Abstract

Using a simultaneous phase sensor, the proposed instrument performs highly repeatable measurements over an extended range in the presence of vibration common to a laboratory setting. Measurement of a 4.5 μm step standard in the presence of vibration amplitudes of 40 nm produces a repeatability of 1.5 nm RMS with vertical scanning data acquired at 400 nm intervals. The outlined method demonstrates the potential to tolerate larger vibration amplitudes up to or beyond a quarter wavelength and to increase the data acquisition step size to that approaching the depth of field of standard microscope imaging systems.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Schmit, K. Creath, and J. C. Wyant, “Surface profilers, multiple wavelength, and white light interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 667–755.
  2. D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, and C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).
  3. C. Ai and P. J. Caber, “Combination of white-light scanning and phase-shifting interferometry for surface profile measurements,” U.S. patent5,471,303 (28November1995).
  4. K. G. Larkin, “Efficient nonlinear algorithm for envelope detection in white light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 832–843 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, and A. Plata, “Unambiguous profilometry by fringe-order identification in white-light phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 519–534 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, and H. J. Tiziani, “White-light interferometry with an extended zoom range,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1123–1135 (1999).
  7. A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, and J. C. Wyant, “Improved vertical-scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2107–2115 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. de Groot and J. W. Kramer, “Height scanning interferometry method and apparatus including phase gap analysis,” U.S. patent6,775,006 (10August2004).
  9. D. Chen, “High-definition vertical-scan interferometry,” U.S. patent7,605,925 (20October2009).
  10. H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 547–666.
  11. P. J. de Groot and L. L. Deck, “Numerical simulations of vibration in phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2172–2178 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, and P. M. W. French, “Single-shot phase-stepped wide-field coherence-gated imaging,” Opt. Express 11, 105–115 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. T. Wiersma, “Pixelated mask polarization based spatial carrier interference microscopy,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Arizona, Tucson, 2012).
  15. P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197–2201 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Schmit and A. Olszak, “High-precision shape measurement by white-light interferometry with real-time scanner error correction,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5943–5950 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Olszak and J. Schmit, “High-stability white-light interferometry with reference signal for real-time correction of scanning errors,” Opt. Eng. 42, 54–59 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. P. Goodwin and J. C. Wyant, Field Guide to Interferometric Optical Testing (SPIE, 2006).
  20. J. Schmit and P. Hariharan, “Improved polarization Mirau interference microscope,” Opt. Eng. 46, 077007 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Pförtner and J. Schwider, “Dispersion error in white-light Linnik interferometers and its implications for evaluation procedures,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6223–6228 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Creath, “Calibration of numerical aperture effects in interferometric microscope objectives,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3333–3338 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Kimbrough, N. Brock, and J. Millerd, “Dynamic surface roughness profiler,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 81260H (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Harasaki and J. C. Wyant, “Fringe modulation skewing effect in white-light vertical scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2101–2106 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Roy, J. Schmit, and P. Hariharan, “White-light interference microscopy: minimization of spurious diffraction effects by geometric phase-shifting,” Opt. Express 17, 4495–4499 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

B. Kimbrough, N. Brock, and J. Millerd, “Dynamic surface roughness profiler,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 81260H (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

J. Schmit and P. Hariharan, “Improved polarization Mirau interference microscope,” Opt. Eng. 46, 077007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, and P. M. W. French, “Single-shot phase-stepped wide-field coherence-gated imaging,” Opt. Express 11, 105–115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Olszak and J. Schmit, “High-stability white-light interferometry with reference signal for real-time correction of scanning errors,” Opt. Eng. 42, 54–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmit and A. Olszak, “High-precision shape measurement by white-light interferometry with real-time scanner error correction,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5943–5950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, and H. J. Tiziani, “White-light interferometry with an extended zoom range,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1123–1135 (1999).

1997 (1)

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, and A. Plata, “Unambiguous profilometry by fringe-order identification in white-light phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 519–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1994 (1)

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197–2201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Ai, C.

C. Ai and P. J. Caber, “Combination of white-light scanning and phase-shifting interferometry for surface profile measurements,” U.S. patent5,471,303 (28November1995).

Brock, N.

B. Kimbrough, N. Brock, and J. Millerd, “Dynamic surface roughness profiler,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 81260H (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brophy, C. P.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, and C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

Bruning, J. H.

H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 547–666.

Caber, P. J.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, and C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

C. Ai and P. J. Caber, “Combination of white-light scanning and phase-shifting interferometry for surface profile measurements,” U.S. patent5,471,303 (28November1995).

Chen, D.

D. Chen, “High-definition vertical-scan interferometry,” U.S. patent7,605,925 (20October2009).

Cherel, L.

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. K.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, and C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

Creath, K.

K. Creath, “Calibration of numerical aperture effects in interferometric microscope objectives,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3333–3338 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmit, K. Creath, and J. C. Wyant, “Surface profilers, multiple wavelength, and white light interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 667–755.

de Groot, P.

P. de Groot and J. W. Kramer, “Height scanning interferometry method and apparatus including phase gap analysis,” U.S. patent6,775,006 (10August2004).

de Groot, P. J.

Deck, L. L.

Devillers, R.

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, and A. Plata, “Unambiguous profilometry by fringe-order identification in white-light phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 519–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dunsby, C.

Fleischer, M.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, and H. J. Tiziani, “White-light interferometry with an extended zoom range,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1123–1135 (1999).

