Abstract

LiF crystal and film detectors were used to measure the far-field fluence profile of a self-amplified spontaneous-emission free-electron laser beam and diffraction imaging with high spatial resolution. In these measurements the photoluminescence (PL) response of LiF crystal and film was compared over a wide range of soft x-ray fluences. It was found that the soft x-ray fluence dependences of LiF crystal and film differ. At low fluence, the LiF crystal shows higher PL response compared to LiF film, while this comparison is the opposite at higher fluence. Accurate measurement of LiF crystal and film PL response is important for precise characterization of the spatial, spectral, and coherence features of x-ray beams across the full profile and in localized areas. For such measurements, crucial LiF detector attributes are high spatial resolution and high dynamic range.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011

X. Wang, B. Mu, L. Jiang, J. Zhu, S. Yi, Z. Wang, and P. He, “Fabrication of nanoscale patterns in lithium fluoride crystal using a 13.5 nm Schwarzschild objective and a laser produced plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 123702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, A. Lai, S. Martellucci, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, M. Richetta, M. A. Vincenti, and G. Baldacchini, “High-resolution water window x-ray imaging of in vivo cells and their products using LiF crystal detectors,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurobori, Y. Obayashi, K. Suzuki, Y. Hirose, T. Sakai, and S. Aoshima, “Fabrication of optoelectronic devices in lithium fluoride crystals by interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 685–688 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Praeger, A. M. De Paula, C. A. Froud, E. T. F. Rogers, S. L. Stebbings, W. S. Brocklesby, J. J. Baumberg, D. C. Hanna, and J. G. Frey, “Spatially resolved soft X-ray spectrometry from single-image diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 3, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, E. Benedetti, J. Cabanillas-Gonzalez, A. Faenov, S. Gasilov, T. Pikuz, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Elemental sensitivity in soft x-ray imaging with a laser-plasma source and color center detector,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2593–2595 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, “Femtosecond-leaser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystal,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2347–2350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, and G. Baldacchini, “Point defects in lithium fluoride films for micro-radiography, x-ray microscopy and photonic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 250–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurobori, T. Yamakage, Y. Hirose, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Application of wide-band-gap materials for optoelectronic functional devices fabricated by a pair of interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 910–913 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Y. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, and G. Tomassetti, “Point defects in lithium fluoride by EUV and soft X-rays exposure for X-ray microscopy and optical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kurobori, D. Takamizu, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, “Femtosecond-laser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 311–313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Courrol, R. E. Samad, L. Gomes, I. M. Ranieri, S. L. Baldochi, A. Z. de Freitas, and N. D. Vieira, “Color center production by femtosecond pulse laser irradiation in LiF crystals,” Opt. Express 12, 288–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Lithium fluoride as a novel x-ray image detector for biological μ-world capture,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 483–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Tomassetti, A. Ritucci, A. Reale, L. Palladino, L. Reale, L. Arrizza, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, L. Mezi, R. M. Montereali, S. V. Kukhlevsky, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and J. Kaiser, “High-resolution imaging of a soft x-ray laser beam by color centers excitation in lithium fluoride crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 681–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Y. Faenov, and T. A. Pikuz, “High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x rays from a laser-plasma source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810–4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. Baldacchini, M. Cremona, G. d’Auria, S. Martelli, R. M. Montereali, M. Montecchi, E. Burattini, A. Grilli, and A. Race, “Influence of LiF film growth conditions on electron induced color center formation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 447–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alessi, D.

Aoshima, S.

T. Kurobori, Y. Obayashi, K. Suzuki, Y. Hirose, T. Sakai, and S. Aoshima, “Fabrication of optoelectronic devices in lithium fluoride crystals by interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 685–688 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arrizza, L.

G. Tomassetti, A. Ritucci, A. Reale, L. Palladino, L. Reale, L. Arrizza, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, L. Mezi, R. M. Montereali, S. V. Kukhlevsky, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and J. Kaiser, “High-resolution imaging of a soft x-ray laser beam by color centers excitation in lithium fluoride crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 681–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, Soft X Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principle and Application (Cambridge University, 2007).

