Abstract

We report on airborne CO2 column absorption measurements made in 2009 with a pulsed direct-detection lidar operating at 1572.33 nm and utilizing the integrated path differential absorption technique. We demonstrated these at different altitudes from an aircraft in July and August in flights over four locations in the central and eastern United States. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The lidar measurement statistics were also calculated for each flight as a function of altitude. The optical depth varied nearly linearly with altitude, consistent with calculations based on atmospheric models. The scatter in the optical depth measurements varied with aircraft altitude as expected, and the median measurement precisions for the column varied from 0.9 to 1.2 ppm. The altitude range with the lowest scatter was 8–10 km, and the majority of measurements for the column within it had precisions between 0.2 and 0.9 ppm.

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2013 (1)

A. Amediek, X. Sun, and J. B. Abshire, “Analysis of range measurements from a pulsed airborne CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 2498–2504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

G. Spiers, R. Menzies, J. Jacob, L. Christensen, M. Phillips, Y. Choi, and E. Browell, “Atmospheric CO2 measurements with a 2 µm airborne laser absorption spectrometer employing coherent detection,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2098–2111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectra observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Caron and Y. Durand, “Operating wavelengths optimization for a spaceborne lidar measuring atmospheric CO2,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5413–5422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuze, H. Suto, M. Nakajima, and T. Hamazaki, “Thermal and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-transform spectrometer on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite for greenhouse gases monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6716–6733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Aben, O. Hasekamp, and W. Hartmann, “Uncertainties in the space-based measurements of CO2 columns due to scattering in the Earth’s atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 104, 450–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Stephen, M. Krainak, H. Riris, and G. R. Allan, “Narrowband, tunable, frequency-doubled, erbium-doped fiber-amplified transmitter,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2073–2076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

E. Dufour and F. M. Breon, “Spaceborne estimate of atmospheric CO2 column by use of the differential absorption method: error analysis,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3595–3609 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, and Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 11-1–11-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Brien and P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of carbon budget 2, CO2 concentrations from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 um band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. M. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. P. Tans, I. Y. Fung, and T. Takahashi, “Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget,” Science 247, 1431–1438 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aben, I.

I. Aben, O. Hasekamp, and W. Hartmann, “Uncertainties in the space-based measurements of CO2 columns due to scattering in the Earth’s atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 104, 450–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, J.

X. Sun and J. Abshire, “Comparison of IPDA lidar receiver sensitivity for coherent detection and for direct detection using sine-wave and pulsed modulation,” Opt. Express 20, 21291–21304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, X. Sun, J. Mao, C. Weaver, A. Yu, J. Chen, M. Rodriguez, and S. Kawa, “Pulsed lidar for measurements of CO2 concentrations for the ASCENDS mission,” in NASA ESTF 2011 Conference, Pasadena, California (June2011), paper B8P1. Available from http://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2011/presentations/Abshire_ESTF2011.pdf .

Abshire, J. B.

A. Amediek, X. Sun, and J. B. Abshire, “Analysis of range measurements from a pulsed airborne CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 2498–2504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun and J. B. Abshire, “Receiver performance analysis of a photon counting laser sounder for measuring atmosphere CO2 concentration,” in ILRC-25 Conference Proceedings (Curran Associates, 2011), pp. 1320–1323.

M. A. Stephen, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, S. R. Kawa, X. Su, and M. A. Krainak, “Oxygen spectroscopy laser sounding instrument for remote sensing of atmospheric pressure,” in IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

J. Mao, S. R. Kawa, J. B. Abshire, and H. Riris, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based CO2 laser sounder,” in Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, Vol. 88 (2007), abstract A13D-1500.

G. R. Allan, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, E. Wilson, J. F. Burris, and M. A. Krainak, “Laser sounder for active remote sensing measurements of CO2 concentrations,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1534–1540.

Allan, G.

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, X. Sun, J. Mao, C. Weaver, A. Yu, J. Chen, M. Rodriguez, and S. Kawa, “Pulsed lidar for measurements of CO2 concentrations for the ASCENDS mission,” in NASA ESTF 2011 Conference, Pasadena, California (June2011), paper B8P1. Available from http://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2011/presentations/Abshire_ESTF2011.pdf .

