Abstract

We present for the first time vertical profiles of microphysical properties of pure mineral dust (largely unaffected by any other aerosol types) on the basis of the inversion of optical data collected with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar. The data were taken during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in Morocco in 2006. We also investigated two cases of mixed dust–smoke plumes on the basis of data collected during the second SAMUM field campaign that took place in the Republic of Cape Verde in 2008. Following the experience of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), the dust is modeled as a mixture of spherical particles and randomly oriented spheroids. The retrieval is performed from the full set of lidar input data (three backscatter coefficients, two extinction coefficients, and one depolarization ratio) and from a reduced set of data in which we exclude the depolarization ratio. We find differences of the microphysical properties depending on what kind of optical data combination we use. For the case of pure mineral dust, the results from these two sets of optical data are consistent and confirm the validity of the spheroid particle model for data inversion. Our results indicate that in the case of pure mineral dust we do not need depolarization information in the inversion. For the mixture of dust and biomass burning, there seem to be more limitations in the retrieval accuracy of the various data products. The evaluation of the quality of our data products is done by comparing our lidar-derived data products (vertically resolved) to results from AERONET Sun photometer observations (column-averaged) carried out at the lidar field site. Our results for dust effective radius show agreement with the AERONET observations within the retrieval uncertainties. Regarding the complex refractive index a comparison is difficult, as AERONET provides this parameter as wavelength-dependent quantity. In contrast, our inversion algorithm provides this parameter as a wavelength-independent quantity. We also show some comparison to results from airborne in situ observation. A detailed comparison to in situ results will be left for a future contribution.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (5)

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements—methodology and examples,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 73–98 (2012).

A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, M. Tesche, and U. Wandinger, “Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 9399–9415 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Girolamo, D. Summa, R. Bhawar, T. D. Iorio, M. Cacciani, I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, and A. Kolgotin, “Raman lidar observations of a Saharan dust outbreak event: characterization of the dust optical properties and determination of particle size and microphysical parameters,” Atmos. Env. 50, 66–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (14)

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 619–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, D. Müller, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, and A. Petzold, “Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 677–694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements during SAMUM 2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 706–724(2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieke, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, C. Von Glahn, A. Petzold, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, and L. Schütz, “Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 497–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Cape Verde,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 649–676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, I. Tegen, M. Wendisch, D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, T. Müller, and J. Heintzenberg, “Saharan mineral dust experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: what can be learned from these dust closure field campaigns?” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 403–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, I. Mattis, H. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, “Vertically resolved light-absorption characteristics and the influence of relative humidity on particle properties: multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of East Asian aerosol types over Korea,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D06206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 725–741 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Wiegner, “Volcanic ash from Iceland over Munich: mass concentration retrieved from ground-based remote sensing measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2209–2223 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Modeling optical properties of mineral aerosol particles by using nonsymmetric hexahedra,” Appl. Opt. 49, 334–342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di. Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. I. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

T. Sakai, T. Nagai, Y. Zaizen, and Y. Mano, “Backscattering linear depolarization ratio measurements of mineral, sea-salt, and ammonium sulfate particles simulated in a laboratory chamber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4441–4449 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (12)

B. Heese, D. Althausen, T. Dinter, M. Esselborn, T. Müller, M. Tesche, and M. Wiegner, “Vertically resolved dust optical properties during SAMUM: Tinfou compared to Ouarzazate,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 195–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, K. Rasp, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Köpke, and M. Fiebig, “Airborne measurements of dust layer properties, particle size distribution and mixing state of Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus: Ser. B 61, 96–117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde by using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar during SAMUM 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, paper (EID) D13202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Nousiainen, “Optical modeling of mineral dust particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1261–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Single-scattering properties of tri-axial ellipsoidal particles for a size parameter range from the Rayleigh to geometric-optics regimes,” Appl. Opt. 48, 114–126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Heintzenberg, “The SAMUM-1 experiment over southern Morocco: overview and introduction,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 2–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Tesche, A. Petzold, and G. Ehret, “Spatial distribution and optical properties of Saharan dust observed by airborne high spectral resolution lidar during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 131–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

C. Böckmann, I. Miranova, D. Müller, L. Scheidenbach, and R. Nessler, “Microphysical aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 518–528 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest-fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions, part 3. intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Myhre, A. Grini, J. M. Haywood, F. Stordal, B. Chatenet, D. Tanré, J. K. Sundet, and I. S. A. Isaksen, “Modeling the radiative impact of mineral dust during the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, paper (EID) 8579 (2003).