Baldacchini, G.

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, A. Lai, S. Martellucci, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, M. Richetta, M. A. Vincenti, and G. Baldacchini, “High-resolution water window x-ray imaging of in vivo cells and their products using LiF crystal detectors,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, and G. Baldacchini, “Point defects in lithium fluoride films for micro-radiography, x-ray microscopy and photonic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 250–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Y. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, and G. Tomassetti, “Point defects in lithium fluoride by EUV and soft X-rays exposure for X-ray microscopy and optical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Tomassetti, A. Ritucci, A. Reale, L. Palladino, L. Reale, L. Arrizza, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, L. Mezi, R. M. Montereali, S. V. Kukhlevsky, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and J. Kaiser, “High-resolution imaging of a soft x-ray laser beam by color centers excitation in lithium fluoride crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 681–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Lithium fluoride as a novel x-ray image detector for biological μ-world capture,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 483–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Y. Faenov, and T. A. Pikuz, “High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x rays from a laser-plasma source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810–4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, M. Cremona, G. d’Auria, S. Martelli, R. M. Montereali, M. Montecchi, E. Burattini, A. Grilli, and A. Race, “Influence of LiF film growth conditions on electron induced color center formation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 447–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baldochi, S. L.

Baumberg, J. J.

M. Praeger, A. M. De Paula, C. A. Froud, E. T. F. Rogers, S. L. Stebbings, W. S. Brocklesby, J. J. Baumberg, D. C. Hanna, and J. G. Frey, “Spatially resolved soft X-ray spectrometry from single-image diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 3, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

Berrill, M.

Bollanti, S.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Y. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, and G. Tomassetti, “Point defects in lithium fluoride by EUV and soft X-rays exposure for X-ray microscopy and optical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolton, P.

Bonfigli, F.

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, A. Lai, S. Martellucci, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, M. Richetta, M. A. Vincenti, and G. Baldacchini, “High-resolution water window x-ray imaging of in vivo cells and their products using LiF crystal detectors,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, and G. Baldacchini, “Point defects in lithium fluoride films for micro-radiography, x-ray microscopy and photonic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 250–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
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Kato, M.

M. Kato, N. Saito, T. Tanaka, Y. Morishita, H. Kimura, H. Ohashi, M. Nagasono, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, T. Togashi, A. Higashiya, and T. Ishikawa, “Pulse energy of the extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser at SPring-8 determined using a cryogenic radiometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 612, 209–211 (2009).
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K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, “Femtosecond-leaser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystal,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2347–2350 (2006).
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T. Kurobori, T. Yamakage, Y. Hirose, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Application of wide-band-gap materials for optoelectronic functional devices fabricated by a pair of interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 910–913 (2005).
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K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kurobori, D. Takamizu, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, “Femtosecond-laser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 311–313 (2004).
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Kawase, K.

T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. V. Gasilov, I. Y. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, T. Homma, K. Kawase, Y. Hayahsi, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and S. Bulanov, “Propagation-based phase-contrast enhancement of nanostructure images using a debris-free femtosecond-laser-driven cluster-based plasma soft x-ray source and an LiF crystal detector,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6271–6276 (2009).
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Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
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Kimura, H.

M. Kato, N. Saito, T. Tanaka, Y. Morishita, H. Kimura, H. Ohashi, M. Nagasono, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, T. Togashi, A. Higashiya, and T. Ishikawa, “Pulse energy of the extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser at SPring-8 determined using a cryogenic radiometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 612, 209–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, M.

Kitamura, H.

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, M.

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kotaki, H.

T. A. Pikuz, A. Y. Faenov, S. V. Gasilov, I. Y. Skobelev, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, T. Homma, K. Kawase, Y. Hayahsi, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and S. Bulanov, “Propagation-based phase-contrast enhancement of nanostructure images using a debris-free femtosecond-laser-driven cluster-based plasma soft x-ray source and an LiF crystal detector,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6271–6276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kukhlevsky, S. V.