Allan, G. R.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Stephen, M. Krainak, H. Riris, and G. R. Allan, “Narrowband, tunable, frequency-doubled, erbium-doped fiber-amplified transmitter,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2073–2076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Allan, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, E. Wilson, J. F. Burris, and M. A. Krainak, “Laser sounder for active remote sensing measurements of CO2 concentrations,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1534–1540.

Amediek, A.

A. Amediek, X. Sun, and J. B. Abshire, “Analysis of range measurements from a pulsed airborne CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 2498–2504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B.

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Avery, M. A.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bensi, P.

Y. Durand, J. Caron, P. Bensi, P. Ingmann, J. Bézy, and Meynart, “A-SCOPE: concepts for an ESA mission to measure CO2 from space with a lidar,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Delft, The Netherlands, 18–23 October2009.

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bézy, J.

Y. Durand, J. Caron, P. Bensi, P. Ingmann, J. Bézy, and Meynart, “A-SCOPE: concepts for an ESA mission to measure CO2 from space with a lidar,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Delft, The Netherlands, 18–23 October2009.

Biraud, S.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Blake, D. R.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
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S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
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Blake, N. J.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
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Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Breon, F. M.

Browell, E.

Browell, E. V.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
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Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Burris, J.

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
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Burris, J. F.

G. R. Allan, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, E. Wilson, J. F. Burris, and M. A. Krainak, “Laser sounder for active remote sensing measurements of CO2 concentrations,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1534–1540.

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Caron, J.

J. Caron and Y. Durand, “Operating wavelengths optimization for a spaceborne lidar measuring atmospheric CO2,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5413–5422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Durand, J. Caron, P. Bensi, P. Ingmann, J. Bézy, and Meynart, “A-SCOPE: concepts for an ESA mission to measure CO2 from space with a lidar,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Delft, The Netherlands, 18–23 October2009.

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Chen, J.

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
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J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, X. Sun, J. Mao, C. Weaver, A. Yu, J. Chen, M. Rodriguez, and S. Kawa, “Pulsed lidar for measurements of CO2 concentrations for the ASCENDS mission,” in NASA ESTF 2011 Conference, Pasadena, California (June2011), paper B8P1. Available from http://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2011/presentations/Abshire_ESTF2011.pdf .

Choi, Y.

G. Spiers, R. Menzies, J. Jacob, L. Christensen, M. Phillips, Y. Choi, and E. Browell, “Atmospheric CO2 measurements with a 2 µm airborne laser absorption spectrometer employing coherent detection,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2098–2111 (2011).
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J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
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Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
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ChrisBenner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Christensen, L.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Crisp, D.

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, and Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 11-1–11-4 (2002).
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Danaj, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Diskin, G. S.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
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Dufour, E.

Durand, Y.

J. Caron and Y. Durand, “Operating wavelengths optimization for a spaceborne lidar measuring atmospheric CO2,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5413–5422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Durand, J. Caron, P. Bensi, P. Ingmann, J. Bézy, and Meynart, “A-SCOPE: concepts for an ESA mission to measure CO2 from space with a lidar,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Delft, The Netherlands, 18–23 October2009.

Eguchi, N.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectra observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 717–734 (2011).
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Ehret, G.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
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Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Fan, S. M.

S. M. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
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Fix, A.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
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Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Fried, A.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
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Fuelberg, H. E.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
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Fung, I. Y.

P. P. Tans, I. Y. Fung, and T. Takahashi, “Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget,” Science 247, 1431–1438 (1990).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Gloor, M.

S. M. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
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Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Hamazaki, T.

Hartmann, W.

I. Aben, O. Hasekamp, and W. Hartmann, “Uncertainties in the space-based measurements of CO2 columns due to scattering in the Earth’s atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 104, 450–459 (2007).
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Hasekamp, O.

I. Aben, O. Hasekamp, and W. Hartmann, “Uncertainties in the space-based measurements of CO2 columns due to scattering in the Earth’s atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 104, 450–459 (2007).
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Hasselbrack, W. E.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
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Houweling, S.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ingmann, P.

