Abstract

Modern coronagraphic systems require very precise alignment between optical components and can benefit greatly from automated image processing. We discuss three techniques commonly employed in the fields of computer vision and image analysis as applied to the Gemini Planet Imager, a new facility instrument for the Gemini South Observatory. We describe how feature extraction and clustering methods can be used to aid in automated system alignment tasks, and also present a search algorithm for finding regular features in science images used for calibration and data processing. Along with discussions of each technique, we present our specific implementation and show results of each one in operation.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (1)

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

2010 (1)

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

2008 (4)

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. Lloyd, P. Hodge, and B. Macintosh, “Speckle decorrelation and dynamic range in speckle noise-limited imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, L59(2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

J. K. Wallace, J. Angione, R. Bartos, P. Best, R. Burruss, F. Fregoso, B. M. Levine, B. Nemati, M. Shao, and C. Shelton, “Post-coronagraph wavefront sensor for Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156N (2008).

2006 (2)

C. Marois, D. Lafrenière, B. Macintosh, and R. Doyon, “Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 647, 612 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan and B. Oppenheimer, “Astrometry and photometry with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 647, 620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. Soummer, “Apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs for arbitrary telescope apertures,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 618, L161–L164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

H. Stone, M. Orchard, E. Chang, and S. Martucci, “A fast direct Fourier-based algorithm for subpixel registration of images,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 2235–2243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. H. Ballard, “Generalizing the Hough transform to detect arbitrary shapes,” Pattern Recogn. 13, 111–122 (1981).

Angione, J.

J. K. Wallace, J. Angione, R. Bartos, P. Best, R. Burruss, F. Fregoso, B. M. Levine, B. Nemati, M. Shao, and C. Shelton, “Post-coronagraph wavefront sensor for Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156N (2008).

Anthony, A.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Artigau, E.

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

Atwood, J.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Ballard, D. H.

D. H. Ballard, “Generalizing the Hough transform to detect arbitrary shapes,” Pattern Recogn. 13, 111–122 (1981).

Barman, T.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barriga, N.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Bartos, R.

J. K. Wallace, J. Angione, R. Bartos, P. Best, R. Burruss, F. Fregoso, B. M. Levine, B. Nemati, M. Shao, and C. Shelton, “Post-coronagraph wavefront sensor for Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156N (2008).

Bauman, B.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

Best, P.

J. K. Wallace, J. Angione, R. Bartos, P. Best, R. Burruss, F. Fregoso, B. M. Levine, B. Nemati, M. Shao, and C. Shelton, “Post-coronagraph wavefront sensor for Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156N (2008).

Burruss, R.

J. K. Wallace, J. Angione, R. Bartos, P. Best, R. Burruss, F. Fregoso, B. M. Levine, B. Nemati, M. Shao, and C. Shelton, “Post-coronagraph wavefront sensor for Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156N (2008).

Caputa, K.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Chang, E.

H. Stone, M. Orchard, E. Chang, and S. Martucci, “A fast direct Fourier-based algorithm for subpixel registration of images,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 2235–2243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chilcote, J.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Dillon, D.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Doyon, R.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

C. Marois, D. Lafrenière, B. Macintosh, and R. Doyon, “Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 647, 612 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, J.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

Erickson, D. A.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

Fregoso, F.

J. K. Wallace, J. Angione, R. Bartos, P. Best, R. Burruss, F. Fregoso, B. M. Levine, B. Nemati, M. Shao, and C. Shelton, “Post-coronagraph wavefront sensor for Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156N (2008).

Galvez, R.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Gavel, D. T.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

Goodsell, S. J.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Graham, J. R.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

Hartung, M.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Hodge, P.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. Lloyd, P. Hodge, and B. Macintosh, “Speckle decorrelation and dynamic range in speckle noise-limited imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, L59(2008).
[CrossRef]

Isaacs, J.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Ji, Q.

Y. Xie and Q. Ji, “A new efficient ellipse detection method,” in Proceedings of IEEE 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 957–960.