2002 (6)

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2760–2767(2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nouisainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2. case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, D. Savoie, J. M. Prospero, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Relationship between column aerosol optical thickness and in situ ground based dust concentrations over Barbados,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1643–1646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and A. Ansmann, “Retrieval of physical particle properties from lidar observations of extinction and backscatter at multiple wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2260–2263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831–16847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1988 (1)

B. T. Draine, “The discrete dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Allakhverdiev, K.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, D. Müller, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, and A. Petzold, “Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 677–694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements during SAMUM 2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 706–724(2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Cape Verde,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 649–676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

B. Heese, D. Althausen, T. Dinter, M. Esselborn, T. Müller, M. Tesche, and M. Wiegner, “Vertically resolved dust optical properties during SAMUM: Tinfou compared to Ouarzazate,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 195–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde by using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar during SAMUM 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, paper (EID) D13202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest-fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2. case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and A. Ansmann, “Retrieval of physical particle properties from lidar observations of extinction and backscatter at multiple wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2260–2263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amiridis, V.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, M. Tesche, and U. Wandinger, “Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 9399–9415 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Cape Verde,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 649–676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, I. Tegen, M. Wendisch, D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, T. Müller, and J. Heintzenberg, “Saharan mineral dust experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: what can be learned from these dust closure field campaigns?” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 403–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, D. Müller, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, and A. Petzold, “Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 677–694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements during SAMUM 2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 706–724(2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde by using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar during SAMUM 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, paper (EID) D13202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest-fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2. case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and A. Ansmann, “Retrieval of physical particle properties from lidar observations of extinction and backscatter at multiple wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2260–2263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Reichardt, and T. Deshler, “Determination of stratospheric aerosol microphysical properties from independent extinction and backscattering measurements with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8315–8329(1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, “Lidar and atmospheric aerosol particles,” in Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 105–141.

Apituley, A.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Balis, D.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, R.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhawar, R.

P. D. Girolamo, D. Summa, R. Bhawar, T. D. Iorio, M. Cacciani, I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, and A. Kolgotin, “Raman lidar observations of a Saharan dust outbreak event: characterization of the dust optical properties and determination of particle size and microphysical parameters,” Atmos. Env. 50, 66–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bi, L.

Böckmann, C.

C. Böckmann, I. Miranova, D. Müller, L. Scheidenbach, and R. Nessler, “Microphysical aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 518–528 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bösenberg, J.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burton, S. P.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements—methodology and examples,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 73–98 (2012).

Butler, C. F.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements—methodology and examples,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 73–98 (2012).

Cacciani, M.

P. D. Girolamo, D. Summa, R. Bhawar, T. D. Iorio, M. Cacciani, I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, and A. Kolgotin, “Raman lidar observations of a Saharan dust outbreak event: characterization of the dust optical properties and determination of particle size and microphysical parameters,” Atmos. Env. 50, 66–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chaikovski, A.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chatenet, B.

G. Myhre, A. Grini, J. M. Haywood, F. Stordal, B. Chatenet, D. Tanré, J. K. Sundet, and I. S. A. Isaksen, “Modeling the radiative impact of mineral dust during the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, paper (EID) 8579 (2003).

Christopher, S. A.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions, part 3. intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clauder, E.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).

Cook, A. L.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements—methodology and examples,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 73–98 (2012).

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, G.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Haan, J. F.

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nouisainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

Deutscher, C.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dinter, T.

B. Heese, D. Althausen, T. Dinter, M. Esselborn, T. Müller, M. Tesche, and M. Wiegner, “Vertically resolved dust optical properties during SAMUM: Tinfou compared to Ouarzazate,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 195–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dörnbrack, A.

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Draine, B. T.

B. T. Draine, “The discrete dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

P. D. Girolamo, D. Summa, R. Bhawar, T. D. Iorio, M. Cacciani, I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, and A. Kolgotin, “Raman lidar observations of a Saharan dust outbreak event: characterization of the dust optical properties and determination of particle size and microphysical parameters,” Atmos. Env. 50, 66–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di. Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. I. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions, part 3. intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, M.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieke, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, C. Von Glahn, A. Petzold, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, and L. Schütz, “Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 497–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions, part 3. intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
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O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
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A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, D. Savoie, J. M. Prospero, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Relationship between column aerosol optical thickness and in situ ground based dust concentrations over Barbados,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1643–1646 (2000).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eckhardt, S.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, G.

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 619–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Tesche, A. Petzold, and G. Ehret, “Spatial distribution and optical properties of Saharan dust observed by airborne high spectral resolution lidar during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 131–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, and G. Ehret, “Saharan dust and biomass burning aerosol characterization: Airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations over the Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM 2008,” in 24th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), (Curran Associates, Inc., Boulder, Colorado, 2008), pp. 490–493.

Eleuterio, D. P.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions, part 3. intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

E. W. Eloranta, “High spectral resolution lidar,” in Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 143–163.

Emmel, C.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

Engelmann, R.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde by using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar during SAMUM 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, paper (EID) D13202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Esselborn, M.

M. Tesche, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Cape Verde,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 649–676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 619–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, K. Rasp, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Köpke, and M. Fiebig, “Airborne measurements of dust layer properties, particle size distribution and mixing state of Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus: Ser. B 61, 96–117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Heese, D. Althausen, T. Dinter, M. Esselborn, T. Müller, M. Tesche, and M. Wiegner, “Vertically resolved dust optical properties during SAMUM: Tinfou compared to Ouarzazate,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 195–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Tesche, A. Petzold, and G. Ehret, “Spatial distribution and optical properties of Saharan dust observed by airborne high spectral resolution lidar during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 131–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, and G. Ehret, “Saharan dust and biomass burning aerosol characterization: Airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations over the Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM 2008,” in 24th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), (Curran Associates, Inc., Boulder, Colorado, 2008), pp. 490–493.