Y. Durand, J. Caron, P. Bensi, P. Ingmann, J. Bézy, and Meynart, “A-SCOPE: concepts for an ESA mission to measure CO2 from space with a lidar,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Delft, The Netherlands, 18–23 October2009.

Jacob, J.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawa, S.

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, X. Sun, J. Mao, C. Weaver, A. Yu, J. Chen, M. Rodriguez, and S. Kawa, “Pulsed lidar for measurements of CO2 concentrations for the ASCENDS mission,” in NASA ESTF 2011 Conference, Pasadena, California (June2011), paper B8P1. Available from http://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2011/presentations/Abshire_ESTF2011.pdf .

Kawa, S. R.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mao and S. R. Kawa, “Sensitivity study for space-based measurement of atmospheric total column carbon dioxide by reflected sunlight,” Appl. Opt. 43, 914–927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mao, S. R. Kawa, J. B. Abshire, and H. Riris, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based CO2 laser sounder,” in Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, Vol. 88 (2007), abstract A13D-1500.

M. A. Stephen, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, S. R. Kawa, X. Su, and M. A. Krainak, “Oxygen spectroscopy laser sounding instrument for remote sensing of atmospheric pressure,” in IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

Kiemle, C.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, N.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectra observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kiley, C. M.

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krainak, M.

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Stephen, M. Krainak, H. Riris, and G. R. Allan, “Narrowband, tunable, frequency-doubled, erbium-doped fiber-amplified transmitter,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2073–2076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krainak, M. A.

M. A. Stephen, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, S. R. Kawa, X. Su, and M. A. Krainak, “Oxygen spectroscopy laser sounding instrument for remote sensing of atmospheric pressure,” in IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

G. R. Allan, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, E. Wilson, J. F. Burris, and M. A. Krainak, “Laser sounder for active remote sensing measurements of CO2 concentrations,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1534–1540.

Kuang, Z.

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, and Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 11-1–11-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuze, A.

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mahlman, J.

S. M. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mao, J.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mao and S. R. Kawa, “Sensitivity study for space-based measurement of atmospheric total column carbon dioxide by reflected sunlight,” Appl. Opt. 43, 914–927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mao, S. R. Kawa, J. B. Abshire, and H. Riris, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based CO2 laser sounder,” in Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, Vol. 88 (2007), abstract A13D-1500.

M. A. Stephen, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, S. R. Kawa, X. Su, and M. A. Krainak, “Oxygen spectroscopy laser sounding instrument for remote sensing of atmospheric pressure,” in IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, X. Sun, J. Mao, C. Weaver, A. Yu, J. Chen, M. Rodriguez, and S. Kawa, “Pulsed lidar for measurements of CO2 concentrations for the ASCENDS mission,” in NASA ESTF 2011 Conference, Pasadena, California (June2011), paper B8P1. Available from http://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2011/presentations/Abshire_ESTF2011.pdf .

Margolis, J.

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, and Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 11-1–11-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R.

R. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Krieger, 1992), pp. 205–213.

Menzies, R.

Meynart,

Y. Durand, J. Caron, P. Bensi, P. Ingmann, J. Bézy, and Meynart, “A-SCOPE: concepts for an ESA mission to measure CO2 from space with a lidar,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Delft, The Netherlands, 18–23 October2009.

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morino, I.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectra observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, M.

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nobuta, K.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectra observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nolf, S. R.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D. M.

D. M. O’Brien and P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of carbon budget 2, CO2 concentrations from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 um band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ota, Y.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectra observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pacala, S.

S. M. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, L.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M.

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, P. J.

D. M. O’Brien and P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of carbon budget 2, CO2 concentrations from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 um band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riris, H.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Stephen, M. Krainak, H. Riris, and G. R. Allan, “Narrowband, tunable, frequency-doubled, erbium-doped fiber-amplified transmitter,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2073–2076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Allan, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, E. Wilson, J. F. Burris, and M. A. Krainak, “Laser sounder for active remote sensing measurements of CO2 concentrations,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1534–1540.

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, X. Sun, J. Mao, C. Weaver, A. Yu, J. Chen, M. Rodriguez, and S. Kawa, “Pulsed lidar for measurements of CO2 concentrations for the ASCENDS mission,” in NASA ESTF 2011 Conference, Pasadena, California (June2011), paper B8P1. Available from http://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2011/presentations/Abshire_ESTF2011.pdf .

