Abstract

This paper presents a real-time visual sensing system, which is created to achieve high-speed three-dimensional (3D) motion tracking of microscopic spherical particles in aqueous solutions with nanometer resolution. The system comprises a complementary metal–oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera, a field programmable gate array (FPGA), and real-time image processing programs. The CMOS camera has high photosensitivity and superior SNR. It acquires images of 128×120 pixels at a frame rate of up to 10,000 frames per second (fps) under the white light illumination from a standard 100 W halogen lamp. The real-time image stream is downloaded from the camera directly to the FPGA, wherein a 3D particle-tracking algorithm is implemented to calculate the 3D positions of the target particle in real time. Two important objectives, i.e., real-time estimation of the 3D position matches the maximum frame rate of the camera and the timing of the output data stream of the system is precisely controlled, are achieved. Two sets of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the system. First, the visual sensing system was used to track the motion of a 2 μm polystyrene bead, whose motion was controlled by a three-axis piezo motion stage. The ability to track long-range motion with nanometer resolution in all three axes is demonstrated. Second, it was used to measure the Brownian motion of the 2 μm polystyrene bead, which was stabilized in aqueous solution by a laser trapping system.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013

Z. Zhang, F. Long, and C. H. Menq, “Three-dimensional visual servo control of a magnetically propelled microscopic bead,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Robot. 29, 373–382 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

O. Ueberschar, C. Wagner, T. Stangner, C. Gutsche, and F. Kremer, “A novel video-based microsphere localization algorithm for low contrast silica particles under white light illumination,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 423–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “High-speed video-based tracking of optically trapped colloids,” J. Opt. 13, 044011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, P. Cheng, and C. H. Menq, “Dynamic force sensing using an optically trapped probing system,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics 16, 1145–1154 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Conkey, R. P. Trivedi, S. R. P. Pavani, I. I. Smalyukh, and R. Piestun, “Three-dimensional parallel particle manipulation and tracking by integrating holographic optical tweezers and engineered point spread functions,” Opt. Express 19, 3835–3842 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

Z. Zhang and C. H. Menq, “Best linear unbiased axial localization in three-dimensional fluorescent bead tracking with subnanometer resolution using off-focus images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1484–1493 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wan, Y. Huang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Real-time in situ calibration of an optically trapped probing system,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4832–4841 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, J. Wan, M. C. Cheng, Z. Zhang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Three-axis rapid steering of optically propelled micro/nano particles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 063107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Perkins, “Optical traps for single molecule biophysics: a primer,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 203–220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. C. Neuman and A. Nagy, “Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers, and atomic force microscopy,” Nat. Methods 5, 491–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang and C. H. Menq, “Three-dimensional particle tracking with subnanometer resolution using off-focus images,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2361–2370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Wei, A. Zaorski, H. C. Yalcin, J. Wang, M. Hallow, S. N. Ghadiali, A. Chiou, and H. D. Ou-Yang, “A comparative study of living cell micromechanical properties by oscillatory optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 16, 8594–8603 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kanger, V. Subramaniam, and R. van Driel, “Intracellular manipulation of chromatin using magnetic nanoparticles,” Chromosome Res. 16, 511–522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

T. Ragan, H. Huang, P. So, and E. Gratton, “3D particle tracking on a two-photon microscope,” Biophys. J. 16, 325–336 (2006).