Kerley, D.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Konopacky, Q.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Labrie, K.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Lafreniere, D.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lafrenière, D.

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

C. Marois, D. Lafrenière, B. Macintosh, and R. Doyon, “Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 647, 612 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, J.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

Larkin, J. E.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

Lavigne, J.

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

Levine, B. M.

J. K. Wallace, J. Angione, R. Bartos, P. Best, R. Burruss, F. Fregoso, B. M. Levine, B. Nemati, M. Shao, and C. Shelton, “Post-coronagraph wavefront sensor for Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156N (2008).

Lloyd, J.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. Lloyd, P. Hodge, and B. Macintosh, “Speckle decorrelation and dynamic range in speckle noise-limited imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, L59(2008).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. Lloyd, P. Hodge, and B. Macintosh, “Speckle decorrelation and dynamic range in speckle noise-limited imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, L59(2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. Lafrenière, B. Macintosh, and R. Doyon, “Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 647, 612 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer and B. Macintosh, “Spatially filtered wave-front sensor for high-order adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 810–819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

MacQueen, J.

J. MacQueen, “Some methods for classification and analysis of multivariate observations,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, L. Le Cam and J. Neyman, eds. (University of California, 1967), Vol. 1, p. 14.

Maire, J.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

Marois, C.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. Lafrenière, B. Macintosh, and R. Doyon, “Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 647, 612 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, National Research Council, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada (personal communication, 2012).

Martucci, S.

H. Stone, M. Orchard, E. Chang, and S. Martucci, “A fast direct Fourier-based algorithm for subpixel registration of images,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 2235–2243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Millar-Blanchaer, M.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Nemati, B.

J. K. Wallace, J. Angione, R. Bartos, P. Best, R. Burruss, F. Fregoso, B. M. Levine, B. Nemati, M. Shao, and C. Shelton, “Post-coronagraph wavefront sensor for Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156N (2008).

Nunez, A.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Oppenheimer, B.

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

A. Sivaramakrishnan and B. Oppenheimer, “Astrometry and photometry with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 647, 620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheimer, B. R.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Orchard, M.

H. Stone, M. Orchard, E. Chang, and S. Martucci, “A fast direct Fourier-based algorithm for subpixel registration of images,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 2235–2243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D. W.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

Patience, J.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pazder, J.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Perrin, M.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Perrin, M. D.

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

Poyneer, L. A.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

L. A. Poyneer and B. Macintosh, “Spatially filtered wave-front sensor for high-order adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 810–819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quirez, C.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Rantakyro, F.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Reshtov, V.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Russell, S.

S. Russell, “Efficient memory-bounded search methods,” in Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, B. Neumann, ed. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 1–5.

Sadakuni, N.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Saddlemyer, L.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

Savransky, D.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Seager, S.

S. Seager, Exoplanets (University of Arizona, 2011).

Shao, M.

J. K. Wallace, J. Angione, R. Bartos, P. Best, R. Burruss, F. Fregoso, B. M. Levine, B. Nemati, M. Shao, and C. Shelton, “Post-coronagraph wavefront sensor for Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156N (2008).

Shelton, C.

J. K. Wallace, J. Angione, R. Bartos, P. Best, R. Burruss, F. Fregoso, B. M. Levine, B. Nemati, M. Shao, and C. Shelton, “Post-coronagraph wavefront sensor for Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156N (2008).

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. Lloyd, P. Hodge, and B. Macintosh, “Speckle decorrelation and dynamic range in speckle noise-limited imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, L59(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan and B. Oppenheimer, “Astrometry and photometry with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 647, 620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Song, I.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soummer, R.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

R. Soummer, “Apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs for arbitrary telescope apertures,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 618, L161–L164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stone, H.

H. Stone, M. Orchard, E. Chang, and S. Martucci, “A fast direct Fourier-based algorithm for subpixel registration of images,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 2235–2243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, S.

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

Thomas, S.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Véran, J.