J. Mao, S. R. Kawa, J. B. Abshire, and H. Riris, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based CO2 laser sounder,” in Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, Vol. 88 (2007), abstract A13D-1500.

Rodgers, C.

C. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Soundings, Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, 2000), p. 238.

Rodriguez, M.

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, X. Sun, J. Mao, C. Weaver, A. Yu, J. Chen, M. Rodriguez, and S. Kawa, “Pulsed lidar for measurements of CO2 concentrations for the ASCENDS mission,” in NASA ESTF 2011 Conference, Pasadena, California (June2011), paper B8P1. Available from http://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2011/presentations/Abshire_ESTF2011.pdf .

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G. W.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarmiento, J.

S. M. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Singh, H. B.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soja, A. J.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spiers, G.

Stephen, M.

M. Stephen, M. Krainak, H. Riris, and G. R. Allan, “Narrowband, tunable, frequency-doubled, erbium-doped fiber-amplified transmitter,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2073–2076 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stephen, M. A.

M. A. Stephen, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, S. R. Kawa, X. Su, and M. A. Krainak, “Oxygen spectroscopy laser sounding instrument for remote sensing of atmospheric pressure,” in IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

Streets, D. G.

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
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Su, X.

M. A. Stephen, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, S. R. Kawa, X. Su, and M. A. Krainak, “Oxygen spectroscopy laser sounding instrument for remote sensing of atmospheric pressure,” in IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

Sun, X.

A. Amediek, X. Sun, and J. B. Abshire, “Analysis of range measurements from a pulsed airborne CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 2498–2504 (2013).
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X. Sun and J. Abshire, “Comparison of IPDA lidar receiver sensitivity for coherent detection and for direct detection using sine-wave and pulsed modulation,” Opt. Express 20, 21291–21304 (2012).
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J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Allan, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, E. Wilson, J. F. Burris, and M. A. Krainak, “Laser sounder for active remote sensing measurements of CO2 concentrations,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1534–1540.

X. Sun, NASA Goddard, private communication (2012).

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, X. Sun, J. Mao, C. Weaver, A. Yu, J. Chen, M. Rodriguez, and S. Kawa, “Pulsed lidar for measurements of CO2 concentrations for the ASCENDS mission,” in NASA ESTF 2011 Conference, Pasadena, California (June2011), paper B8P1. Available from http://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2011/presentations/Abshire_ESTF2011.pdf .

X. Sun and J. B. Abshire, “Receiver performance analysis of a photon counting laser sounder for measuring atmosphere CO2 concentration,” in ILRC-25 Conference Proceedings (Curran Associates, 2011), pp. 1320–1323.

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Suto, H.

Takahashi, T.

S. M. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
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P. P. Tans, I. Y. Fung, and T. Takahashi, “Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget,” Science 247, 1431–1438 (1990).
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Tans, P.

S. M. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
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Tans, P. P.

P. P. Tans, I. Y. Fung, and T. Takahashi, “Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget,” Science 247, 1431–1438 (1990).
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Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Thornhill, K. L.

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
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Toon, G.

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, and Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 11-1–11-4 (2002).
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Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Tran, H.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectra observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 717–734 (2011).
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Tsutsumi, Y.

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vadevu, K. P.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

VanderAuwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vay, S.

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vay, S. A.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, C.

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, X. Sun, J. Mao, C. Weaver, A. Yu, J. Chen, M. Rodriguez, and S. Kawa, “Pulsed lidar for measurements of CO2 concentrations for the ASCENDS mission,” in NASA ESTF 2011 Conference, Pasadena, California (June2011), paper B8P1. Available from http://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2011/presentations/Abshire_ESTF2011.pdf .

Weaver, C. J.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
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Weitkamp, C.

C. Weitkamp, Lidar: Range Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2005), pp. 187–238.

Westberg, D. J.

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, E.

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Allan, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, E. Wilson, J. F. Burris, and M. A. Krainak, “Laser sounder for active remote sensing measurements of CO2 concentrations,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1534–1540.

Wirth, M.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J.