U. F. Keyser, J. van der Does, C. Dekker, and N. H. Dekker, “Optical tweezers for force measurements on DNA in nanopores,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 105105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chiou, Y.-Y. Huang, M.-H. Chiang, H.-H. Lee, and G.-B. Lee, “New magnetic tweezers for investigation of the mechanical properties of single DNA molecules,” Nanotechnol. 17, 1217–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. H. B. de Vries, B. E. Krenn, R. van Driel, and J. S. Kanger, “Micro magnetic tweezers for nanomanipulation inside live cells,” Biophys. J. 88, 2137–2144 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Aguet, D. Van de Ville, and M. Unser, “A maximum-likelihood formalism for sub-resolution axial localization of fluorescent nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 13, 10503–10522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. G. Hosu, K. Jakab, P. Banki, and F. I. Toth, “Magnetic tweezers for intracellular applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4158–4163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Huang, C. Y. Dong, H.-S. Kwon, J. D. Sutin, R. D. Kamm, and P. T. C. So, “Three-dimensional cellular deformation analysis with a two-photon magnetic manipulator workstation,” Biophys. J. 82, 2211–2223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Caspi, R. Granek, and M. Elbaum, “Diffusion and directed motion in cellular transport,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 011916 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, B. Anvari, M. Takashima, P. Brecht, J. H. Torres, and W. E. Brownell, “Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 82, 1386–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gosse and V. Croquette, “Magnetic tweezers: micromanipulation and force measurement at the molecular level,” Biophys. J. 82, 3314–3329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. L. Stout, “Detection and characterization of individual intermolecular bonds using optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 80, 2976–2986 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth, and J. Greve, “Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers,” Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Huang, C. F. Wang, D. S. Mehta, and A. Chiou, “Optical tweezers as sub-pico-newton force transducers,” Opt. Commun. 195, 41–48 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. J. Alenghat, B. Fabry, K. Y. Tsai, W. H. Goldmann, and D. E. Ingber, “Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 277, 93–99 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986

Aguet, F.

Alenghat, F. J.

F. J. Alenghat, B. Fabry, K. Y. Tsai, W. H. Goldmann, and D. E. Ingber, “Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 277, 93–99 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anvari, B.

Z. Li, B. Anvari, M. Takashima, P. Brecht, J. H. Torres, and W. E. Brownell, “Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 82, 1386–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Banki, P.

B. G. Hosu, K. Jakab, P. Banki, and F. I. Toth, “Magnetic tweezers for intracellular applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4158–4163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bennink, M. L.

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth, and J. Greve, “Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers,” Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, K.

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brecht, P.

Z. Li, B. Anvari, M. Takashima, P. Brecht, J. H. Torres, and W. E. Brownell, “Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 82, 1386–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brownell, W. E.

Z. Li, B. Anvari, M. Takashima, P. Brecht, J. H. Torres, and W. E. Brownell, “Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 82, 1386–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A. R.

Caspi, A.

A. Caspi, R. Granek, and M. Elbaum, “Diffusion and directed motion in cellular transport,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 011916 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M. C.

Y. Huang, J. Wan, M. C. Cheng, Z. Zhang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Three-axis rapid steering of optically propelled micro/nano particles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 063107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, P.

Y. Huang, P. Cheng, and C. H. Menq, “Dynamic force sensing using an optically trapped probing system,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics 16, 1145–1154 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, M.-H.

C.-H. Chiou, Y.-Y. Huang, M.-H. Chiang, H.-H. Lee, and G.-B. Lee, “New magnetic tweezers for investigation of the mechanical properties of single DNA molecules,” Nanotechnol. 17, 1217–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, A.

Chiou, C.-H.

C.-H. Chiou, Y.-Y. Huang, M.-H. Chiang, H.-H. Lee, and G.-B. Lee, “New magnetic tweezers for investigation of the mechanical properties of single DNA molecules,” Nanotechnol. 17, 1217–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Conkey, D. B.

Cribb, J.

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Croquette, V.

C. Gosse and V. Croquette, “Magnetic tweezers: micromanipulation and force measurement at the molecular level,” Biophys. J. 82, 3314–3329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Czerwinski, F.

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “High-speed video-based tracking of optically trapped colloids,” J. Opt. 13, 044011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Otto, F. Czerwinski, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, L. B. Oddershede, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “Real-time particle tracking at 10,000 fps using optical fiber illumination,” Opt. Express 18, 22722–22733 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Grooth, B. G.

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth, and J. Greve, “Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers,” Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, A. H. B.