G. Tomassetti, A. Ritucci, A. Reale, L. Palladino, L. Reale, L. Arrizza, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, L. Mezi, R. M. Montereali, S. V. Kukhlevsky, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and J. Kaiser, “High-resolution imaging of a soft x-ray laser beam by color centers excitation in lithium fluoride crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 681–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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T. Kurobori, Y. Obayashi, K. Suzuki, Y. Hirose, T. Sakai, and S. Aoshima, “Fabrication of optoelectronic devices in lithium fluoride crystals by interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 685–688 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurobori, T. Yamakage, Y. Hirose, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Application of wide-band-gap materials for optoelectronic functional devices fabricated by a pair of interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 910–913 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kurobori, D. Takamizu, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, “Femtosecond-laser-encoded distributed-feedback color center laser in lithium fluoride single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 311–313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, A.

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, A. Lai, S. Martellucci, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, M. Richetta, M. A. Vincenti, and G. Baldacchini, “High-resolution water window x-ray imaging of in vivo cells and their products using LiF crystal detectors,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
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G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
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Limongi, T.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
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Lisi, N.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Luther, B. M.

Ma, J.

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maesaka, H.

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
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I. A. Vartanyants, A. P. Mancuso, A. Singer, O. M. Yefanov, and J. Gulden, “Coherence measurements and coherent diffractive imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. B 43, 194016 (2010).
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T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marolo, T.

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
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F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, and G. Baldacchini, “Point defects in lithium fluoride films for micro-radiography, x-ray microscopy and photonic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 250–255 (2005).
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G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Y. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, and G. Tomassetti, “Point defects in lithium fluoride by EUV and soft X-rays exposure for X-ray microscopy and optical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1435–1445 (2004).
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Martelli, S.

G. Baldacchini, M. Cremona, G. d’Auria, S. Martelli, R. M. Montereali, M. Montecchi, E. Burattini, A. Grilli, and A. Race, “Influence of LiF film growth conditions on electron induced color center formation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 447–451 (1996).
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Martellucci, S.

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, A. Lai, S. Martellucci, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, M. Richetta, M. A. Vincenti, and G. Baldacchini, “High-resolution water window x-ray imaging of in vivo cells and their products using LiF crystal detectors,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 35–41 (2008).
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Martelluci, S.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
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Martz, D. H.

Masuda, T.

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
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T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
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Matsushita, T.

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
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Mezi, L.

G. Tomassetti, A. Ritucci, A. Reale, L. Palladino, L. Reale, L. Arrizza, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, L. Mezi, R. M. Montereali, S. V. Kukhlevsky, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and J. Kaiser, “High-resolution imaging of a soft x-ray laser beam by color centers excitation in lithium fluoride crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 681–686 (2003).
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Minami, Y.

Mitrofanov, A.

Montecchi, M.

G. Baldacchini, M. Cremona, G. d’Auria, S. Martelli, R. M. Montereali, M. Montecchi, E. Burattini, A. Grilli, and A. Race, “Influence of LiF film growth conditions on electron induced color center formation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 447–451 (1996).
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Montereali, R. M.

E. Nichelatti and R. M. Montereali, “Photoluminescence from a homogeneous volume source within an optical multilayer: analytical formulas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29. 303–312 (2012).
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F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, A. Lai, S. Martellucci, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, M. Richetta, M. A. Vincenti, and G. Baldacchini, “High-resolution water window x-ray imaging of in vivo cells and their products using LiF crystal detectors,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, and G. Baldacchini, “Point defects in lithium fluoride films for micro-radiography, x-ray microscopy and photonic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 250–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Y. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, and G. Tomassetti, “Point defects in lithium fluoride by EUV and soft X-rays exposure for X-ray microscopy and optical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Tomassetti, A. Ritucci, A. Reale, L. Palladino, L. Reale, L. Arrizza, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, L. Mezi, R. M. Montereali, S. V. Kukhlevsky, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and J. Kaiser, “High-resolution imaging of a soft x-ray laser beam by color centers excitation in lithium fluoride crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 681–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Lithium fluoride as a novel x-ray image detector for biological μ-world capture,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 483–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Y. Faenov, and T. A. Pikuz, “High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x rays from a laser-plasma source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810–4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, M. Cremona, G. d’Auria, S. Martelli, R. M. Montereali, M. Montecchi, E. Burattini, A. Grilli, and A. Race, “Influence of LiF film growth conditions on electron induced color center formation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 447–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morishita, Y.