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J.-H.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, T.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectra observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, Y.

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectra observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, A.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, X. Sun, J. Mao, C. Weaver, A. Yu, J. Chen, M. Rodriguez, and S. Kawa, “Pulsed lidar for measurements of CO2 concentrations for the ASCENDS mission,” in NASA ESTF 2011 Conference, Pasadena, California (June2011), paper B8P1. Available from http://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2011/presentations/Abshire_ESTF2011.pdf .

Yung, Y.

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, and Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 11-1–11-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

Y. Yoshida, Y. Ota, N. Eguchi, N. Kikuchi, K. Nobuta, H. Tran, I. Morino, and T. Yokota, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectra observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 717–734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, and Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 11-1–11-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

A. Amediek, X. Sun, and J. B. Abshire, “Analysis of range measurements from a pulsed airborne CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 2498–2504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX-NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Brien and P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of carbon budget 2, CO2 concentrations from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 um band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (1)

S. Vay, J. Woo, B. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

I. Aben, O. Hasekamp, and W. Hartmann, “Uncertainties in the space-based measurements of CO2 columns due to scattering in the Earth’s atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 104, 450–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Danaj, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. Riris, J. Abshire, G. Allan, J. Burris, J. Chen, S. Kawa, J. Mao, M. Krainak, M. Stephen, X. Sun, and E. Wilson, “A laser sounder for measuring atmospheric trace gases from space,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500U (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Tellus Ser. B (1)

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

G. R. Allan, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, E. Wilson, J. F. Burris, and M. A. Krainak, “Laser sounder for active remote sensing measurements of CO2 concentrations,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1534–1540.

C. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Soundings, Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, 2000), p. 238.

NASA-Glenn Lear-25, airbornescience.nasa.gov/aircraft/learjet_25 (2010).

ESA A-SCOPE Mission Assessment report, http://esamultimedia.esa.int/docs/SP1313-1_ASCOPE.pdf (2008).

R. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Krieger, 1992), pp. 205–213.

C. Weitkamp, Lidar: Range Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2005), pp. 187–238.

United States National Research Council, “Earth science and applications from space: national imperatives for the next decade and beyond,” http://www.nap.edu/ (2007).

NASA ASCENDS Mission Science Definition and Planning Workshop Report, http://cce.nasa.gov/ascends/12-30-08%20ASCENDS_Workshop_Report%20clean.pdf (2008).

Y. Durand, J. Caron, P. Bensi, P. Ingmann, J. Bézy, and Meynart, “A-SCOPE: concepts for an ESA mission to measure CO2 from space with a lidar,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Delft, The Netherlands, 18–23 October2009.

M. A. Stephen, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, S. R. Kawa, X. Su, and M. A. Krainak, “Oxygen spectroscopy laser sounding instrument for remote sensing of atmospheric pressure,” in IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.

J. Mao, S. R. Kawa, J. B. Abshire, and H. Riris, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based CO2 laser sounder,” in Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, Vol. 88 (2007), abstract A13D-1500.

X. Sun and J. B. Abshire, “Receiver performance analysis of a photon counting laser sounder for measuring atmosphere CO2 concentration,” in ILRC-25 Conference Proceedings (Curran Associates, 2011), pp. 1320–1323.

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, X. Sun, J. Mao, C. Weaver, A. Yu, J. Chen, M. Rodriguez, and S. Kawa, “Pulsed lidar for measurements of CO2 concentrations for the ASCENDS mission,” in NASA ESTF 2011 Conference, Pasadena, California (June2011), paper B8P1. Available from http://esto.nasa.gov/conferences/estf2011/presentations/Abshire_ESTF2011.pdf .