A. H. B. de Vries, B. E. Krenn, R. van Driel, and J. S. Kanger, “Micro magnetic tweezers for nanomanipulation inside live cells,” Biophys. J. 88, 2137–2144 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, C.

U. F. Keyser, J. van der Does, C. Dekker, and N. H. Dekker, “Optical tweezers for force measurements on DNA in nanopores,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 105105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, N. H.

U. F. Keyser, J. van der Does, C. Dekker, and N. H. Dekker, “Optical tweezers for force measurements on DNA in nanopores,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 105105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Desai, K. V.

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C. Y.

H. Huang, C. Y. Dong, H.-S. Kwon, J. D. Sutin, R. D. Kamm, and P. T. C. So, “Three-dimensional cellular deformation analysis with a two-photon magnetic manipulator workstation,” Biophys. J. 82, 2211–2223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Elbaum, M.

A. Caspi, R. Granek, and M. Elbaum, “Diffusion and directed motion in cellular transport,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 011916 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fabry, B.

F. J. Alenghat, B. Fabry, K. Y. Tsai, W. H. Goldmann, and D. E. Ingber, “Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 277, 93–99 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, J. K.

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Florin, E. L.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, L.

Ghadiali, S. N.

Goldmann, W. H.

F. J. Alenghat, B. Fabry, K. Y. Tsai, W. H. Goldmann, and D. E. Ingber, “Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 277, 93–99 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gornall, J. L.

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “High-speed video-based tracking of optically trapped colloids,” J. Opt. 13, 044011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Otto, F. Czerwinski, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, L. B. Oddershede, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “Real-time particle tracking at 10,000 fps using optical fiber illumination,” Opt. Express 18, 22722–22733 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gosse, C.

C. Gosse and V. Croquette, “Magnetic tweezers: micromanipulation and force measurement at the molecular level,” Biophys. J. 82, 3314–3329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Granek, R.

A. Caspi, R. Granek, and M. Elbaum, “Diffusion and directed motion in cellular transport,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 011916 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, E.

T. Ragan, H. Huang, P. So, and E. Gratton, “3D particle tracking on a two-photon microscope,” Biophys. J. 16, 325–336 (2006).

Greve, J.

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth, and J. Greve, “Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers,” Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gutsche, C.

O. Ueberschar, C. Wagner, T. Stangner, C. Gutsche, and F. Kremer, “A novel video-based microsphere localization algorithm for low contrast silica particles under white light illumination,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 423–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Haase, J.

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hallow, M.

Horber, J. K. H.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hosu, B. G.

B. G. Hosu, K. Jakab, P. Banki, and F. I. Toth, “Magnetic tweezers for intracellular applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4158–4163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. C.

C. C. Huang, C. F. Wang, D. S. Mehta, and A. Chiou, “Optical tweezers as sub-pico-newton force transducers,” Opt. Commun. 195, 41–48 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

T. Ragan, H. Huang, P. So, and E. Gratton, “3D particle tracking on a two-photon microscope,” Biophys. J. 16, 325–336 (2006).

H. Huang, C. Y. Dong, H.-S. Kwon, J. D. Sutin, R. D. Kamm, and P. T. C. So, “Three-dimensional cellular deformation analysis with a two-photon magnetic manipulator workstation,” Biophys. J. 82, 2211–2223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, P. Cheng, and C. H. Menq, “Dynamic force sensing using an optically trapped probing system,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics 16, 1145–1154 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and C. H. Menq, “Actively controlled manipulation of a magnetic microbead using quadrupole magnetic tweezers,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Robot. 26, 531–541 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, J. Wan, M. C. Cheng, Z. Zhang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Three-axis rapid steering of optically propelled micro/nano particles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 063107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wan, Y. Huang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Real-time in situ calibration of an optically trapped probing system,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4832–4841 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-Y.

