Abstract

Polarization smoothing (PS) is highly desired for inertial confinement fusion, high-power laser facilities. A self-PS technique based on 2×2 beam array and type II+II third-harmonic generation (THG) system is proposed in this paper. This scheme takes advantage of a type II+II THG system, which induces a 35° angle between the polarization states of output third-harmonic laser and input fundamental laser. It rotates two THG systems in a 2×2 beam array by 180° to obtain a 70° polarization angle between two sets of output lasers. Simulation results show that the intensity contrast of the overlapped focal spot can be reduced at 1.34× without inserting any additional optics. This approaches the maximum value of various PS techniques (i.e., 1.41×).

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2841–2853 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Cavailler, “Inertial fusion with the LMJ,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47, B389–B403 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. H. Munro, S. N. Dixit, A. B. Langdon, and J. R. Murray, “Polarization smoothing in a convergent beam,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6639–6647 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 717–720 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. A. Haynam, P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, M. W. Bowers, S. N. Dixit, G. V. Erbert, G. M. Heestand, M. A. Henesian, M. R. Hermann, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, C. D. Marshall, N. C. Mehta, J. Menapace, E. Moses, J. R. Murray, M. C. Nostrand, C. D. Orth, R. Patterson, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, M. Spaeth, S. B. Sutton, W. H. Williams, C. C. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. Van Wonterghem, “National Ignition Facility laser performance status,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3276–3303 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. “National Ignition Facility User Guide,” LLNL-AR-585912_2012-040468_NIF_UserGuide (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2012).
  9. “Optomechanical System Description,” in OMEGA System Operations Manual (University of Rochester, 2003), Vol. I, Chap 5.
  10. L. Bo, W. Wenyi, S. Jingqin, G. Yongkang, G. Fuhua, and W. Shenglin, “Polarization smoothing of birefringent wedge for interference speckles,” J. Sichuan Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 42, 1180–1184 (2005) (in Chinese).

2010 (1)

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 717–720 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L. Bo, W. Wenyi, S. Jingqin, G. Yongkang, G. Fuhua, and W. Shenglin, “Polarization smoothing of birefringent wedge for interference speckles,” J. Sichuan Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 42, 1180–1184 (2005) (in Chinese).

C. Cavailler, “Inertial fusion with the LMJ,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47, B389–B403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2841–2853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Munro, S. N. Dixit, A. B. Langdon, and J. R. Murray, “Polarization smoothing in a convergent beam,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6639–6647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Auerbach, J. M.

Berger, R. L.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bo, L.

L. Bo, W. Wenyi, S. Jingqin, G. Yongkang, G. Fuhua, and W. Shenglin, “Polarization smoothing of birefringent wedge for interference speckles,” J. Sichuan Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 42, 1180–1184 (2005) (in Chinese).

Bowers, M. W.

Cavailler, C.

C. Cavailler, “Inertial fusion with the LMJ,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47, B389–B403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Divol, L.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S. N.

Döppner, T.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G. V.

Froula, D.

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 717–720 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Froula, D. H.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fuhua, G.

L. Bo, W. Wenyi, S. Jingqin, G. Yongkang, G. Fuhua, and W. Shenglin, “Polarization smoothing of birefringent wedge for interference speckles,” J. Sichuan Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 42, 1180–1184 (2005) (in Chinese).

Glenzer, S. H.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haynam, C. A.

Heestand, G. M.

Henesian, M. A.

Hermann, M. R.

Jancaitis, K. S.

Jingqin, S.

L. Bo, W. Wenyi, S. Jingqin, G. Yongkang, G. Fuhua, and W. Shenglin, “Polarization smoothing of birefringent wedge for interference speckles,” J. Sichuan Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 42, 1180–1184 (2005) (in Chinese).

Langdon, A. B.

London, R. A.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MacGowan, B. J.

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 717–720 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manes, K. R.

Marshall, C. D.

Meezan, N. B.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, N. C.

Menapace, J.

Miller, G. H.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2841–2853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moses, E.

Moses, E. I.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2841–2853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munro, D.

