. (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Quasi-two-level model of the gain medium energy system. Laser levels with population n1 and n2 lie within nearly degenerate manifolds with population N1 and N2. The lower manifold relaxes in time τL.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Beam cross-sectional area and gain medium length for IAM. The design is based on the constant-fluence concept.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram for a NIAC. The ratio of output fluence to the saturation fluence is identical in each stage. The amplifier in each stage is of single or multiple passages.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Step diagrams of the optimized NIAC with different stages and passages: (a) one-pass, where the area of every shaded ladder indicates the storage energy in the corresponding stage. The difference between the total ladder area and area surrounded by the IAM curve and x axis corresponds to the unextracted storage energy according to Eq. 23; (b) two-pass; (c) four-pass; (d) eight-pass. Output pulse energy of the corresponding stage is given above each ladder. The aim is to amplify a 100 mJ pulse to a 10 kJ one.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fluence in the gain medium of each stage of the optimal NIAC: (a) two-stage double-pass NIAC corresponding to Fig. 4(b) and (b) two-stage four-pass NIAC corresponding to Fig. 4(c).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparisons for a two-stage four-pass NIAC boosting pulse energy from 100 mJ to 10 kJ with different designs. (a) Identical beam aperture designs and optimal NIAC design. The beam cross-sectional areas of the two stages of case (1) and case (2) are all 1000cm2. Ladders were deliberately lowered to slightly less than 1000cm2 for clarity. (b) NIAC designs with different stage settings.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Display of the relationships between symbols and the kth stage of the NIAC shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Numerical results for the optimal design of NIAC with losses: (a) two-stage double-pass; (b) three-stage double-pass; and (c) two-stage four-pass.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optimized Results for NIAC in Scaling 100 mJ to 10 kJ

Equations (31)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eout=TEsln{G0[exp(Ein/Es)1]+1}
G0=exp(0Lg0dl)=exp[σ0L(n20n10)dl],
Ej+1=Esln{Gj[exp(Ej/Es)1]+1},
Gj=exp[σ0L(n2jn1j)dl]=Gj1exp[p(Ej/TEj1)/Es],
κ1κ1+κ2(full-recovery)p1(no-recovery).
Ej+1=Esln{Gj[exp(Ej/Es)1]+1}
Gj=Gj1exp[(EjEj1)/Es].
eEout/Es1={G0(eEin/Es1),R=1G0Re(R1)Ein/Esm=2R[G0m1e(m2)Ein/Es]+1eEin/Es1,R2.
Up=g0EsLS=g0EsV,
η=UoutUinUp=(EoutEin)SEsg0V=(EoutEin)Es1g0L=1lnG0EoutEinEs,
ηIAM=UoutUindUp=UoutUinEsg0dV=UoutUinEsg00LS(l)dl,
Uo(0)=Uin,Uo(M)=Uout,andUi(k+1)=Uo(k),(k=0,1,,M).
Eo(k)=Uo(k)/S(k)=Edesign=qEs,(k=0,1,,M),
Ei(k)=qEsS(k1)S(k)=Uo(k1)Uo(k)qEs=qEsUo(k1)Uo(k),
L(k)=1g0lnG0(k),
S(k)=Uo(k)qEs,
V(k)=Uo(k)lnG0(k)g0qEs,
Up(k)=Esg0V(k),
ηNIAC=UoutUink=1MUp(k)=UoutUinEsg0k=1MV(k)=UoutUinEsg0k=1MS(k)L(k)=q(UoutUin)k=1MUo(k)lnG0(k).
ηIAM=UoutUinEsg0minMk=1MV(k)=limMq(UoutUin)k=1MUo(k)lnG0(k).
ηNIAC,opt=maxηNIAC(Uo(1),Uo(2),,Uo(M1))=max[q(UoutUin)k=1MUo(k)lnGo(k)],
eq1={G0[exp(qUo(k1)/Uo(k))1],R=1(G0(k))Req(R1)Uo(k1)/Uo(k)m=2R[(G0(k))m1eq(m2)Uo(k1)/Uo(k)]+1eqUo(k1)/Uo(k)1,R2,
Uwaste=g0Es[k=1MV(k)ηIAMdV]g0Es[k=1MS(k)L(k)0LS(l)dl],
L(k)=1g0ln[eq1eqUo(k1)/Uo(k)1].
LIAM,sum=limmk=1mL(k)=qeqln(Uout/Uin)g0(eq1),
S(k)=S0j=1k1qln[1+eq1eg0L(k)].
Γi(k,1)=Γi(k),Γo(k,R)=Γo(k),andG(k,0)=G0(k).
Ei(k,1)=qEsUo(k1)Uo(k),
Ei(k,j+1)=Eo(k,j),
Eo(k,j)=TEsln{G(k,j1)[exp(Ei(k,j)/Es)1]+1},
G(k,j)=G(k,j1)exp[(Eo(k,j)/TEi(k,j))/Es].

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