Abstract

To enhance x-ray reflectivity of silicon micropore optics using dry etching of silicon (111) wafers, iridium coating is tested by use of atomic layer deposition. An iridium layer is successfully formed on sidewalls of tiny micropores with a pore width of 20 μm and depth of 300 μm. The film thickness is 20nm. An enhanced x-ray reflectivity compared to that of silicon is confirmed at Ti Kα 4.51 keV, for what we believe to be the first time, with this type of optics. Some discrepancies from a theoretical reflectivity curve of iridium-coated silicon are noticed at small incident angles <1.3°. When a geometrical shadowing effect due to occultation by a ridge existing on the sidewalls is taken into account, the observed reflectivity becomes well represented by the modified theoretical curve. An estimated surface micro roughness of 1nm rms is consistent with atomic force microscope measurements of the sidewalls.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Wolter, “Glancing incidence mirror systems as imaging optics for x-rays,” Ann. Phys. 445, 94, (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829–836 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Bavdaz, M. Collon, M. Beijersbergen, K. Wallace, and E. Wille, “X-ray pore optics technologies and their application in space telescopes,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–15 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Ezoe, T. Moriyama, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, I. Mitsuishi, K. Mitsuda, T. Aoki, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Large aperture focusing of x-rays with micro pore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 779–781 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: overview and general trends,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 113, 021301 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Weber, T. Käsebier, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, E. B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, “Iridium wire grid polarizer fabricated using atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 6, 558–661 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zonedoubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft x-ray microscopy resolves sub-39 nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706–1711 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Hämäläinen, E. Puukilainen, M. Kemell, L. Costelle, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films by consecutive oxidation and reduction steps,” Chem. Mater. 21, 4868–4872 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. W. Kim, S. H. Kwon, D. K. Kwak, and S. W. Kang, “Phase control of iridium and iridium oxide thin films in atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023517 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013

V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: overview and general trends,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 113, 021301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, T. Moriyama, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, I. Mitsuishi, K. Mitsuda, T. Aoki, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Large aperture focusing of x-rays with micro pore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 779–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

T. Weber, T. Käsebier, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, E. B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, “Iridium wire grid polarizer fabricated using atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 6, 558–661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft x-ray microscopy resolves sub-39 nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, M. Collon, M. Beijersbergen, K. Wallace, and E. Wille, “X-ray pore optics technologies and their application in space telescopes,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Hämäläinen, E. Puukilainen, M. Kemell, L. Costelle, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films by consecutive oxidation and reduction steps,” Chem. Mater. 21, 4868–4872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. W. Kim, S. H. Kwon, D. K. Kwak, and S. W. Kang, “Phase control of iridium and iridium oxide thin films in atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zonedoubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829–836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1989

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1952

H. Wolter, “Glancing incidence mirror systems as imaging optics for x-rays,” Ann. Phys. 445, 94, (1952).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

Baretzky, B.

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft x-ray microscopy resolves sub-39 nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bavdaz, M.

M. Bavdaz, M. Collon, M. Beijersbergen, K. Wallace, and E. Wille, “X-ray pore optics technologies and their application in space telescopes,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829–836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M.

M. Bavdaz, M. Collon, M. Beijersbergen, K. Wallace, and E. Wille, “X-ray pore optics technologies and their application in space telescopes,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829–836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boutot, J.-P.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Branduardi-Raymont, G.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brunton, A. N.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Collon, M.

M. Bavdaz, M. Collon, M. Beijersbergen, K. Wallace, and E. Wille, “X-ray pore optics technologies and their application in space telescopes,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Costelle, L.

J. Hämäläinen, E. Puukilainen, M. Kemell, L. Costelle, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films by consecutive oxidation and reduction steps,” Chem. Mater. 21, 4868–4872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zonedoubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ezoe, Y.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, T. Moriyama, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, I. Mitsuishi, K. Mitsuda, T. Aoki, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Large aperture focusing of x-rays with micro pore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 779–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fairbend, R.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flyckt, S.-O.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujihira, S.

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, M.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grévent, C.

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft x-ray microscopy resolves sub-39 nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hämäläinen, J.

J. Hämäläinen, E. Puukilainen, M. Kemell, L. Costelle, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films by consecutive oxidation and reduction steps,” Chem. Mater. 21, 4868–4872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ishizu, K.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jefimovs, K.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zonedoubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kakiuchi, T.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, T. Moriyama, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, I. Mitsuishi, K. Mitsuda, T. Aoki, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Large aperture focusing of x-rays with micro pore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 779–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. W.