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

Wallace, J. K.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

J. K. Wallace, J. Angione, R. Bartos, P. Best, R. Burruss, F. Fregoso, B. M. Levine, B. Nemati, M. Shao, and C. Shelton, “Post-coronagraph wavefront sensor for Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156N (2008).

Weiss, J.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Wiktorowicz, S.

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Xie, Y.

Y. Xie and Q. Ji, “A new efficient ellipse detection method,” in Proceedings of IEEE 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 957–960.

Zuckerman, B.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (2)

C. Marois, D. Lafrenière, B. Macintosh, and R. Doyon, “Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 647, 612 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan and B. Oppenheimer, “Astrometry and photometry with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 647, 620 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Lett. (2)

R. Soummer, “Apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs for arbitrary telescope apertures,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 618, L161–L164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. Lloyd, P. Hodge, and B. Macintosh, “Speckle decorrelation and dynamic range in speckle noise-limited imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, L59(2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

H. Stone, M. Orchard, E. Chang, and S. Martucci, “A fast direct Fourier-based algorithm for subpixel registration of images,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 2235–2243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Pattern Recogn. (1)

D. H. Ballard, “Generalizing the Hough transform to detect arbitrary shapes,” Pattern Recogn. 13, 111–122 (1981).

Proc. SPIE (4)

J. K. Wallace, J. Angione, R. Bartos, P. Best, R. Burruss, F. Fregoso, B. M. Levine, B. Nemati, M. Shao, and C. Shelton, “Post-coronagraph wavefront sensor for Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156N (2008).

J. Maire, M. D. Perrin, R. Doyon, E. Artigau, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. R. Graham, D. Lafrenière, J. E. Larkin, J. Lavigne, B. A. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, L. A. Poyneer, S. Thibault, and J. Véran, “Data reduction pipeline for the Gemini planet imager,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773531 (2010).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, “The Gemini planet imager: from science to design to construction,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).

B. A. Macintosh, A. Anthony, J. Atwood, N. Barriga, B. Bauman, K. Caputa, J. Chilcote, D. Dillon, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, R. Galvez, S. J. Goodsell, J. R. Graham, M. Hartung, J. Isaacs, D. Kerley, Q. Konopacky, K. Labrie, J. E. Larkin, J. Maire, C. Marois, M. Millar-Blanchaer, A. Nunez, B. R. Oppenheimer, D. W. Palmer, J. Pazder, M. Perrin, L. A. Poyneer, C. Quirez, F. Rantakyro, V. Reshtov, L. Saddlemyer, N. Sadakuni, D. Savransky, A. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Smith, R. Soummer, S. Thomas, J. K. Wallace, J. Weiss, and S. Wiktorowicz, “The Gemini planet imager: integration and status,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84461U (2012).

Science (1)

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

C. Marois, National Research Council, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada (personal communication, 2012).

Y. Xie and Q. Ji, “A new efficient ellipse detection method,” in Proceedings of IEEE 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 957–960.

J. MacQueen, “Some methods for classification and analysis of multivariate observations,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, L. Le Cam and J. Neyman, eds. (University of California, 1967), Vol. 1, p. 14.

S. Russell, “Efficient memory-bounded search methods,” in Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, B. Neumann, ed. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 1–5.