M. Kato, N. Saito, T. Tanaka, Y. Morishita, H. Kimura, H. Ohashi, M. Nagasono, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, T. Togashi, A. Higashiya, and T. Ishikawa, “Pulse energy of the extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser at SPring-8 determined using a cryogenic radiometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 612, 209–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mu, B.

X. Wang, B. Mu, L. Jiang, J. Zhu, S. Yi, Z. Wang, and P. He, “Fabrication of nanoscale patterns in lithium fluoride crystal using a 13.5 nm Schwarzschild objective and a laser produced plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 123702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Murra, D.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Y. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, and G. Tomassetti, “Point defects in lithium fluoride by EUV and soft X-rays exposure for X-ray microscopy and optical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Y. Faenov, and T. A. Pikuz, “High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x rays from a laser-plasma source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810–4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagasono, M.

T. Pikuz, A. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, P. Bolton, A. Mitrofanov, A. Vinogradov, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, Y. Senba, T. Togashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Optical features of a LiF crystal soft x-ray imaging detector irradiated by free electron laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20, 3424–3433 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kato, N. Saito, T. Tanaka, Y. Morishita, H. Kimura, H. Ohashi, M. Nagasono, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, T. Togashi, A. Higashiya, and T. Ishikawa, “Pulse energy of the extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser at SPring-8 determined using a cryogenic radiometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 612, 209–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nichelatti, E.

E. Nichelatti and R. M. Montereali, “Photoluminescence from a homogeneous volume source within an optical multilayer: analytical formulas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29. 303–312 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, and G. Baldacchini, “Point defects in lithium fluoride films for micro-radiography, x-ray microscopy and photonic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 250–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Y. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, and G. Tomassetti, “Point defects in lithium fluoride by EUV and soft X-rays exposure for X-ray microscopy and optical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Y. Faenov, and T. A. Pikuz, “High-contrast photoluminescent patterns in lithium fluoride crystals produced by soft x rays from a laser-plasma source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4810–4812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishikino, M.

Nisoli, M.

Nugent, K. A.

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Obayashi, Y.

T. Kurobori, Y. Obayashi, K. Suzuki, Y. Hirose, T. Sakai, and S. Aoshima, “Fabrication of optoelectronic devices in lithium fluoride crystals by interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 685–688 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ochi, Y.

Ohashi, H.

T. Pikuz, A. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, P. Bolton, A. Mitrofanov, A. Vinogradov, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, Y. Senba, T. Togashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Optical features of a LiF crystal soft x-ray imaging detector irradiated by free electron laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20, 3424–3433 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kato, N. Saito, T. Tanaka, Y. Morishita, H. Kimura, H. Ohashi, M. Nagasono, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, T. Togashi, A. Higashiya, and T. Ishikawa, “Pulse energy of the extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser at SPring-8 determined using a cryogenic radiometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 612, 209–211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohata, T.

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohshima, T.

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Onoe, K.

T. Inagaki, S. Imoue, M. Ishi, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics 2, 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pace, A.

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Lithium fluoride as a novel x-ray image detector for biological μ-world capture,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 483–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paganin, D. M.

D. M. Paganin, Coherent X-Ray Optics (Oxford University, 2006).

Palladino, L.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Tomassetti, A. Ritucci, A. Reale, L. Palladino, L. Reale, L. Arrizza, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, L. Mezi, R. M. Montereali, S. V. Kukhlevsky, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and J. Kaiser, “High-resolution imaging of a soft x-ray laser beam by color centers excitation in lithium fluoride crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 681–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petrocelli, G.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pikuz, T.