S. W. Kim, S. H. Kwon, D. K. Kwak, and S. W. Kang, “Phase control of iridium and iridium oxide thin films in atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, S.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Käsebier, T.

T. Weber, T. Käsebier, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, E. B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, “Iridium wire grid polarizer fabricated using atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 6, 558–661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kato, F.

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kemell, M.

J. Hämäläinen, E. Puukilainen, M. Kemell, L. Costelle, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films by consecutive oxidation and reduction steps,” Chem. Mater. 21, 4868–4872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

S. W. Kim, S. H. Kwon, D. K. Kwak, and S. W. Kang, “Phase control of iridium and iridium oxide thin films in atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E. B.

T. Weber, T. Käsebier, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, E. B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, “Iridium wire grid polarizer fabricated using atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 6, 558–661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Knez, M.

T. Weber, T. Käsebier, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, E. B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, “Iridium wire grid polarizer fabricated using atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 6, 558–661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft x-ray microscopy resolves sub-39 nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koshiishi, M.

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kraft, S.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829–836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, D. K.

S. W. Kim, S. H. Kwon, D. K. Kwak, and S. W. Kang, “Phase control of iridium and iridium oxide thin films in atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. H.

S. W. Kim, S. H. Kwon, D. K. Kwak, and S. W. Kang, “Phase control of iridium and iridium oxide thin films in atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leskelä, M.

V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: overview and general trends,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 113, 021301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Hämäläinen, E. Puukilainen, M. Kemell, L. Costelle, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films by consecutive oxidation and reduction steps,” Chem. Mater. 21, 4868–4872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lumb, D. H.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829–836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, R.

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, M.

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft x-ray microscopy resolves sub-39 nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miikkulainen, V.

V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: overview and general trends,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 113, 021301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mita, M.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuda, K.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, T. Moriyama, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, I. Mitsuishi, K. Mitsuda, T. Aoki, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Large aperture focusing of x-rays with micro pore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 779–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuishi, I.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, T. Moriyama, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, I. Mitsuishi, K. Mitsuda, T. Aoki, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Large aperture focusing of x-rays with micro pore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 779–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, Y.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Morishita, K.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, T. Moriyama, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, I. Mitsuishi, K. Mitsuda, T. Aoki, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Large aperture focusing of x-rays with micro pore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 779–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moriyama, T.

Y. Ezoe, T. Moriyama, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, I. Mitsuishi, K. Mitsuda, T. Aoki, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Large aperture focusing of x-rays with micro pore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 779–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, T. Moriyama, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, I. Mitsuishi, K. Mitsuda, T. Aoki, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Large aperture focusing of x-rays with micro pore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 779–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, T. Moriyama, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, I. Mitsuishi, K. Mitsuda, T. Aoki, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Large aperture focusing of x-rays with micro pore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 779–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, T.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A. J.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829–836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pilvi, T.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zonedoubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Price, G. J.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Puukilainen, E.

J. Hämäläinen, E. Puukilainen, M. Kemell, L. Costelle, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films by consecutive oxidation and reduction steps,” Chem. Mater. 21, 4868–4872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Puurunen, R. L.

V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: overview and general trends,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 113, 021301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Raabe, J.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zonedoubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, S.

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft x-ray microscopy resolves sub-39 nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ritala, M.

V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: overview and general trends,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 113, 021301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Hämäläinen, E. Puukilainen, M. Kemell, L. Costelle, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films by consecutive oxidation and reduction steps,” Chem. Mater. 21, 4868–4872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zonedoubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riveros, R. E.

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft x-ray microscopy resolves sub-39 nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, G.

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft x-ray microscopy resolves sub-39 nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Steenstrup, S.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, A. W.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, S.

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Szeghalmi, A.

T. Weber, T. Käsebier, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, E. B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, “Iridium wire grid polarizer fabricated using atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 6, 558–661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft x-ray microscopy resolves sub-39 nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, U.

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tomaselli, E.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

T. Weber, T. Käsebier, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, E. B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, “Iridium wire grid polarizer fabricated using atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 6, 558–661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zonedoubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, K.

M. Bavdaz, M. Collon, M. Beijersbergen, K. Wallace, and E. Wille, “X-ray pore optics technologies and their application in space telescopes,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weber, T.

T. Weber, T. Käsebier, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, E. B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, “Iridium wire grid polarizer fabricated using atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 6, 558–661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weigand, M.

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft x-ray microscopy resolves sub-39 nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, S. W.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wille, E.

M. Bavdaz, M. Collon, M. Beijersbergen, K. Wallace, and E. Wille, “X-ray pore optics technologies and their application in space telescopes,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wolter, H.