Ferrare, R. A.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements—methodology and examples,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 73–98 (2012).

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiebig, M.

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, K. Rasp, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Köpke, and M. Fiebig, “Airborne measurements of dust layer properties, particle size distribution and mixing state of Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus: Ser. B 61, 96–117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fix, A.

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Tesche, A. Petzold, and G. Ehret, “Spatial distribution and optical properties of Saharan dust observed by airborne high spectral resolution lidar during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 131–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, and G. Ehret, “Saharan dust and biomass burning aerosol characterization: Airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations over the Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM 2008,” in 24th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), (Curran Associates, Inc., Boulder, Colorado, 2008), pp. 490–493.

Forster, C.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Franke, K.

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, K. Franke, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1180–1195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2. case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Freudenthaler, V.

J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Wiegner, “Volcanic ash from Iceland over Munich: mass concentration retrieved from ground-based remote sensing measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2209–2223 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 725–741 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Cape Verde,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 649–676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements during SAMUM 2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 706–724(2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, D. Müller, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, and A. Petzold, “Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 677–694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde by using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar during SAMUM 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, paper (EID) D13202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Froyd, K. D.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements—methodology and examples,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 73–98 (2012).

Garhammer, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gasteiger, J.

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 725–741 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Wiegner, “Volcanic ash from Iceland over Munich: mass concentration retrieved from ground-based remote sensing measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2209–2223 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gayet, J.-F.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Geiß, A.

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerding, M.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerz, T.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Girolamo, P. D.

P. D. Girolamo, D. Summa, R. Bhawar, T. D. Iorio, M. Cacciani, I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, and A. Kolgotin, “Raman lidar observations of a Saharan dust outbreak event: characterization of the dust optical properties and determination of particle size and microphysical parameters,” Atmos. Env. 50, 66–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Girolamo, P. Di.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di. Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. I. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Graf, K.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Griaznov, V.

Grigorov, I.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grini, A.

G. Myhre, A. Grini, J. M. Haywood, F. Stordal, B. Chatenet, D. Tanré, J. K. Sundet, and I. S. A. Isaksen, “Modeling the radiative impact of mineral dust during the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, paper (EID) 8579 (2003).

Groß, S.

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Cape Verde,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 649–676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Wiegner, “Volcanic ash from Iceland over Munich: mass concentration retrieved from ground-based remote sensing measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2209–2223 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 725–741 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, D. Müller, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, and A. Petzold, “Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 677–694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements during SAMUM 2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 706–724(2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde by using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar during SAMUM 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, paper (EID) D13202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hair, J. W.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements—methodology and examples,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 73–98 (2012).

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hamburger, T.

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 619–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harper, D. B.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements—methodology and examples,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 73–98 (2012).

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haywood, J. M.

G. Myhre, A. Grini, J. M. Haywood, F. Stordal, B. Chatenet, D. Tanré, J. K. Sundet, and I. S. A. Isaksen, “Modeling the radiative impact of mineral dust during the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, paper (EID) 8579 (2003).

Heese, B.

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

B. Heese, D. Althausen, T. Dinter, M. Esselborn, T. Müller, M. Tesche, and M. Wiegner, “Vertically resolved dust optical properties during SAMUM: Tinfou compared to Ouarzazate,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 195–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heinold, B.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heintzenberg, J.

A. Ansmann, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, I. Tegen, M. Wendisch, D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, T. Müller, and J. Heintzenberg, “Saharan mineral dust experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: what can be learned from these dust closure field campaigns?” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 403–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Heintzenberg, “The SAMUM-1 experiment over southern Morocco: overview and introduction,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 2–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2. case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hiebsch, A.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

Hoffman, H.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions, part 3. intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, D. Savoie, J. M. Prospero, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Relationship between column aerosol optical thickness and in situ ground based dust concentrations over Barbados,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1643–1646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hostetler, C. A.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements—methodology and examples,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 73–98 (2012).

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734–6752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nouisainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hovis, F. E.

Hube, H.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).

Huseyinoglu, F.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Iorio, T. D.

P. D. Girolamo, D. Summa, R. Bhawar, T. D. Iorio, M. Cacciani, I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, and A. Kolgotin, “Raman lidar observations of a Saharan dust outbreak event: characterization of the dust optical properties and determination of particle size and microphysical parameters,” Atmos. Env. 50, 66–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Isaksen, I. S. A.

G. Myhre, A. Grini, J. M. Haywood, F. Stordal, B. Chatenet, D. Tanré, J. K. Sundet, and I. S. A. Isaksen, “Modeling the radiative impact of mineral dust during the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, paper (EID) 8579 (2003).

Izquierdo, L. R.

Jäckel, S.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jaenicke, R.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, R.

Kahn, R. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831–16847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kandler, K.

