Abstract

We report a method for calibrating an extreme ultraviolet spectrometer based on a flat-field grazing incidence spherical grating in the energy range of 20–30 eV. By measuring absorption lines corresponding to singly excited states in helium atoms and autoionizing states in argon atoms, the photon energy of the detected light was determined. The spectral resolution of the spectrometer, 60 meV, was obtained by deconvolving the Fano resonance profile of argon autoionizing states from the measured absorption line profiles.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. Chang and P. Corkum, “Attosecond photon sources: the first decade and beyond [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B9–B17 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).
  3. E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Chini, B. Zhao, H. Wang, Y. Cheng, S. X. Hu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle AC Stark shift of helium excited states probed with isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073601 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 093103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, and S. R. Leone, “A tabletop femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073101 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. T. K. Fang and T. N. Chang, “Determination of profile parameters of a Fano resonance without an ultrahigh-energy resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4407–4412 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Zhu, Z. Yuan, W. Li, and K. Xu, “Numerical determination of profile parameters for fano resonance with definite energy resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 448–453 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. W. F. Drake, ed., Springer Handbook of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, (Springer, 2006).
  23. Y. Cheng, “A first step towards intense single attosecond pulse generation from 400 nm driving laser,” master’s thesis (Kansas State University, 2011).
  24. A. S. Tremsin and O. H. W. Siegmund, “Spatial distribution of electron cloud footprints from microchannel plates: measurements and modeling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3282–3288 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2012

M. Chini, B. Zhao, H. Wang, Y. Cheng, S. X. Hu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle AC Stark shift of helium excited states probed with isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).

2010

Z. Chang and P. Corkum, “Attosecond photon sources: the first decade and beyond [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B9–B17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 093103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Farrell, B. K. McFarland, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “Calibration of a high harmonic spectrometer by laser induced plasma emission,” Opt. Express 17, 15134–15144 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, and S. R. Leone, “A tabletop femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Žitnik, A. Stanič, K. Bučar, J. G. Lambourne, F. Penent, R. I. Hall, and P. Lablanquie, “Lifetimes of np1 states in helium,” J. Phys. B 36, 4175–4189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Zhu, Z. Yuan, W. Li, and K. Xu, “Numerical determination of profile parameters for fano resonance with definite energy resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 448–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. S. Tremsin and O. H. W. Siegmund, “Spatial distribution of electron cloud footprints from microchannel plates: measurements and modeling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3282–3288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. K. Fang and T. N. Chang, “Determination of profile parameters of a Fano resonance without an ultrahigh-energy resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4407–4412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1984

1969

R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, and K. Codling, “Resonances in the photo-ionization continuum of Ar I (20–150 eV),” Phys. Rev. 177, 136–151 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967

J. W. McConkey and J. A. Preston, “Autoionizing states in argon,” J. Phys. B 6, L138–L141 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1961

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1866–1878 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Aguilar, A.

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Azzeer, A. M.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baldis, H. A.

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beiersdorfer, P.

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blagojevic, B.

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G. V.

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bucar, K.

M. Žitnik, A. Stanič, K. Bučar, J. G. Lambourne, F. Penent, R. I. Hall, and P. Lablanquie, “Lifetimes of np1 states in helium,” J. Phys. B 36, 4175–4189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

Burnett, J. H.

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. N.

T. K. Fang and T. N. Chang, “Determination of profile parameters of a Fano resonance without an ultrahigh-energy resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4407–4412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

M. Chini, B. Zhao, H. Wang, Y. Cheng, S. X. Hu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle AC Stark shift of helium excited states probed with isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang and P. Corkum, “Attosecond photon sources: the first decade and beyond [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B9–B17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Chini, B. Zhao, H. Wang, Y. Cheng, S. X. Hu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle AC Stark shift of helium excited states probed with isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, “A first step towards intense single attosecond pulse generation from 400 nm driving laser,” master’s thesis (Kansas State University, 2011).

Chini, M.

M. Chini, B. Zhao, H. Wang, Y. Cheng, S. X. Hu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle AC Stark shift of helium excited states probed with isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Codling, K.

R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, and K. Codling, “Resonances in the photo-ionization continuum of Ar I (20–150 eV),” Phys. Rev. 177, 136–151 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cone, K. V.

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

Correa, R. E.

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, and S. R. Leone, “A tabletop femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dennhardt, B.

M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 093103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ederer, D. L.

R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, and K. Codling, “Resonances in the photo-ionization continuum of Ar I (20–150 eV),” Phys. Rev. 177, 136–151 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fahy, K.

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, T. K.

T. K. Fang and T. N. Chang, “Determination of profile parameters of a Fano resonance without an ultrahigh-energy resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4407–4412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fano, U.