S. Seager, Exoplanets (University of Arizona, 2011).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of GPI. Circles represent pupil planes, pentagons represent focal planes, and squares are WFSs and detectors. Thick lines represent controllable surfaces such as moveable mirrors and stages, lines with arrows represent the light path, and dashed lines represent imaging of pupil planes by various detectors for alignment purposes. Note that this is a schematic view only; multiple optics, including beam splitters and pupil re-imagers, are not shown here. The four pupil planes at the top of the schematic must all be aligned to a common plane, with tolerances given in Table 1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of image seen at the GPI IFS pupil. The black regions represent the Lyot stop, the gray regions are light that passes through the Lyot stop, and the white regions are light from the telescope pupil spiders and the bright rings diffracted from the focal plane mask, which is stopped by the Lyot stop. This illumination pattern would be approximately what we would see if we could image the reverse side of the Lyot stop. An actual image of the IFS pupil, with only the Lyot stop in the beam path, is shown in Fig. 6. The apodizer, FPM, and Lyot stop must all be closely aligned for the coronagraph to work properly.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pupil viewer images of the apodizer only (no FPM or Lyot stop in light path). Left: dark subtracted pupil viewer image, cropped to show the image of the apodizer only. Center: median filtered image with the candidate pixels for the inner annulus of the apodizer overlaid. Pixels are selected as candidates when they differ from their neighbors by more than 25% of the image median in intensity. A mask is applied so that pixels belonging to the outer annulus are not considered. Right: original image with best solution from Hough transform overlaid.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Left: difference image between poked and flat DM states. Right: original image with best solution from Hough transform and intersection of MEMS pokes overlaid.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

HOWFS images of apodizer only (no FPM in light path). Left: median filtered HOWFS image, cropped to show the image of the apodizer only. Center: difference image between cross and flat DM shapes. Right: the four clusters of pixels automatically detected.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Pupil viewer images of Lyot stop. Left: dark subtracted pupil viewer image, cropped to show Lyot stop only. Center: the original image, median filtered and converted to binary units using the median image value. The central obscuration of the stop is removed by using the algorithm from Section 2. The remaining features are the stop spiders and tabs used to block bad DM actuators. The tabs at the edge of the pupil are removed by applying a single annulus scaled from the fit to the central obscuration. Right: the four clusters of pixels belonging to the four spiders automatically detected and with best fit lines.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Left: single slice of reconstructed GPI IFS data cube. The satellite spots are circled. Center: penultimate step of the satellite spot-finding algorithm. Although six spots have been identified as candidate spots, only three of them have the right geometry to be part of a square, and so the candidate subset only has one element, illustrated by the white triangle. Right: the original image with the located satellite spots tagged with black dots.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Results of satellite finding, arranged as in Fig. 7. In this case, 38 candidate spots were identified before the satellite spots were found, but only 28 candidate subsets required testing at the final step of the iteration. The satellite spots were approximately 50 times fainter than in the previous example, and the contrast in this image was one order of magnitude lower.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. GPI Alignment Tolerances

Equations (20)

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d f d x | x , p = 0 .
( x x 0 ) 2 a 2 + ( y y 0 ) 2 b 2 = 1 ,
x 0 = ( x 1 + x 2 ) / 2 ,
y 0 = ( y 1 + y 2 ) / 2 ,
a = ( x 2 x 1 ) 2 + ( y 2 y 1 ) 2 / 2 ,
θ = tan 1 ( ( x 2 x 1 ) / ( y 2 y 1 ) ) .
d ( x 3 x 0 ) 2 + ( y 3 y 0 ) 2 ,
f ( x 3 x 2 ) 2 + ( y 3 y 2 ) 2 ,
b = a 2 [ ( 2 a d ) 2 ( a 2 + d 2 f 2 ) 2 ] a 4 ( a 2 + d 2 f 2 ) 2 .
{ i , j : | M i 1 , j M i + 1 , j | > T } { i , j : | M i , j 1 M i , j + 1 | > T } , i , j [ 1 , m ] × [ 1 , n ] ,
arg min { S i } i = 1 k r k S i r k μ i 2 ,
S i = { r k : r k μ i 2 r k μ j 2 , i j } ,
μ i = 1 n i r k S i r k ,
R = [ x μ x y μ y ] ,
S = R R T N 1 ,
S V = V Λ ,
{ d k } k = 1 6 = { r i r j : i , j { 4 C 2 } } ,
{ d k } k = 1 3 = { r i r j : i , j { 3 C 2 } } ,
n G = n C ! 3 ! ( n C 3 ) ! .
( { d k } k = 1 6 ) l = { r i r j : i , j G l } ,

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