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 619–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieke, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, C. Von Glahn, A. Petzold, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, and L. Schütz, “Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 497–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 725–741 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, I. Tegen, M. Wendisch, D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, T. Müller, and J. Heintzenberg, “Saharan mineral dust experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: what can be learned from these dust closure field campaigns?” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 403–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, K. Rasp, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Köpke, and M. Fiebig, “Airborne measurements of dust layer properties, particle size distribution and mixing state of Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus: Ser. B 61, 96–117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

Kaufman, Y. J.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, D. Savoie, J. M. Prospero, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Relationship between column aerosol optical thickness and in situ ground based dust concentrations over Barbados,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1643–1646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiemle, C.

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 619–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, I. Mattis, H. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, “Vertically resolved light-absorption characteristics and the influence of relative humidity on particle properties: multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of East Asian aerosol types over Korea,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D06206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knippertz, P.

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolgotin, A.

P. D. Girolamo, D. Summa, R. Bhawar, T. D. Iorio, M. Cacciani, I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, and A. Kolgotin, “Raman lidar observations of a Saharan dust outbreak event: characterization of the dust optical properties and determination of particle size and microphysical parameters,” Atmos. Env. 50, 66–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di. Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. I. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, K. Franke, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1180–1195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Köpke, P.

B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, K. Rasp, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Köpke, and M. Fiebig, “Airborne measurements of dust layer properties, particle size distribution and mixing state of Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus: Ser. B 61, 96–117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koppmann, R.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions, part 3. intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Korenskiy, M.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krautstrunk, M.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lapyonok, T.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di. Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. I. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, B.

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, I. Mattis, H. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, “Vertically resolved light-absorption characteristics and the influence of relative humidity on particle properties: multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of East Asian aerosol types over Korea,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D06206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-H.

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Léon, J.-F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenstern, M.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lieke, K.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieke, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, C. Von Glahn, A. Petzold, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, and L. Schütz, “Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 497–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 619–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linné, H.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Mack, T. L.

Mahnke, P.

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, and G. Ehret, “Saharan dust and biomass burning aerosol characterization: Airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations over the Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM 2008,” in 24th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), (Curran Associates, Inc., Boulder, Colorado, 2008), pp. 490–493.

Mallaun, C.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mamouri, R. E.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mannstein, H.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mano, Y.

Maßling, A.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, V.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mattis, I.

Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, I. Mattis, H. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, “Vertically resolved light-absorption characteristics and the influence of relative humidity on particle properties: multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of East Asian aerosol types over Korea,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D06206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest-fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and A. Ansmann, “Retrieval of physical particle properties from lidar observations of extinction and backscatter at multiple wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2260–2263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Minikin, A.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miranova, I.

Mishchenko, M.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di. Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. I. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831–16847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitev, V.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mona, L.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Muinonen, K.

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nouisainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, D. Müller, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, and A. Petzold, “Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 677–694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, I. Mattis, H. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, “Vertically resolved light-absorption characteristics and the influence of relative humidity on particle properties: multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of East Asian aerosol types over Korea,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D06206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, I. Tegen, M. Wendisch, D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, T. Müller, and J. Heintzenberg, “Saharan mineral dust experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: what can be learned from these dust closure field campaigns?” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 403–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Cape Verde,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 649–676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde by using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar during SAMUM 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, paper (EID) D13202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest-fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, I. Miranova, D. Müller, L. Scheidenbach, and R. Nessler, “Microphysical aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 518–528 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, K. Franke, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1180–1195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2. case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and A. Ansmann, “Retrieval of physical particle properties from lidar observations of extinction and backscatter at multiple wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2260–2263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, “Lidar and atmospheric aerosol particles,” in Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 105–141.

Müller, T.

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, I. Tegen, M. Wendisch, D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, T. Müller, and J. Heintzenberg, “Saharan mineral dust experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: what can be learned from these dust closure field campaigns?” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 403–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

B. Heese, D. Althausen, T. Dinter, M. Esselborn, T. Müller, M. Tesche, and M. Wiegner, “Vertically resolved dust optical properties during SAMUM: Tinfou compared to Ouarzazate,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 195–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Ebert, D.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

Mund, S.

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 619–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, O.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nouisainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, T.

Myhre, G.

G. Myhre, A. Grini, J. M. Haywood, F. Stordal, B. Chatenet, D. Tanré, J. K. Sundet, and I. S. A. Isaksen, “Modeling the radiative impact of mineral dust during the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, paper (EID) 8579 (2003).

Nagai, T.

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nessler, R.

Nickovic, S.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y. M.

Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, I. Mattis, H. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, “Vertically resolved light-absorption characteristics and the influence of relative humidity on particle properties: multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of East Asian aerosol types over Korea,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D06206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nouisainen, T.

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nouisainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nousiainen, T.

T. Nousiainen, “Optical modeling of mineral dust particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1261–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Obland, M. D.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements—methodology and examples,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 73–98 (2012).

Olafsson, H.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Otto, S.

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

Papayannis, A.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pappalardo, G.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pérez, C.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, A.