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1866–1878 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, J. P.

Feng, X.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fieß, M.

M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 093103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, J.

M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 093103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gilbertson, S.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gillaspy, J. D.

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 093103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gühr, M.

Hall, R. I.

M. Žitnik, A. Stanič, K. Bučar, J. G. Lambourne, F. Penent, R. I. Hall, and P. Lablanquie, “Lifetimes of np1 states in helium,” J. Phys. B 36, 4175–4189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harada, T.

He, F.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, M.

M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 093103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S. X.

M. Chini, B. Zhao, H. Wang, Y. Cheng, S. X. Hu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle AC Stark shift of helium excited states probed with isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Zhu, Z. Yuan, W. Li, and K. Xu, “Numerical determination of profile parameters for fano resonance with definite energy resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 448–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, R. L.

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khalil, M.

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, and S. R. Leone, “A tabletop femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khan, S. D.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 093103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kilbourne, C. A.

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kita, T.

Kling, M. F.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 093103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

Lablanquie, P.

M. Žitnik, A. Stanič, K. Bučar, J. G. Lambourne, F. Penent, R. I. Hall, and P. Lablanquie, “Lifetimes of np1 states in helium,” J. Phys. B 36, 4175–4189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lambourne, J. G.

M. Žitnik, A. Stanič, K. Bučar, J. G. Lambourne, F. Penent, R. I. Hall, and P. Lablanquie, “Lifetimes of np1 states in helium,” J. Phys. B 36, 4175–4189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Le Bigot, E.-O.

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leone, S. R.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, and S. R. Leone, “A tabletop femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Zhu, Z. Yuan, W. Li, and K. Xu, “Numerical determination of profile parameters for fano resonance with definite energy resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 448–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Zhu, Z. Yuan, W. Li, and K. Xu, “Numerical determination of profile parameters for fano resonance with definite energy resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 448–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loh, Z.-H.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, and S. R. Leone, “A tabletop femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Madden, R. P.

R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, and K. Codling, “Resonances in the photo-ionization continuum of Ar I (20–150 eV),” Phys. Rev. 177, 136–151 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Magee, E. W.

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Makonyi, K.

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mashiko, H.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

May, M. J.

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McConkey, J. W.

J. W. McConkey and J. A. Preston, “Autoionizing states in argon,” J. Phys. B 6, L138–L141 (1967).
[CrossRef]

McFarland, B. K.

Moon, E.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, N.

Park, J.

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Penent, F.

M. Žitnik, A. Stanič, K. Bučar, J. G. Lambourne, F. Penent, R. I. Hall, and P. Lablanquie, “Lifetimes of np1 states in helium,” J. Phys. B 36, 4175–4189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pomeroy, J. M.

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Porter, F. S.

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. A.

J. W. McConkey and J. A. Preston, “Autoionizing states in argon,” J. Phys. B 6, L138–L141 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. R.

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rohringer, N.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santra, R.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M. B.

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 093103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, M. M.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siegmund, O. H. W.

A. S. Tremsin and O. H. W. Siegmund, “Spatial distribution of electron cloud footprints from microchannel plates: measurements and modeling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3282–3288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stanic, A.

M. Žitnik, A. Stanič, K. Bučar, J. G. Lambourne, F. Penent, R. I. Hall, and P. Lablanquie, “Lifetimes of np1 states in helium,” J. Phys. B 36, 4175–4189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takács, E.

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, J. N.

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thumm, U.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tremsin, A. S.

A. S. Tremsin and O. H. W. Siegmund, “Spatial distribution of electron cloud footprints from microchannel plates: measurements and modeling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3282–3288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

M. Chini, B. Zhao, H. Wang, Y. Cheng, S. X. Hu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle AC Stark shift of helium excited states probed with isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wirth, A.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Zhu, Z. Yuan, W. Li, and K. Xu, “Numerical determination of profile parameters for fano resonance with definite energy resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 448–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Zhu, Z. Yuan, W. Li, and K. Xu, “Numerical determination of profile parameters for fano resonance with definite energy resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 448–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.-H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, B.

M. Chini, B. Zhao, H. Wang, Y. Cheng, S. X. Hu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle AC Stark shift of helium excited states probed with isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, K.

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zherebtsov, S.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Zhu, Z. Yuan, W. Li, and K. Xu, “Numerical determination of profile parameters for fano resonance with definite energy resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 448–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Žitnik, M.