C.-H. Chiou, Y.-Y. Huang, M.-H. Chiang, H.-H. Lee, and G.-B. Lee, “New magnetic tweezers for investigation of the mechanical properties of single DNA molecules,” Nanotechnol. 17, 1217–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ingber, D. E.

F. J. Alenghat, B. Fabry, K. Y. Tsai, W. H. Goldmann, and D. E. Ingber, “Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 277, 93–99 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jakab, K.

B. G. Hosu, K. Jakab, P. Banki, and F. I. Toth, “Magnetic tweezers for intracellular applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4158–4163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jhiang, S.

J. Wan, Y. Huang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Real-time in situ calibration of an optically trapped probing system,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4832–4841 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, J. Wan, M. C. Cheng, Z. Zhang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Three-axis rapid steering of optically propelled micro/nano particles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 063107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kamm, R. D.

H. Huang, C. Y. Dong, H.-S. Kwon, J. D. Sutin, R. D. Kamm, and P. T. C. So, “Three-dimensional cellular deformation analysis with a two-photon magnetic manipulator workstation,” Biophys. J. 82, 2211–2223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kanger, J. S.

J. S. Kanger, V. Subramaniam, and R. van Driel, “Intracellular manipulation of chromatin using magnetic nanoparticles,” Chromosome Res. 16, 511–522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. H. B. de Vries, B. E. Krenn, R. van Driel, and J. S. Kanger, “Micro magnetic tweezers for nanomanipulation inside live cells,” Biophys. J. 88, 2137–2144 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keller, K.

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keyser, U. F.

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “High-speed video-based tracking of optically trapped colloids,” J. Opt. 13, 044011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Otto, F. Czerwinski, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, L. B. Oddershede, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “Real-time particle tracking at 10,000 fps using optical fiber illumination,” Opt. Express 18, 22722–22733 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. F. Keyser, J. van der Does, C. Dekker, and N. H. Dekker, “Optical tweezers for force measurements on DNA in nanopores,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 105105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

King, G. M.

Kremer, F.

O. Ueberschar, C. Wagner, T. Stangner, C. Gutsche, and F. Kremer, “A novel video-based microsphere localization algorithm for low contrast silica particles under white light illumination,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 423–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, B. E.

A. H. B. de Vries, B. E. Krenn, R. van Driel, and J. S. Kanger, “Micro magnetic tweezers for nanomanipulation inside live cells,” Biophys. J. 88, 2137–2144 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, H.-S.

H. Huang, C. Y. Dong, H.-S. Kwon, J. D. Sutin, R. D. Kamm, and P. T. C. So, “Three-dimensional cellular deformation analysis with a two-photon magnetic manipulator workstation,” Biophys. J. 82, 2211–2223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-B.

C.-H. Chiou, Y.-Y. Huang, M.-H. Chiang, H.-H. Lee, and G.-B. Lee, “New magnetic tweezers for investigation of the mechanical properties of single DNA molecules,” Nanotechnol. 17, 1217–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-H.

C.-H. Chiou, Y.-Y. Huang, M.-H. Chiang, H.-H. Lee, and G.-B. Lee, “New magnetic tweezers for investigation of the mechanical properties of single DNA molecules,” Nanotechnol. 17, 1217–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leno, G. H.

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth, and J. Greve, “Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers,” Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leuba, S. H.

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth, and J. Greve, “Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers,” Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, B. Anvari, M. Takashima, P. Brecht, J. H. Torres, and W. E. Brownell, “Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 82, 1386–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Long, F.

Z. Zhang, F. Long, and C. H. Menq, “Three-dimensional visual servo control of a magnetically propelled microscopic bead,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Robot. 29, 373–382 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, D. S.

C. C. Huang, C. F. Wang, D. S. Mehta, and A. Chiou, “Optical tweezers as sub-pico-newton force transducers,” Opt. Commun. 195, 41–48 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Menq, C. H.