T. Pikuz, A. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, P. Bolton, A. Mitrofanov, A. Vinogradov, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, Y. Senba, T. Togashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Optical features of a LiF crystal soft x-ray imaging detector irradiated by free electron laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20, 3424–3433 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Y. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, A. Lai, S. Martellucci, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, M. Richetta, M. A. Vincenti, and G. Baldacchini, “High-resolution water window x-ray imaging of in vivo cells and their products using LiF crystal detectors,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, E. Benedetti, J. Cabanillas-Gonzalez, A. Faenov, S. Gasilov, T. Pikuz, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Elemental sensitivity in soft x-ray imaging with a laser-plasma source and color center detector,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2593–2595 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, and G. Baldacchini, “Point defects in lithium fluoride films for micro-radiography, x-ray microscopy and photonic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 250–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Y. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, and G. Tomassetti, “Point defects in lithium fluoride by EUV and soft X-rays exposure for X-ray microscopy and optical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Tomassetti, A. Ritucci, A. Reale, L. Palladino, L. Reale, L. Arrizza, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, L. Mezi, R. M. Montereali, S. V. Kukhlevsky, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and J. Kaiser, “High-resolution imaging of a soft x-ray laser beam by color centers excitation in lithium fluoride crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 681–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Lithium fluoride as a novel x-ray image detector for biological μ-world capture,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 483–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pikuz, T. A.

Poletto, L.

Praeger, M.

M. Praeger, A. M. De Paula, C. A. Froud, E. T. F. Rogers, S. L. Stebbings, W. S. Brocklesby, J. J. Baumberg, D. C. Hanna, and J. G. Frey, “Spatially resolved soft X-ray spectrometry from single-image diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 3, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Race, A.

G. Baldacchini, M. Cremona, G. d’Auria, S. Martelli, R. M. Montereali, M. Montecchi, E. Burattini, A. Grilli, and A. Race, “Influence of LiF film growth conditions on electron induced color center formation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 116, 447–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ranieri, I. M.

Reale, A.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Y. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, and G. Tomassetti, “Point defects in lithium fluoride by EUV and soft X-rays exposure for X-ray microscopy and optical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Tomassetti, A. Ritucci, A. Reale, L. Palladino, L. Reale, L. Arrizza, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, L. Mezi, R. M. Montereali, S. V. Kukhlevsky, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and J. Kaiser, “High-resolution imaging of a soft x-ray laser beam by color centers excitation in lithium fluoride crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 681–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reale, L.

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, A. Lai, S. Martellucci, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, M. Richetta, M. A. Vincenti, and G. Baldacchini, “High-resolution water window x-ray imaging of in vivo cells and their products using LiF crystal detectors,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, and G. Baldacchini, “Point defects in lithium fluoride films for micro-radiography, x-ray microscopy and photonic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 250–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Y. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, and G. Tomassetti, “Point defects in lithium fluoride by EUV and soft X-rays exposure for X-ray microscopy and optical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Tomassetti, A. Ritucci, A. Reale, L. Palladino, L. Reale, L. Arrizza, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, L. Mezi, R. M. Montereali, S. V. Kukhlevsky, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and J. Kaiser, “High-resolution imaging of a soft x-ray laser beam by color centers excitation in lithium fluoride crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 681–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, R. M. Montereali, A. Pace, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Lithium fluoride as a novel x-ray image detector for biological μ-world capture,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 483–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richetta, M.

F. Bonfigli, A. Faenov, F. Flora, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, A. Lai, S. Martellucci, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, L. Reale, M. Richetta, M. A. Vincenti, and G. Baldacchini, “High-resolution water window x-ray imaging of in vivo cells and their products using LiF crystal detectors,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71, 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ritucci, A.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Y. Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, and G. Tomassetti, “Point defects in lithium fluoride by EUV and soft X-rays exposure for X-ray microscopy and optical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Tomassetti, A. Ritucci, A. Reale, L. Palladino, L. Reale, L. Arrizza, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, L. Mezi, R. M. Montereali, S. V. Kukhlevsky, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and J. Kaiser, “High-resolution imaging of a soft x-ray laser beam by color centers excitation in lithium fluoride crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 63, 681–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

Rogers, E. T. F.