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 619–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieke, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, C. Von Glahn, A. Petzold, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, and L. Schütz, “Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 497–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, D. Müller, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, and A. Petzold, “Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 677–694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, I. Tegen, M. Wendisch, D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, T. Müller, and J. Heintzenberg, “Saharan mineral dust experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: what can be learned from these dust closure field campaigns?” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 403–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, K. Rasp, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Köpke, and M. Fiebig, “Airborne measurements of dust layer properties, particle size distribution and mixing state of Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus: Ser. B 61, 96–117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Tesche, A. Petzold, and G. Ehret, “Spatial distribution and optical properties of Saharan dust observed by airborne high spectral resolution lidar during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 131–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pietruczuk, A.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pisani, G.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prospero, J. M.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, D. Savoie, J. M. Prospero, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Relationship between column aerosol optical thickness and in situ ground based dust concentrations over Barbados,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1643–1646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, S.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rasp, K.

B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, K. Rasp, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Köpke, and M. Fiebig, “Airborne measurements of dust layer properties, particle size distribution and mixing state of Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus: Ser. B 61, 96–117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Tesche, A. Petzold, and G. Ehret, “Spatial distribution and optical properties of Saharan dust observed by airborne high spectral resolution lidar during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 131–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rautenhaus, M.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ravetta, F.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reichardt, J.

Reid, E. A.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions, part 3. intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J. S.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions, part 3. intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reitebuch, O.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rizi, V.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, R. R.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements—methodology and examples,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 73–98 (2012).

Rol, E.

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nouisainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rose, M.

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rüba, H.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sailer, T.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

Sauer, D.

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Savoie, D.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, D. Savoie, J. M. Prospero, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Relationship between column aerosol optical thickness and in situ ground based dust concentrations over Barbados,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1643–1646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schäuble, D.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scheibe, M.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scheidenbach, L.

Schepanski, K.

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scheuvens, D.

K. Lieke, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, C. Von Glahn, A. Petzold, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, and L. Schütz, “Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 497–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

Schladitz, A.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schlager, H.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, J.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

Schnell, F.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schumann, U.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, L.

K. Lieke, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, C. Von Glahn, A. Petzold, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, and L. Schütz, “Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 497–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, K. Rasp, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Köpke, and M. Fiebig, “Airborne measurements of dust layer properties, particle size distribution and mixing state of Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus: Ser. B 61, 96–117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seefeldner, M.

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements during SAMUM 2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 706–724(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Šegvic, B.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

Seifert, P.

A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, M. Tesche, and U. Wandinger, “Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 9399–9415 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

Serikov, I.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sicard, M.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Simmet, R.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sinyuk, A.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, D. Savoie, J. M. Prospero, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Relationship between column aerosol optical thickness and in situ ground based dust concentrations over Barbados,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1643–1646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, D. Savoie, J. M. Prospero, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Relationship between column aerosol optical thickness and in situ ground based dust concentrations over Barbados,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1643–1646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, M.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stock, P.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stohl, A.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest-fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stordal, F.

G. Myhre, A. Grini, J. M. Haywood, F. Stordal, B. Chatenet, D. Tanré, J. K. Sundet, and I. S. A. Isaksen, “Modeling the radiative impact of mineral dust during the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, paper (EID) 8579 (2003).

Sturm, K.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Summa, D.

P. D. Girolamo, D. Summa, R. Bhawar, T. D. Iorio, M. Cacciani, I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, and A. Kolgotin, “Raman lidar observations of a Saharan dust outbreak event: characterization of the dust optical properties and determination of particle size and microphysical parameters,” Atmos. Env. 50, 66–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di. Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. I. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sundet, J. K.

G. Myhre, A. Grini, J. M. Haywood, F. Stordal, B. Chatenet, D. Tanré, J. K. Sundet, and I. S. A. Isaksen, “Modeling the radiative impact of mineral dust during the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, paper (EID) 8579 (2003).

Tafferner, A.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di. Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. I. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Myhre, A. Grini, J. M. Haywood, F. Stordal, B. Chatenet, D. Tanré, J. K. Sundet, and I. S. A. Isaksen, “Modeling the radiative impact of mineral dust during the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, paper (EID) 8579 (2003).

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, D. Savoie, J. M. Prospero, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Relationship between column aerosol optical thickness and in situ ground based dust concentrations over Barbados,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1643–1646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tegen, I.

A. Ansmann, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, I. Tegen, M. Wendisch, D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, T. Müller, and J. Heintzenberg, “Saharan mineral dust experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: what can be learned from these dust closure field campaigns?” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 403–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tesche, M.

A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, M. Tesche, and U. Wandinger, “Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 9399–9415 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, D. Müller, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, and A. Petzold, “Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 677–694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements during SAMUM 2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 706–724(2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 725–741 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Cape Verde,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 649–676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

B. Heese, D. Althausen, T. Dinter, M. Esselborn, T. Müller, M. Tesche, and M. Wiegner, “Vertically resolved dust optical properties during SAMUM: Tinfou compared to Ouarzazate,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 195–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Tesche, A. Petzold, and G. Ehret, “Spatial distribution and optical properties of Saharan dust observed by airborne high spectral resolution lidar during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 131–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde by using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar during SAMUM 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, paper (EID) D13202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toledano, C.

