Abstract

A challenging issue associated with three-dimensional (3D) fringe patterns profilometry (FPP) is the unwrapping of phase maps resulting from color object surfaces. This paper proposes a new color-projection-based 3D FPP, making use of the three primary color channels [i.e., red, green, and blue (RGB)] associated with digital projectors. One channel (e.g., red) is used for projecting sinusoidal fringes required by phase shift profilometry (PSP); the other two channels are employed for generating binary stripe patterns. In order to achieve reliable phase unwrapping, each fringe of the sinusoidal patterns is identified by a unique binary sequence. These sequences are then encoded by a channel-encoding scheme used in the area of communication. The encoded sequences are embedded in the binary coding stripe images, which are projected together with the sinusoidal patterns. The three image patterns are reflected by the object surface and captured by an RGB 3-CCD camera. The reflected sinusoidal patterns are employed to yield a wrapped phase map, and the binary stripe patterns are used to retrieve the encoded sequences, which are then decoded to yield the original binary sequences for phase unwrapping. Compared with existing color-encoded algorithms, the proposed approach uses binary codes instead of fringe color to identify the fringes, which are less sensitive to the disturbances caused by object surface color and illumination noises. Furthermore, use of the channel-coding scheme provides extra resistance to the disturbances caused by object surface color and illumination noises. Experimental results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (1)

K. Chen, J. Xi, and Y. Yu, “Quality-guided spatial phase unwrapping algorithm for fast three-dimensional measurement,” Opt. Commun. 294, 139–147 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

Z. H. Zhang, “Review of single-shot 3D shape measurement by phase calculation-based fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 50, 1097–1106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, J. Xi, Y. Yu, W. Cheng, S. Wang, and J. F. Chicharo, “Frequency selection in absolute phase maps recovery with two frequency projection fringes,” Opt. Express 20, 13238–13251 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

X. Su and W. Chen, “Reliability-guided phase unwrapping algorithm: a review,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 245–261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1993 (1)

1983 (1)

1967 (1)

A. J. Viterbi, “Error bounds for convolutional codes and an asymptotically optimum decoding algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 13, 260–269 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bao, P.

Chen, H.

Chen, H. J.

Chen, K.

K. Chen, J. Xi, and Y. Yu, “Quality-guided spatial phase unwrapping algorithm for fast three-dimensional measurement,” Opt. Commun. 294, 139–147 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

X. Su and W. Chen, “Reliability-guided phase unwrapping algorithm: a review,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 245–261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.

Chicharo, J.

Chicharo, J. F.

Ding, Y.

Fang, J.

Fang, S.

Fang, Z.

Gou, X.

Hu, Y.

Huntley, J. M.

Komori, M.

Li, X.

Liu, W.

Lv, D. J.

Meng, L.

Moon, T. K.

T. K. Moon, Error Correction Coding, Mathematical Methods, and Algorithms (Wiley, 2005), pp. 480–522.

Mu, G.

Mutoh, K.

Osten, W.

Pedrini, G.

Saldner, H. O.

Su, W.

Su, X.

X. Su and W. Chen, “Reliability-guided phase unwrapping algorithm: a review,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 245–261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Towers, C. E.

Towers, D. P.

Viterbi, A. J.

A. J. Viterbi, “Error bounds for convolutional codes and an asymptotically optimum decoding algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 13, 260–269 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Xi, J.

Yang, P.

Yang, S.

Yang, Z.

Yau, S.

Yu, Y.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, Z.

Zhang, Z. H.

Z. H. Zhang, “Review of single-shot 3D shape measurement by phase calculation-based fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 50, 1097–1106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. J. Viterbi, “Error bounds for convolutional codes and an asymptotically optimum decoding algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 13, 260–269 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Chen, J. Xi, and Y. Yu, “Quality-guided spatial phase unwrapping algorithm for fast three-dimensional measurement,” Opt. Commun. 294, 139–147 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

X. Su and W. Chen, “Reliability-guided phase unwrapping algorithm: a review,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 245–261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhang, “Review of single-shot 3D shape measurement by phase calculation-based fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 50, 1097–1106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

T. K. Moon, Error Correction Coding, Mathematical Methods, and Algorithms (Wiley, 2005), pp. 480–522.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Color-coded fringe patterns at mth frame. The order of fringes is from top to bottom. (b) Sinusoidal fringes in red. (c) Binary stripes in green, N=20. (d) Binary stripes in blue, N=20.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Flowchart of the proposed approach.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Captured images of (a) the first frame, (b) the second frame, (c) the third frame, (d) the fourth frame, and (e) the fifth frame of the composite fringe patterns.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Captured sinusoidal fringe patterns in red channel. (b) The binary stripes in green channel. (c) The binary stripes in blue channel.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Wrapped phase map. (b) The pixels (denoted as black) with 1 digit error C^(x,y). (c) The unwrapped phase map.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

3D result obtained by the proposed algorithm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Appearance of targets. (b) The recovered phase map.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

3D result obtained by the proposed algorithm.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sm(x,y)=Rs[I1+I2cos(ϕs(x,y)+2π(m1)M)],
dm(x,y)=Rd(x,y)[I1+I2cos(ϕd(x,y)+2π(m1)M)],
h(x,y)=l0ϕ(x,y)ϕ(x,y)2πf0d0,
ϕsr(x,y)=[ϕs(x,y)]mod2π,
ϕdr(x,y)=[ϕd(x,y)]mod2π,
ϕs(x,y)=2π·ks(x,y)+ϕsr(x,y),
ϕd(x,y)=2π·kd(x,y)+ϕdr(x,y).
gm(x,y)=I1+I2cos[2πf0x+2π(m1)M],
A=(a11a12a1Na21a22a2NaM1aM2aMN),
B=(b11b12b1Nb21b22b2NbM1bM2bMN),

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