H. Wolter, “Glancing incidence mirror systems as imaging optics for x-rays,” Ann. Phys. 445, 94, (1952).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, H.

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, N. Y.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, A.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res.

Y. Ezoe, T. Kimura, S. Kasahara, A. Yamazaki, K. Mitsuda, M. Fujimoto, Y. Miyoshi, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Ishikawa, I. Mitsuishi, T. Ogawa, T. Kakiuchi, and T. Ohashi, “JUXTA: a new probe of x-ray emission from the Jupiter system,” Adv. Space Res. 51, 1605–1621 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys.

H. Wolter, “Glancing incidence mirror systems as imaging optics for x-rays,” Ann. Phys. 445, 94, (1952).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Rev.

V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: overview and general trends,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 113, 021301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

J. Hämäläinen, E. Puukilainen, M. Kemell, L. Costelle, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films by consecutive oxidation and reduction steps,” Chem. Mater. 21, 4868–4872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. W. Kim, S. H. Kwon, D. K. Kwak, and S. W. Kang, “Phase control of iridium and iridium oxide thin films in atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microsyst. Technol.

Y. Ezoe, I. Mitsuishi, U. Takagi, M. Koshiishi, K. Mitsuda, N. Y. Yamasaki, T. Ohashi, F. Kato, S. Sugiyama, R. E. Riveros, H. Yamaguchi, S. Fujihira, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, K. Nakajima, and R. Maeda, “Ultra light-weight and high-resolution x-ray mirrors using DRIE and x-ray LIGA techniques for space x-ray telescopes,” Microsyst. Technol. 16, 1633–1641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

T. Weber, T. Käsebier, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, E. B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, “Iridium wire grid polarizer fabricated using atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 6, 558–661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijersbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zonedoubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829–836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, K. Ishizu, T. Moriyama, M. Mita, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, Y. Kanamori, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Novel ultra-lightweight and high-resolution x-ray optics for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A 188, 411–416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft x-ray microscopy resolves sub-39 nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X-Ray Opt. Instrum.

M. Bavdaz, M. Collon, M. Beijersbergen, K. Wallace, and E. Wille, “X-ray pore optics technologies and their application in space telescopes,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of angular resolution and telescope area to mass ratio [2,3]. Circles indicate x-ray telescopes onboard past satellites and colors show different fabrication methods of traditional x-ray mirrors. Squares represent expected performances of three types of micropore optics. An arrow indicates the objective of the MEMS x-ray optics.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Process flow of the MEMS x-ray optics.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Theoretical x-ray reflectivity of Si, Ir, Pt, Au, and Hf (a) at a fixed incident angle of 1° and (b) at a fixed energy of Al Kα 1.49 keV. A microroughness of the mirror is assumed as 0 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Process flow of an iridium-coated silicon micropore optic.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

RMS roughness of the sidewalls of the optic with and without the ALD process shown in red and black, respectively. Circles represent the Dektak stylus profiler data, while crossses show the AFM data. An error bar corresponds to 1σ variance of 10 sample measurements.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Sample optics (a) without and (b) with the iridium coating. Examples of (c) an AFM image and (d) a dektak surface profile of the sidewalls.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

TEM image of a cross section of the sidewall.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Theoretical x-ray reflectivity of a 20 nm thick iridium-coated silicon (red) and silicon (blue) at Ti Kα 4.51 keV assuming a microroughness of 0 nm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Experimental setup for the x-ray reflectivity measurement. A top right photo shows the optic fixed on the jig. A red square indicates the incident x-ray beam size.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Reflected x-ray photon distributions at θ of 0.7°, 0.95°, and 1.2°. In each panel, a black line shows a fitted model with a double Gaussian model at θ of 0.7° or a single Gaussian model at θ of 0.95° and 1.2°. Green lines show the two Gaussian models. The error in the horizontal axis corresponds to the width of the detector window of 800 μm.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

X-ray reflectivity of the iridium-coated optic. Theoretical models for bare silicon and 20 nm thick iridium-coated silicon are shown in dotted lines and solid lines, respectively. Errors in the horizontal axis correspond to the width of the detector window. Errors in the vertical axis include 1σ Poisson error and possible time variation of the incident x-ray beam (see text).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Typical surface profile of the sidewall along the optic axis. θ0 is the occultation angle determined by a height of walls at edges and a length of the sidewall or a depth of the micropore.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Same as Fig. 11 except that only theoretical curves of the 20 nm thick iridium-coated silicon, including the ridge effect, are plotted.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Alignment Accuracies between the X-ray Beam, the Optic and the Detector Using the Seven Movable Stages

Equations (1)

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12tanθ0tanθ,

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