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements during SAMUM 2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 706–724(2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 725–741 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tomasi, F. De.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831–16847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsaknakis, G.

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van der Zande, W. J.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nouisainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Veihelmann, B.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veira, A.

M. Tesche, D. Müller, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, and A. Petzold, “Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 677–694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieke, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, C. Von Glahn, A. Petzold, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, and L. Schütz, “Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 497–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 619–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verver, G.

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2. case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Veselovskii, I.

P. D. Girolamo, D. Summa, R. Bhawar, T. D. Iorio, M. Cacciani, I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, and A. Kolgotin, “Raman lidar observations of a Saharan dust outbreak event: characterization of the dust optical properties and determination of particle size and microphysical parameters,” Atmos. Env. 50, 66–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di. Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. I. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, K. Franke, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1180–1195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Virkkula, A.

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, C.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nouisainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Von Glahn, C.

K. Lieke, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, C. Von Glahn, A. Petzold, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, and L. Schütz, “Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 497–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

von Hoyningen-Huene, W.

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

Wagner, F.

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2. case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, M. Tesche, and U. Wandinger, “Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 9399–9415 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest-fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and A. Ansmann, “Retrieval of physical particle properties from lidar observations of extinction and backscatter at multiple wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2260–2263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Reichardt, and T. Deshler, “Determination of stratospheric aerosol microphysical properties from independent extinction and backscattering measurements with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8315–8329(1995).
[CrossRef]

Weinbruch, S.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieke, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, C. Von Glahn, A. Petzold, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, and L. Schütz, “Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 497–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weinzierl, B.

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 619–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieke, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, C. Von Glahn, A. Petzold, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, and L. Schütz, “Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 497–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, D. Müller, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, and A. Petzold, “Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 677–694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, I. Tegen, M. Wendisch, D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, T. Müller, and J. Heintzenberg, “Saharan mineral dust experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: what can be learned from these dust closure field campaigns?” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 403–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, K. Rasp, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Köpke, and M. Fiebig, “Airborne measurements of dust layer properties, particle size distribution and mixing state of Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus: Ser. B 61, 96–117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Tesche, A. Petzold, and G. Ehret, “Spatial distribution and optical properties of Saharan dust observed by airborne high spectral resolution lidar during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 131–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, V.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Welch, W.

Wendisch, M.

A. Ansmann, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, I. Tegen, M. Wendisch, D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, T. Müller, and J. Heintzenberg, “Saharan mineral dust experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: what can be learned from these dust closure field campaigns?” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 403–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

West, R. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831–16847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

Wiedensohler, A.

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiegner, M.

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Wiegner, “Volcanic ash from Iceland over Munich: mass concentration retrieved from ground-based remote sensing measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2209–2223 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 725–741 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements during SAMUM 2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 706–724(2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

B. Heese, D. Althausen, T. Dinter, M. Esselborn, T. Müller, M. Tesche, and M. Wiegner, “Vertically resolved dust optical properties during SAMUM: Tinfou compared to Ouarzazate,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 195–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, K. M.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, M.

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, K. Rasp, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Köpke, and M. Fiebig, “Airborne measurements of dust layer properties, particle size distribution and mixing state of Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus: Ser. B 61, 96–117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Tesche, A. Petzold, and G. Ehret, “Spatial distribution and optical properties of Saharan dust observed by airborne high spectral resolution lidar during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 131–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, and G. Ehret, “Saharan dust and biomass burning aerosol characterization: Airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations over the Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM 2008,” in 24th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), (Curran Associates, Inc., Boulder, Colorado, 2008), pp. 490–493.

Yang, P.

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Modeling optical properties of mineral aerosol particles by using nonsymmetric hexahedra,” Appl. Opt. 49, 334–342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Single-scattering properties of tri-axial ellipsoidal particles for a size parameter range from the Rayleigh to geometric-optics regimes,” Appl. Opt. 48, 114–126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zaizen, Y.

Zhang, J.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions, part 3. intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ziereis, H.

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zörn, S.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zörner, S.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (13)

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6734–6752 (2008).
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D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and A. Ansmann, “Retrieval of physical particle properties from lidar observations of extinction and backscatter at multiple wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2260–2263 (1998).
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D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
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I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
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D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Single-scattering properties of tri-axial ellipsoidal particles for a size parameter range from the Rayleigh to geometric-optics regimes,” Appl. Opt. 48, 114–126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Modeling optical properties of mineral aerosol particles by using nonsymmetric hexahedra,” Appl. Opt. 49, 334–342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2760–2767(2002).
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I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, K. Franke, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1180–1195 (2004).
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D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
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D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4863–4869 (2001).
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U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Reichardt, and T. Deshler, “Determination of stratospheric aerosol microphysical properties from independent extinction and backscattering measurements with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8315–8329(1995).
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T. Sakai, T. Nagai, Y. Zaizen, and Y. Mano, “Backscattering linear depolarization ratio measurements of mineral, sea-salt, and ammonium sulfate particles simulated in a laboratory chamber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4441–4449 (2010).
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Astrophys. J. (1)