M. Praeger, A. M. De Paula, C. A. Froud, E. T. F. Rogers, S. L. Stebbings, W. S. Brocklesby, J. J. Baumberg, D. C. Hanna, and J. G. Frey, “Spatially resolved soft X-ray spectrometry from single-image diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 3, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saito, N.

M. Kato, N. Saito, T. Tanaka, Y. Morishita, H. Kimura, H. Ohashi, M. Nagasono, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, T. Togashi, A. Higashiya, and T. Ishikawa, “Pulse energy of the extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser at SPring-8 determined using a cryogenic radiometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 612, 209–211 (2009).
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X. Wang, B. Mu, L. Jiang, J. Zhu, S. Yi, Z. Wang, and P. He, “Fabrication of nanoscale patterns in lithium fluoride crystal using a 13.5 nm Schwarzschild objective and a laser produced plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 123702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, N. Lisi, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martelluci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. C. E. Turcu and J. B. Dance, X-rays from Laser Plasmas(Wiley, 1998).

D. Attwood, Soft X Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principle and Application (Cambridge University, 2007).

The Center for X-Ray Optics, “X-ray interactions with matter,” http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants .

D. M. Paganin, Coherent X-Ray Optics (Oxford University, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout of experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Photo of Al phantom. (b) PL images of the phantom obtained on the LiF crystal (left) and LiF film (right) irradiated by SASE-FEL laser pulses at a wavelength of 52 nm in 600 shots and measured by a fluorescence confocal microscope with voltage on the PM of 523 and 427 V, respectively. (c) Central part of the same images, measured by a microscope at the fixed on-the-PM voltage of 547 V when the PL signal at the open area of the mask is saturated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Cross-shaped crop of full-size images obtained on the LiF crystal and film after irradiation of rectangular mesh by 10 shots of SASE-FEL beam at a wavelength of 61.5 nm. The images are measured by a fluorescence microscope at the fixed on-the-PM voltage of 850 V. (b) Traces along the images. (c) Experimental dependences of LiF crystal and film PL intensities versus x-ray fluence of the SASE-FEL beam.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Same as Fig. 3(a) but after irradiation of a hexagonal mesh by 27,000 shots of the third harmonic with wavelength of 17.3nm (fundamental wavelength of SASE-FEL beam is 52 nm). The images are measured by a fluorescence microscope at the fixed on-the-PM voltage of 680 V. (b) Traces along the images. (c) Experimental dependence of LiF crystal and film PL intensities versus x-ray fluence of the SASE-FEL beam.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Application of diffraction phenomenon for demonstrating the difference of PL response of LiF crystal and film to x-ray fluence: (a) modeled diffraction image of hexagonal mesh irradiated by wavelength of 17.3nm; (b) and (c) images of hexagonal mesh and its zoomed fragments obtained after irradiation of the LiF film and crystal by 27,000 shots of third harmonic (17.3nm) of the SASE-FEL beam, respectively; (d) calculated intensity distribution of diffraction patterns, taken perpendicular to wire as shown in (a); (e) experimental [along traces shown above in (b)], calculated, and retrieval intensities of diffraction patterns obtained for the LiF film image; (f) same as (e) but for the LiF crystal image.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dependences of PL intensity on x-ray fluence for LiF film and LiF crystal obtained using the intensity-retrieval coefficients.

Equations (3)

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2ikuz+2ux2+2uy2=0,E=u(x,y,z)eikz,k=2πλ,
u(x,z)=k2πizu0(ξ)exp[ik(xξ)22z]dξ.
u0(ξ)={0,|ξ|<d/21,|ξ|>d/2,

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