X. Sun, NASA Goddard, private communication (2012).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Left) NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. The nadir window assembly is just below the NASA logo. Photographs of the lidar installed on the aircraft showing the sensor head assembly (middle) and the dual aircraft racks (right).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Left) CO2 line sampling approach for airborne lidar. (Right) CO2 lidar block diagram.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Left) Typical laser pulse shape reflected from the ground as recorded by the photon-counting receiver. This was from accumulating 450 individual ground echoes integrated (histogrammed) over 0.9 s. (Right) Example of a raw (uncorrected) recorded backscatter profile when measuring to the ground through two thin cloud layers. It shows three time-displaced echo pulses per transmitted pulse. The smallest initial echo pulses are from the cirrus clouds just under the aircraft. The figure also shows the two range-displaced CO2 column absorptions that are evident in the echoes from the midlevel cloud layer and the deepest absorption in the longest path to the ground.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Maps of the ground-track patterns for the flights analyzed: (a) ARM-4, (b) Illinois, (c) North Carolina, and (d) Virginia. The flight locations and other parameters are summarized in Table 2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Left) In situ CO2 measurements from Avocet for the four flights in August 2009: ARM-4, Illinois, North Carolina, and Virginia. (Right) Computed CO2 column density versus altitude above the surface for the four flights, minus that of the US standard atmosphere with a 385 ppm mixing ratio. The primary differences in the plots are caused by the different average column air densities caused by the different surface elevations of the flight locations.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Plot of the path-integrated water vapor in the CO2 measurement column for the four flights as a percentage of the dry air column. The water vapor was measured by the aircraft in situ sensor in the spiral segments of their flights, except for Homer, Illinois, where it was measured by a nearby radiosonde.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Example plots from the line fitting and analysis approach. (Left) Examples of measured wavelength samples (dots) and fitted line shapes in transmission (solid curves) overlayed for averaged measurements above North Carolina from 3.1 to 11.2 km altitudes, which are color-coded. The wavelength axis is centered on the line peak. (Right) Computed line shapes in optical depth (OD) for the corresponding colors on left-hand plot. The three wavelength samples used for the 2009 flight analysis are indicated.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Computed DOD(pk) versus altitude for the 2009 flights, based on in situ readings of dry air and CO2 concentrations and using HITRAN 2008 spectroscopy. The shapes of the DOD(pk) for all the locations are quite similar, and vary quadratically (nearly linearly) with range. A computation based on the US standard atmosphere 385 ppm mixing ratio is also shown. Since it has a higher dry air density, it has a larger DOD at a given altitude.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Algorithm used to process the 2009 airborne lidar measurements.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measurements from the flight above DOE ARM site. (a) Lidar measurements of range to surface (blue dots, left-hand axis) and DOD(pk) (red dots, right-hand axis) versus time for the same flight. The stair step changes in altitude are evident, and the DOD(pk) values follow the range until 8km, and then have more scatter above 8 km. A total of 1747 measurements (each 1 s) were made. (b) Same lidar measurements of DOD(pk) plotted versus measured range to the surface. The line shown is a best quadratic fit to the measurements. The measurements show a good fit to the line, with more scatter above 10 km.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Analysis of measurements from flight over ARM site. (a) Distribution of random errors calculated as σ(XCO2) versus altitude for measurements grouped every 100 s and for selected standard deviation (R)<100m. For low altitudes, the relative error increases because of a lower mean (DOD), while for upper altitudes the error increases due to declining received photons. The altitude with least scatter was 8–10 km, which had values of 0.5ppm. (b) Histogram of the same statistic for all altitudes. There were 38 groups, and the median error was 1.2 ppm.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Results from measurements from flight over Illinois. (a) Time history of lidar measurements of range to the surface (blue dots) and DOD(pk) (red dots). The increased range and increased DOD for the measurements during the turns (aircraft banks) at the corners of the box pattern are evident. (b) Plot of measured DOD(pk) versus measured range for the flight above Illinois. The line shown is a best quadratic fit to the measurements.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Analysis of measurements from flight over Illinois. (a) Altitude dependence of σ(XCO2) calculated for measurements. Measurements were evaluated in groups of 100 s elapsed time and screened for only those groups whose standard deviation (range) is <100m. Typically each group has 32 measurements. (b) Histogram of the same statistic for all altitudes. There were 16 groups with a median error of 1.3 ppm and 11 groups with errors 1ppm.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Measurements from NC flight. (a) Time history of the measured range to the surface (blue dots) and DOD(pk) (red dots). There were 1151 one-second measurements for this flight. (b) Plot of the measured DOD(pk) versus the measured range for the same flight. The line is a best quadratic fit to the measurements.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Analysis for NC flight. (a) Altitude dependence of calculated σ(XCO2) for measurements. Measurements were evaluated in groups of 100 s elapsed time and screened only for those groups whose standard deviation (range) is <100m. Typically each group has 32 measurements. (b) Histogram of the same statistic for measurements at all altitudes. There were 21 groups with a median value of 1.1 ppm, and 11 groups with relative error 1.1ppm.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Measurements from Virginia flight. (a) Time history of the measured range to the surface (blue dots) and DOD(pk) (red dots). (b) Plot of the individual 1 s measured DOD(pk), plotted versus the measured range for the same flight, along with a best quadratic fit to the measurements.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Analysis for the for the Virginia flight. (a) Altitude dependence of calculated σ(XCO2) for measurements. Measurements were evaluated in groups of 100 s elapsed time and screened only for those groups whose standard deviation (range) is <100m. Typically each group has 32 measurements. The relative errors are minimum at 8–10 km altitudes. (b) Histogram of the same statistic for the groups at all altitudes. There were 40 groups analyzed, the median error was 1.0 ppm, and 19 groups had 1ppm error.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. 2009 Pulsed Airborne CO2 Lidar Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2. Summary of 2009 Science Flights