B. T. Draine, “The discrete dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
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Atmos. Chem. Phys. (4)

J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Wiegner, “Volcanic ash from Iceland over Munich: mass concentration retrieved from ground-based remote sensing measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2209–2223 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions, part 3. intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, M. Tesche, and U. Wandinger, “Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 9399–9415 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. Schumann, B. Weinzierl, O. Reitebuch, H. Schlager, A. Minikin, C. Forster, R. Baumann, T. Sailer, K. Graf, H. Mannstein, C. Voigt, S. Rahm, R. Simmet, M. Scheibe, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, H. Rüba, D. Schäuble, A. Tafferner, M. Rautenhaus, T. Gerz, H. Ziereis, M. Krautstrunk, C. Mallaun, J.-F. Gayet, K. Lieke, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, A. Stohl, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, H. Olafsson, and K. Sturm, “Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011).
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Atmos. Env. (1)

P. D. Girolamo, D. Summa, R. Bhawar, T. D. Iorio, M. Cacciani, I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, and A. Kolgotin, “Raman lidar observations of a Saharan dust outbreak event: characterization of the dust optical properties and determination of particle size and microphysical parameters,” Atmos. Env. 50, 66–78 (2012).
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Atmos. Measurem. Technol. (2)

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
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S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements—methodology and examples,” Atmos. Measurem. Technol. 5, 73–98 (2012).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 9 (2002).
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A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, D. Savoie, J. M. Prospero, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Relationship between column aerosol optical thickness and in situ ground based dust concentrations over Barbados,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1643–1646 (2000).
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Geophys. Res. Letts. (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, P. Seifert, A. Hiebsch, J. Schmidt, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Müller, and M. Wiegner, “The 16 April 2010 major volcanic ash plume over central Europe: EARLINET lidar and AERONET photometer observations at Leipzig and Munich, Germany,” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37, paper L13810 (2010).

J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. (1)

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (19)

A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, L. Mona, G. Tsaknakis, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, F. De. Tomasi, I. Grigorov, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, D. Müller, S. Nickovic, C. Pérez, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, M. Sicard, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, M. Gerding, R. E. Mamouri, G. D’Amico, and G. Pappalardo, “Systematic lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET (2000–2002),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, paper D10204 (2008).
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H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nouisainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).
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D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, A. Ansmann, T. Müller, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, B. Heese, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, S. Otto, and P. Knippertz, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D07202 (2010).

D. Müller, K.-H. Lee, J. Gasteiger, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, K. Kandler, T. Müller, C. Toledano, S. Otto, D. Althausen, and A. Ansmann, “Comparison of optical and microphysical properties of pure dust Saharan mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, paper D07211 (2012).
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D. Müller, A. Ansmann, V. Freudenthaler, K. Kandler, C. Toledano, A. Hiebsch, J. Gasteiger, M. Esselborn, M. Tesche, B. Heese, D. Althausen, B. Weinzierl, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in-situ measurements during SAMUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D11207 (2010).

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
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O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
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G. Myhre, A. Grini, J. M. Haywood, F. Stordal, B. Chatenet, D. Tanré, J. K. Sundet, and I. S. A. Isaksen, “Modeling the radiative impact of mineral dust during the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, paper (EID) 8579 (2003).

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Léon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “The application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, V. Freudenthaler, and S. Groß, “Vertically resolved separation of dust and smoke over Cape Verde by using multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar during SAMUM 2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, paper (EID) D13202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, T. Lapyonok, P. Di. Girolamo, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, M. I. Mishchenko, and D. Tanré, “Application of randomly oriented spheroids for retrieval of dust particle parameters from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, paper D21203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2. case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
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D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
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U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, O. Dubovik, S. Eckhardt, and A. Stohl, “Saharan dust over a Central European EARLINET-AERONET site: combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest-fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Noh, D. Müller, I. Mattis, H. Lee, and Y. J. Kim, “Vertically resolved light-absorption characteristics and the influence of relative humidity on particle properties: multiwavelength Raman lidar observations of East Asian aerosol types over Korea,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D06206 (2011).
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M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831–16847 (1997).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

T. Nousiainen, “Optical modeling of mineral dust particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1261–1279 (2009).
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Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tellus, Ser. B (18)