M. Žitnik, A. Stanič, K. Bučar, J. G. Lambourne, F. Penent, R. I. Hall, and P. Lablanquie, “Lifetimes of np1 states in helium,” J. Phys. B 36, 4175–4189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

J. W. McConkey and J. A. Preston, “Autoionizing states in argon,” J. Phys. B 6, L138–L141 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M. Žitnik, A. Stanič, K. Bučar, J. G. Lambourne, F. Penent, R. I. Hall, and P. Lablanquie, “Lifetimes of np1 states in helium,” J. Phys. B 36, 4175–4189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

X. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Zhu, Z. Yuan, W. Li, and K. Xu, “Numerical determination of profile parameters for fano resonance with definite energy resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 448–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, and K. Codling, “Resonances in the photo-ionization continuum of Ar I (20–150 eV),” Phys. Rev. 177, 136–151 (1969).
[CrossRef]

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1866–1878 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

T. K. Fang and T. N. Chang, “Determination of profile parameters of a Fano resonance without an ultrahigh-energy resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4407–4412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Chini, B. Zhao, H. Wang, Y. Cheng, S. X. Hu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle AC Stark shift of helium excited states probed with isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

B. Blagojevic, E.-O. Le Bigot, K. Fahy, A. Aguilar, K. Makonyi, E. Takács, J. N. Tan, J. M. Pomeroy, J. H. Burnett, J. D. Gillaspy, and J. R. Roberts, “A high efficiency ultrahigh vacuum compatible flat field spectrometer for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Park, G. V. Brown, M. B. Schneider, H. A. Baldis, P. Beiersdorfer, K. V. Cone, R. L. Kelley, C. A. Kilbourne, E. W. Magee, M. J. May, and F. S. Porter, “Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fieβ, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 093103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, and S. R. Leone, “A tabletop femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tremsin and O. H. W. Siegmund, “Spatial distribution of electron cloud footprints from microchannel plates: measurements and modeling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3282–3288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. W. F. Drake, ed., Springer Handbook of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, (Springer, 2006).

Y. Cheng, “A first step towards intense single attosecond pulse generation from 400 nm driving laser,” master’s thesis (Kansas State University, 2011).

http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/ .

http://www.radiantzemax.com/en/zemax/ .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of experimental setup for attosecond transient absorption. BS, beam splitter; QP, quartz plate; BW, Brewster windows; FM, focusing mirror (f=500mm); DCM, delay-controlling mirror; GC1, argon-backed gas cell for IAP generation; AL, aluminum foil filter; TM, toroidal mirror (f=270mm); FL, focusing lens (f=400mm); HM, hole-drilled mirror; GC2, helium/argon-backed gas cell for absorption measurements; FFG, flat-field grating; MCP, microchannel plate and phosphor screen detector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Top view of the XUV spectrometer. (b) Focal “plane” of the XUV grating for different incidence angles. Each plane covers a spectrum range from 11 nm (triangles) to 62 nm (squares), and the 40 nm components (circles) are also marked in each focal plane. For 86.5° incidence angle, the spectrum from 40 to 60 nm is approximately in a vertical plane (MCP plane). The axes are defined in (a). (c) Dependence of grating image distance of 40 nm XUV light on object distance and incidence angle.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Profile of the focused spectrum on the MCP when the incidence angle is set to be 85.3° (gray-filled) and 86.5° (red solid curve). The six peaks (from left to right) are spectral lines located at the known energies of the helium 1s2p, 1s3p, and 1s4p absorption lines and argon 3s3p64p, 3s3p65p, and 3s3p66p autoionization lines, respectively. Both spatial and spectral FWHM is labeled for each peak with 86.5° incidence angle.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Transmission of XUV pulses through a 35 torr argon cell (red solid curve) or a 50 torr helium cell (blue curve with filled area). Five argon autoionization peaks and seven helium absorption dips are identified in the figure. (b) Wavelengths of the 12 spectral lines (squares) identified in (a), and the linear fitting (red dashed line).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison between measured absorption cross section (dots) and argon autoionization Fano profile convoluted by a Gaussian function with FWHM of 60 meV (solid curve).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Image of the electron distribution of a single microchannel pore, with corresponding lineouts (symbols) along the x (dispersion) and y (position) axes. Gaussian fits (solid curve) to the measured distribution give FWHM resolution of 131(±27)μm and 151(±33)μm along the x and y axes, respectively. The error comes from the Gaussian fit.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Spectrum Lines Used to Calibrate the Spectrometer

Tables Icon

Table 2. Fano Parameters for the First Three Peaks of Ar 3s3p6np Autoionizing States [12]

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σexp(E)=σ(E)*G(E),
G(E)=exp(4ln(2)E2δE2).
λ=kx+λ0.
f(δE)=E|σexp(E)σ(E)*G(E)|2,
σ(E)=iai(qi+εi)21+εi2+b,εi=EEriΓi/2,

Metrics