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 717–720 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Munro, D. H.

Murray, J. R.

Neumayer, P.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, M.

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 717–720 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, M. C.

Orth, C. D.

Patterson, R.

Ralph, J.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ross, J. S.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sacks, R. A.

Shaw, M. J.

Shenglin, W.

L. Bo, W. Wenyi, S. Jingqin, G. Yongkang, G. Fuhua, and W. Shenglin, “Polarization smoothing of birefringent wedge for interference speckles,” J. Sichuan Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 42, 1180–1184 (2005) (in Chinese).

Spaeth, M.

Stagnitto, S.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strozzi, D. J.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suter, L. J.

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, S. B.

Van Wonterghem, B. M.

Wegner, P. J.

Wenyi, W.

L. Bo, W. Wenyi, S. Jingqin, G. Yongkang, G. Fuhua, and W. Shenglin, “Polarization smoothing of birefringent wedge for interference speckles,” J. Sichuan Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 42, 1180–1184 (2005) (in Chinese).

White, R. K.

Widmayer, C. C.

Williams, W. H.

Wuest, C. R.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2841–2853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. T.

Yongkang, G.

L. Bo, W. Wenyi, S. Jingqin, G. Yongkang, G. Fuhua, and W. Shenglin, “Polarization smoothing of birefringent wedge for interference speckles,” J. Sichuan Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 42, 1180–1184 (2005) (in Chinese).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Phys. IV (1)

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV 133, 717–720 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Sichuan Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. (1)

L. Bo, W. Wenyi, S. Jingqin, G. Yongkang, G. Fuhua, and W. Shenglin, “Polarization smoothing of birefringent wedge for interference speckles,” J. Sichuan Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 42, 1180–1184 (2005) (in Chinese).

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2841–2853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. A. London, R. L. Berger, T. Döppner, N. B. Meezan, J. Ralph, J. S. Ross, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 17, 056302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. H. Froula, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, R. A. London, N. B. Meezan, D. J. Strozzi, P. Neumayer, J. S. Ross, S. Stagnitto, L. J. Suter, and S. H. Glenzer, “Direct measurements of an increased threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering with polarization smoothing in ignition hohlraum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion (1)

C. Cavailler, “Inertial fusion with the LMJ,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47, B389–B403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

“National Ignition Facility User Guide,” LLNL-AR-585912_2012-040468_NIF_UserGuide (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2012).

“Optomechanical System Description,” in OMEGA System Operations Manual (University of Rochester, 2003), Vol. I, Chap 5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Type II+II THG system [9], which induces a 35° angle between the output third-harmonic laser and input fundamental laser polarization states.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of self-PS scheme based on type II+II THG system, which obtains 70° polarization angle between two sets of third-harmonic lasers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Focusing light path of PS laser beams, which includes the different RPP and the same focusing lens.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polarization vector decomposing of PS laser beams.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Contrast reduction of the focal spot overlapped by two laser beams, which changes with their polarization angle.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Numerical simulation results, which show the 1D distributions of the overlapped focal spot for various polarization angles.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C=Dev(I)=Dev(EE*)=Exp(EE*)2Exp2(EE*)=Exp(E2)Exp(E*2)Exp2(E)Exp2(E*)=Exp(E2)=Dev(E),
C=Dev(I)=Dev(E)=P.
C=Dev(I1+I2)=Dev(I1)+Dev(I2)+2r12Dev(I1)Dev(I2)=Dev2(E1)+Dev2(E2)+2r12Dev(E1)Dev(E2)=P12+P22+2r12P1P2.
K=CC+=(P1+P2)2/(P12+P22).
K=CC+=(I1+I2)2/(I12+I22).
I=|E1+E2|2=|E1+E2cosθ|2=I0(1+cosθ)2.
I+=|E2+|2=|E2sinθ|2=I0sin2θ.
K=(I+I+)2/(I2+I+2)=1+1cos4θ2cos3θ+2cosθ1+cos4θ+2cos3θ+2cos2θ+2cosθ.

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