Abstract

A narcissus calculating method for cryogenic infrared imaging systems is proposed in this paper. The accuracy is largely improved compared to the traditional paraxial analysis, as ray blocking of the optical opertures is taken into account and real ray data are used during the calculation. The narcissus distribution on the full focal plane can be obtained via analyzing field by field. Meanwhile, it can be implemented simply and fast as sequential ray tracing is utilized and rays only pass through three surfaces during the cold return statistics for every retro-reflecting surface. According to this method, a general narcissus calculation package was realized using the macro language of optical design software Code V. The performance of the new method was tested by calculating an example system using this package and comparing it with traditional methods. The results showed that the new method produced the same result accuracy and information quantity as the nonsequential ray trace, while the whole analysis took only 5 s, which was significantly shortened compared with the nonsequential ray trace, which took about 30 min.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. James, W. Howard, and I. R. Narcissus, “Reflections on retro-reflections in thermal imaging systems,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3393–3397 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Rayces and L. Lebich, “Exact ray-tracing computation of narcissus equivalent temperature difference in scanning thermal imagers,” Proc. SPIE 1752, 325–332 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Lu and S. J. Dobson, “Accurate calculation of Narcissus signatures by using finite ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6393–6398 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Nadeem Akram, “Simulation and control of narcissus phenomenon using nonsequential ray tracing. II. Line-scan camera in 7-11 m waveband,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1185–1195 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Yang, A. X. Qiang, and W. Qian, “Accurate and fast stray light calculation based on improved backward ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 52, B1–B9 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Academic, 2005).
  7. Optical Research Associates, Code V User Manual [M] (2004), pp. 39–49.

2013

2010

1997

1992

J. L. Rayces and L. Lebich, “Exact ray-tracing computation of narcissus equivalent temperature difference in scanning thermal imagers,” Proc. SPIE 1752, 325–332 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Academic, 2005).

Dobson, S. J.

Howard, W.

James, A.

Lebich, L.

J. L. Rayces and L. Lebich, “Exact ray-tracing computation of narcissus equivalent temperature difference in scanning thermal imagers,” Proc. SPIE 1752, 325–332 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lu, K.

Nadeem Akram, M.

Narcissus, I. R.

Qian, W.

Qiang, A. X.

Rayces, J. L.

J. L. Rayces and L. Lebich, “Exact ray-tracing computation of narcissus equivalent temperature difference in scanning thermal imagers,” Proc. SPIE 1752, 325–332 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Academic, 2005).

Yang, L.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Validity judgement criteria of single retro-reflected ray.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Narcissus ray trace for single surface calculation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Example optical system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

NITD distribution of the example system.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. First-Order Parameters of the Example System

Tables Icon

Table 2. NITD of Distribution to Each Field of View

Tables Icon

Table 3. Results of Paraxial Analysis

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Table 4. Summarized Performances of the Three Methods

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{|himg||Himg||hsto||Hsto|.
{Zimg=ym/tan(αm)+zmZsto=yb/tan(αb)+zb.
{Hsto=(ZstoZimg)tan(αm)Himg=(ZstoZimg)tan(αb).
{cos(θ)=lilR+mimR+ninRlr=2cos(θ)lRlimr=2cos(θ)mRminr=2cos(θ)nRni,
{himg=±(xi(ziZimg)lr/nr)2+(yi(ziZimg)mr/nr)2hsto=±(xi(ziZsto)lr/nr)2+(yi(ziZsto)mr/nr)2.
δi,j=mi,jM,
Γi,j=rjtj2t0δi,jλ1λ2(N(λ,Th)N(λ,Td))dλλ1λ2N(λ,Ts)Tsdλ,
Γi=jΓi,j=jrjtj2t0δi,jλ1λ2(N(λ,Th)N(λ,Td))dλλ1λ2N(λ,Ts)Tsdλ,

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