Z. Zhang, F. Long, and C. H. Menq, “Three-dimensional visual servo control of a magnetically propelled microscopic bead,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Robot. 29, 373–382 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, P. Cheng, and C. H. Menq, “Dynamic force sensing using an optically trapped probing system,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics 16, 1145–1154 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and C. H. Menq, “Actively controlled manipulation of a magnetic microbead using quadrupole magnetic tweezers,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Robot. 26, 531–541 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang and C. H. Menq, “Best linear unbiased axial localization in three-dimensional fluorescent bead tracking with subnanometer resolution using off-focus images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1484–1493 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, J. Wan, M. C. Cheng, Z. Zhang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Three-axis rapid steering of optically propelled micro/nano particles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 063107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wan, Y. Huang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Real-time in situ calibration of an optically trapped probing system,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4832–4841 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang and C. H. Menq, “Three-dimensional particle tracking with subnanometer resolution using off-focus images,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2361–2370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nagy, A.

K. C. Neuman and A. Nagy, “Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers, and atomic force microscopy,” Nat. Methods 5, 491–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman and A. Nagy, “Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers, and atomic force microscopy,” Nat. Methods 5, 491–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oddershede, L. B.

Otto, O.

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “High-speed video-based tracking of optically trapped colloids,” J. Opt. 13, 044011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Otto, F. Czerwinski, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, L. B. Oddershede, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “Real-time particle tracking at 10,000 fps using optical fiber illumination,” Opt. Express 18, 22722–22733 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ou-Yang, H. D.

Pavani, S. R. P.

Perkins, T. T.

Piestun, R.

Pralle, A.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prummer, M.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ragan, T.

T. Ragan, H. Huang, P. So, and E. Gratton, “3D particle tracking on a two-photon microscope,” Biophys. J. 16, 325–336 (2006).

Rohrbach, A.

Seidel, R.

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “High-speed video-based tracking of optically trapped colloids,” J. Opt. 13, 044011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Otto, F. Czerwinski, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, L. B. Oddershede, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “Real-time particle tracking at 10,000 fps using optical fiber illumination,” Opt. Express 18, 22722–22733 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smalyukh, I. I.

So, P.

T. Ragan, H. Huang, P. So, and E. Gratton, “3D particle tracking on a two-photon microscope,” Biophys. J. 16, 325–336 (2006).

So, P. T. C.

H. Huang, C. Y. Dong, H.-S. Kwon, J. D. Sutin, R. D. Kamm, and P. T. C. So, “Three-dimensional cellular deformation analysis with a two-photon magnetic manipulator workstation,” Biophys. J. 82, 2211–2223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stangner, T.

O. Ueberschar, C. Wagner, T. Stangner, C. Gutsche, and F. Kremer, “A novel video-based microsphere localization algorithm for low contrast silica particles under white light illumination,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 423–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stober, G.

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “High-speed video-based tracking of optically trapped colloids,” J. Opt. 13, 044011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Otto, F. Czerwinski, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, L. B. Oddershede, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “Real-time particle tracking at 10,000 fps using optical fiber illumination,” Opt. Express 18, 22722–22733 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stout, A. L.

A. L. Stout, “Detection and characterization of individual intermolecular bonds using optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 80, 2976–2986 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, V.

J. S. Kanger, V. Subramaniam, and R. van Driel, “Intracellular manipulation of chromatin using magnetic nanoparticles,” Chromosome Res. 16, 511–522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Superfine, R.

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sutin, J. D.

H. Huang, C. Y. Dong, H.-S. Kwon, J. D. Sutin, R. D. Kamm, and P. T. C. So, “Three-dimensional cellular deformation analysis with a two-photon magnetic manipulator workstation,” Biophys. J. 82, 2211–2223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, M.

Z. Li, B. Anvari, M. Takashima, P. Brecht, J. H. Torres, and W. E. Brownell, “Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 82, 1386–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. M.

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Timothy O’Brien, E.

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. H.