French, P. M. W.

Goodwin, E. P.

E. P. Goodwin and J. C. Wyant, Field Guide to Interferometric Optical Testing (SPIE, 2006).

Gu, Y.

Harasaki, A.

Hariharan, P.

M. Roy, J. Schmit, and P. Hariharan, “White-light interference microscopy: minimization of spurious diffraction effects by geometric phase-shifting,” Opt. Express 17, 4495–4499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmit and P. Hariharan, “Improved polarization Mirau interference microscope,” Opt. Eng. 46, 077007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197–2201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J.

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimbrough, B.

B. Kimbrough, N. Brock, and J. Millerd, “Dynamic surface roughness profiler,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 81260H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, J. W.

P. de Groot and J. W. Kramer, “Height scanning interferometry method and apparatus including phase gap analysis,” U.S. patent6,775,006 (10August2004).

Larkin, K. G.

Millerd, J.

B. Kimbrough, N. Brock, and J. Millerd, “Dynamic surface roughness profiler,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 81260H (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

North-Morris, M.

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Novak, M.

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olszak, A.

A. Olszak and J. Schmit, “High-stability white-light interferometry with reference signal for real-time correction of scanning errors,” Opt. Eng. 42, 54–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmit and A. Olszak, “High-precision shape measurement by white-light interferometry with real-time scanner error correction,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5943–5950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pförtner, A.

Plata, A.

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, and A. Plata, “Unambiguous profilometry by fringe-order identification in white-light phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 519–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roy, M.

M. Roy, J. Schmit, and P. Hariharan, “White-light interference microscopy: minimization of spurious diffraction effects by geometric phase-shifting,” Opt. Express 17, 4495–4499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197–2201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sandoz, P.

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, and A. Plata, “Unambiguous profilometry by fringe-order identification in white-light phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 519–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmit, J.

M. Roy, J. Schmit, and P. Hariharan, “White-light interference microscopy: minimization of spurious diffraction effects by geometric phase-shifting,” Opt. Express 17, 4495–4499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmit and P. Hariharan, “Improved polarization Mirau interference microscope,” Opt. Eng. 46, 077007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Olszak and J. Schmit, “High-stability white-light interferometry with reference signal for real-time correction of scanning errors,” Opt. Eng. 42, 54–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmit and A. Olszak, “High-precision shape measurement by white-light interferometry with real-time scanner error correction,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5943–5950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, and J. C. Wyant, “Improved vertical-scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2107–2115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmit, K. Creath, and J. C. Wyant, “Surface profilers, multiple wavelength, and white light interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 667–755.

Schreiber, H.

H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 547–666.

Schwider, J.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Svahn, P.

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, and H. J. Tiziani, “White-light interferometry with an extended zoom range,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1123–1135 (1999).

Wiersma, J. T.

J. T. Wiersma, “Pixelated mask polarization based spatial carrier interference microscopy,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Arizona, Tucson, 2012).

Windecker, R.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, and H. J. Tiziani, “White-light interferometry with an extended zoom range,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1123–1135 (1999).

Wyant, J.

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J. C.

A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, and J. C. Wyant, “Improved vertical-scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2107–2115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Harasaki and J. C. Wyant, “Fringe modulation skewing effect in white-light vertical scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2101–2106 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Goodwin and J. C. Wyant, Field Guide to Interferometric Optical Testing (SPIE, 2006).

J. Schmit, K. Creath, and J. C. Wyant, “Surface profilers, multiple wavelength, and white light interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 667–755.

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Mod. Opt. (3)

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, “White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197–2201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, and A. Plata, “Unambiguous profilometry by fringe-order identification in white-light phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 519–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, and H. J. Tiziani, “White-light interferometry with an extended zoom range,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 1123–1135 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. Schmit and P. Hariharan, “Improved polarization Mirau interference microscope,” Opt. Eng. 46, 077007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Olszak and J. Schmit, “High-stability white-light interferometry with reference signal for real-time correction of scanning errors,” Opt. Eng. 42, 54–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Kimbrough, N. Brock, and J. Millerd, “Dynamic surface roughness profiler,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 81260H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J. T. Wiersma, “Pixelated mask polarization based spatial carrier interference microscopy,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Arizona, Tucson, 2012).

E. P. Goodwin and J. C. Wyant, Field Guide to Interferometric Optical Testing (SPIE, 2006).

J. Schmit, K. Creath, and J. C. Wyant, “Surface profilers, multiple wavelength, and white light interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 667–755.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, and C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

C. Ai and P. J. Caber, “Combination of white-light scanning and phase-shifting interferometry for surface profile measurements,” U.S. patent5,471,303 (28November1995).

P. de Groot and J. W. Kramer, “Height scanning interferometry method and apparatus including phase gap analysis,” U.S. patent6,775,006 (10August2004).

D. Chen, “High-definition vertical-scan interferometry,” U.S. patent7,605,925 (20October2009).

H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 547–666.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Overview of a polarization-based interference microscope in a Michelson configuration equipped with a pixelated mask camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sample of the pixelated mask phase shift pattern.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Vibration profile during data acquisition.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Unwrapping algorithm using a coarse VSI profile to remove ambiguities in the phase.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measurement of a 4.5 μm step.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

1.5 nm RMS repeatability of the measurement of a 4.5 μm step using measured data acquisition step sizes.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Repeatability of the measurement of a 4.5 μm step using the average data acquisition step size.

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