Tables Icon

Table 3. Summary of 2009 Airborne Measurement Results

Equations (28)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DOD(pk)=OD(λpk){OD(λpkΔλ)+OD(λpk+Δλ)}/2,
n1(0)=XCO2n2(0)=α1DOD1(zs,Z)R1,
nin¯i(1+Δnin¯i),DODiDOD¯i(1+ΔDODiDOD¯i),andRiR¯i(1+ΔRiR¯i).
n¯1=α1DOD¯1R¯1.
(Δn1n¯1)(ΔDOD1DOD¯1)(ΔR1R¯1),
σ(Δn1)n¯1=σ2(ΔDOD1)(DOD¯1)2+σ2(ΔR1)(R¯1)2,
σ(Δn1)n¯1=σ(ΔDOD)DOD¯=1DOD·(1SNR¯off+1SNR¯on).
SNR¯off=MNs(λoff)Ns(λoff)+2Nn
SNR¯on=MNs(λon)Ns(λon)+2Nn,
σ(ΔDOD)DOD¯=1DOD·(Ns(λon)+2NnMNs(λon)).
DOD¯ODon=n¯1(0)·Rα1.
σ(ΔDOD)DOD¯=exp(n¯1(0)·R/2α1)n¯1(0)·R/α11MNs(λoff).
σ(ΔXCO2)=X¯CO2·σ(Δn1)n¯1=X¯CO2·σ(ΔDOD)DOD¯.
XCO2=n1/n2,
τ12(λon,0,R)=τ12(λoff,0,R)exp{20R[σ1(λon,r)σ1(λoff,r)]×n1(r)dr},
DOD1(zs,Z)=ln{τ12(λon,zs,Z)τ12(λoff,zs,Z)}=2zsZ[σ1(λon,r)σ1(λoff,r)]×n1(z)dz
=ODon(zs,Z)ODoff(zs,Z),
σ1(λ,r)=S1(r)f1(λ,r),
n1XCO2n2.
n2(z)=n2(0)pd(z)pd(0)T(0)T(z),
ODon(zs,Z)2zsZS1(z)fi(λpk,0)pd(0)pd(z)[T(z)T(0)]n×XCO2n2(0)pd(z)pd(0)T(0)T(z)dz,
ODon(zs,Z)2XCO2n2(0)zsZS1(z)fi(λpk,0)dz,
S1(z)=S1(z)[T(z)T(0)]n1.
ODon(zs,Z)2(Zzs)σ¯1(λpk,0)XCO2n2(0).
ODoff(zs,Z)=2zsZS1(z)fi(λoff,z)×XCO2n2(0)p(z)p(0)T(0)T(z)dz.
ODoff(zs,Z)2(Zzs)σ1(λoff,Zzs¯)XCO2n2(0).
DOD1(zs,Z)=2(Zzs)[σ¯1(λpk,0)σ1(λoff,Zzs¯)]XCO2n2(0).
n1(0)=XCO2n2(0)=α1DOD1(zs,Z)R1,

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