Z. Li, B. Anvari, M. Takashima, P. Brecht, J. H. Torres, and W. E. Brownell, “Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 82, 1386–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toth, F. I.

B. G. Hosu, K. Jakab, P. Banki, and F. I. Toth, “Magnetic tweezers for intracellular applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4158–4163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trivedi, R. P.

Tsai, K. Y.

F. J. Alenghat, B. Fabry, K. Y. Tsai, W. H. Goldmann, and D. E. Ingber, “Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 277, 93–99 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueberschar, O.

O. Ueberschar, C. Wagner, T. Stangner, C. Gutsche, and F. Kremer, “A novel video-based microsphere localization algorithm for low contrast silica particles under white light illumination,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 423–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Unser, M.

Van de Ville, D.

van der Does, J.

U. F. Keyser, J. van der Does, C. Dekker, and N. H. Dekker, “Optical tweezers for force measurements on DNA in nanopores,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 105105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, R.

J. S. Kanger, V. Subramaniam, and R. van Driel, “Intracellular manipulation of chromatin using magnetic nanoparticles,” Chromosome Res. 16, 511–522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. H. B. de Vries, B. E. Krenn, R. van Driel, and J. S. Kanger, “Micro magnetic tweezers for nanomanipulation inside live cells,” Biophys. J. 88, 2137–2144 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vicci, L.

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, C.

O. Ueberschar, C. Wagner, T. Stangner, C. Gutsche, and F. Kremer, “A novel video-based microsphere localization algorithm for low contrast silica particles under white light illumination,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 423–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wan, J.

J. Wan, Y. Huang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Real-time in situ calibration of an optically trapped probing system,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4832–4841 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, J. Wan, M. C. Cheng, Z. Zhang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Three-axis rapid steering of optically propelled micro/nano particles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 063107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. F.

C. C. Huang, C. F. Wang, D. S. Mehta, and A. Chiou, “Optical tweezers as sub-pico-newton force transducers,” Opt. Commun. 195, 41–48 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wei, M. T.

Wilde, B.

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yalcin, H. C.

Zaorski, A.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, F. Long, and C. H. Menq, “Three-dimensional visual servo control of a magnetically propelled microscopic bead,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Robot. 29, 373–382 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and C. H. Menq, “Actively controlled manipulation of a magnetic microbead using quadrupole magnetic tweezers,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Robot. 26, 531–541 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang and C. H. Menq, “Best linear unbiased axial localization in three-dimensional fluorescent bead tracking with subnanometer resolution using off-focus images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1484–1493 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, J. Wan, M. C. Cheng, Z. Zhang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Three-axis rapid steering of optically propelled micro/nano particles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 063107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang and C. H. Menq, “Three-dimensional particle tracking with subnanometer resolution using off-focus images,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2361–2370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zlatanova, J.

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth, and J. Greve, “Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers,” Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.

F. J. Alenghat, B. Fabry, K. Y. Tsai, W. H. Goldmann, and D. E. Ingber, “Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 277, 93–99 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

H. Huang, C. Y. Dong, H.-S. Kwon, J. D. Sutin, R. D. Kamm, and P. T. C. So, “Three-dimensional cellular deformation analysis with a two-photon magnetic manipulator workstation,” Biophys. J. 82, 2211–2223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. H. B. de Vries, B. E. Krenn, R. van Driel, and J. S. Kanger, “Micro magnetic tweezers for nanomanipulation inside live cells,” Biophys. J. 88, 2137–2144 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gosse and V. Croquette, “Magnetic tweezers: micromanipulation and force measurement at the molecular level,” Biophys. J. 82, 3314–3329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Stout, “Detection and characterization of individual intermolecular bonds using optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 80, 2976–2986 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, B. Anvari, M. Takashima, P. Brecht, J. H. Torres, and W. E. Brownell, “Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 82, 1386–1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Ragan, H. Huang, P. So, and E. Gratton, “3D particle tracking on a two-photon microscope,” Biophys. J. 16, 325–336 (2006).

Chromosome Res.

J. S. Kanger, V. Subramaniam, and R. van Driel, “Intracellular manipulation of chromatin using magnetic nanoparticles,” Chromosome Res. 16, 511–522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics

Y. Huang, P. Cheng, and C. H. Menq, “Dynamic force sensing using an optically trapped probing system,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics 16, 1145–1154 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ASME Trans. Robot.

Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and C. H. Menq, “Actively controlled manipulation of a magnetic microbead using quadrupole magnetic tweezers,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Robot. 26, 531–541 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, F. Long, and C. H. Menq, “Three-dimensional visual servo control of a magnetically propelled microscopic bead,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Robot. 29, 373–382 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

O. Otto, J. L. Gornall, G. Stober, F. Czerwinski, R. Seidel, and U. F. Keyser, “High-speed video-based tracking of optically trapped colloids,” J. Opt. 13, 044011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Laser Photon. Rev.

T. T. Perkins, “Optical traps for single molecule biophysics: a primer,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 203–220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnol.

C.-H. Chiou, Y.-Y. Huang, M.-H. Chiang, H.-H. Lee, and G.-B. Lee, “New magnetic tweezers for investigation of the mechanical properties of single DNA molecules,” Nanotechnol. 17, 1217–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods

K. C. Neuman and A. Nagy, “Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers, and atomic force microscopy,” Nat. Methods 5, 491–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Struct. Biol.

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth, and J. Greve, “Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers,” Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. C. Huang, C. F. Wang, D. S. Mehta, and A. Chiou, “Optical tweezers as sub-pico-newton force transducers,” Opt. Commun. 195, 41–48 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Eng.

O. Ueberschar, C. Wagner, T. Stangner, C. Gutsche, and F. Kremer, “A novel video-based microsphere localization algorithm for low contrast silica particles under white light illumination,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 423–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

A. Caspi, R. Granek, and M. Elbaum, “Diffusion and directed motion in cellular transport,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 011916 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

U. F. Keyser, J. van der Does, C. Dekker, and N. H. Dekker, “Optical tweezers for force measurements on DNA in nanopores,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 105105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Fisher, J. Cribb, K. V. Desai, L. Vicci, B. Wilde, K. Keller, R. M. Taylor, J. Haase, K. Bloom, E. Timothy O’Brien, and R. Superfine, “Thin-foil magnetic force system for high-numerical-aperture microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Hosu, K. Jakab, P. Banki, and F. I. Toth, “Magnetic tweezers for intracellular applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4158–4163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, J. Wan, M. C. Cheng, Z. Zhang, S. Jhiang, and C. H. Menq, “Three-axis rapid steering of optically propelled micro/nano particles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 063107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the optical system setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the electronics module integration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Particle’s image models at different z-positions and the projected radius vector models.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Radius vector projection.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Mesh plot of the normalized radius vector model matrix for a 2 μm polystyrene bead.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calibrated measurement biases in the two lateral axes at distinct z-positions and the corresponding continuous bias models.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Single-axis 5 nm stepping in all three axes.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Linear motion along the z axis (top) and the dependence of the measurement resolution on the z-position (bottom).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Single-axis 5 μm triangular-wave motion in all three axes.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Power spectrums of the optical trap: (a) x, (b) y, and (c) z axis.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

xc(tj)=Ik(tj)xkIk(tj)andyc(tj)=Ik(tj)ykIk(tj),
ρi(zj)=k=1MickIk(zj)k=1Mick,ck={dkri1ifri1dk<riri+1dkifridk<ri+1,
mi(tj)=k=1MickIk(tj)k=1Mick,
J(z(tj))=i=0N[ρ^i(z)m^i(tj)]2.
{x(tj)=xc(tj)Bx(z(tj))y(tj)=yc(tj)By(z(tj)).
XPSD(f)=1T|0Tx(t)e2πftdt|2,

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