J. Gasteiger, M. Wiegner, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and K. Kandler, “Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 725–741 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization-ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, J. Gasteiger, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, A. Geiß, A. Schladitz, C. Toledano, K. Kandler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, and A. Wiedensohler, “Characterization of the planetary boundary layer during SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 695–705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, B. Heese, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, M. Esselborn, G. Pisani, and P. Knippertz, “Vertical profiling of Saharan dust with Raman lidars and airborne HSRL in southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 144–164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, and M. Esselborn, “Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Cape Verde,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 649–676 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Tesche, A. Petzold, and G. Ehret, “Spatial distribution and optical properties of Saharan dust observed by airborne high spectral resolution lidar during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 131–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, A. Petzold, K. Kandler, I. Tegen, M. Wendisch, D. Müller, B. Weinzierl, T. Müller, and J. Heintzenberg, “Saharan mineral dust experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: what can be learned from these dust closure field campaigns?” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 403–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hoffman, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Maßling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zörn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentrations, chemical and mineralogical composition, and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Heintzenberg, “The SAMUM-1 experiment over southern Morocco: overview and introduction,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 2–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Heinold, I. Tegen, M. Esselborn, K. Kandler, P. Knippertz, D. Müller, A. Schladitz, M. Tesche, B. Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, B. Laurent, A. Petzold, and K. Schepanski, “Regional Saharan dust modelling during the SAMUM 2006 campaign,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 307–324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Weinzierl, D. Sauer, M. Esselborn, A. Petzold, A. Veira, M. Rose, S. Mund, M. Wirth, A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, S. Groß, and V. Freudenthaler, “Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region: an overview of the Airborne in situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 589–618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lieke, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, C. Von Glahn, A. Petzold, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, and L. Schütz, “Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 497–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, S. Jäckel, K. Lieke, C. Emmel, D. Müller-Ebert, M. Ebert, D. Scheuvens, A. Schladitz, B. Šegvić, A. Wiedensohler, and S. Weinbruch, “Ground-based off-line measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 459–474 (2011).

A. Petzold, A. Veira, S. Mund, M. Esselborn, C. Kiemle, B. Weinzierl, T. Hamburger, G. Ehret, K. Lieke, and K. Kandler, “Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 619–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Heese, D. Althausen, T. Dinter, M. Esselborn, T. Müller, M. Tesche, and M. Wiegner, “Vertically resolved dust optical properties during SAMUM: Tinfou compared to Ouarzazate,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 195–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, D. Müller, S. Groß, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Freudenthaler, B. Weinzierl, A. Veira, and A. Petzold, “Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 677–694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Groß, M. Tesche, V. Freudenthaler, C. Toledano, M. Wiegner, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and M. Seefeldner, “Characterization of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and mixtures of biomass-burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization and Raman lidar measurements during SAMUM 2,” Tellus, Ser. B 63, 706–724(2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, K. Rasp, B. Weinzierl, M. Esselborn, T. Hamburger, A. Dörnbrack, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Knippertz, M. Fiebig, and A. Virkkula, “Saharan dust refractive index and optical properties from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 118–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tellus: Ser. B (1)

B. Weinzierl, A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, K. Rasp, K. Kandler, L. Schütz, P. Köpke, and M. Fiebig, “Airborne measurements of dust layer properties, particle size distribution and mixing state of Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus: Ser. B 61, 96–117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, and G. Ehret, “Saharan dust and biomass burning aerosol characterization: Airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations over the Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM 2008,” in 24th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), (Curran Associates, Inc., Boulder, Colorado, 2008), pp. 490–493.

E. W. Eloranta, “High spectral resolution lidar,” in Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 143–163.

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, “Lidar and atmospheric aerosol particles,” in Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 105–141.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Lidar measurements from 2016-2222 UTC on 18 May 2006 (upper row) and from 0959-1116 UTC on 19 May 2006 (lower row). The lidar site was located at 1133 m height asl. Shown are (a), (d) the particle backscatter coefficient (green) and the particle DR (black); (b), (e) the lidar ratios; and (c), (f) backscatter- and extinction-related Ångström exponents for the wavelengths and wavelength pairs given in the respective plot. The circles mark the 500-m mean value used to obtain the optical input data set for the microphysical inversion calculations. The black vertical line in (c) and (f) denotes the column-mean Ångström exponent from AERONET observations of aerosol optical depth (AOT) at 441 and 869 nm. The legend also names the instrument with which the respective profiles were measured. Details on the in situ results for effective radius from measurements aboard the Falcon aircraft are found in [51,57,58].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Volume concentration and effective radius from the inversion of the lidar data on (a) 18 May 2006 and (b) 19 May 2006. Results are shown for 3β+2α (star) and 3β+2α+1δ (squares). The spheroidal kernels were used for the retrieval. Results assuming sphericity of the particles (circles) and results from the inversion of the AERONET Sun photometer data are shown, too. The measurement time was from 071150 to 082946 UTC. In the case of the AERONET data we show the results for the total size distribution and for the coarse mode fraction of the volume size distribution (black dashed vertical lines) and effective radius (red dashed vertical lines). The AERONET results are derived from level 1.5 data, which are used in all other figures, except for Figs. 1214 (level 2). The red diamonds represent the results for effective radius measured aboard the Falcon during overflights in two height levels on 19 May 2009 [51,57].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Surface-area concentration and number concentration on (a) 18 and (b) 19 May 2006. The meaning of the symbols is the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Real (mR) and imaginary (mI) part of the refractive index on 18 and 19 May 2006. The meaning of the symbols is the same as in Fig. 2. The real part (dashed black line represents the measurement wavelength at 675 nm) and the imaginary part (dashed red line for the measurement wavelength at 675 nm) from AERONET Sun photometer retrievals are shown for comparison. The gray-shaded boxes (real part) and red-shaded boxes (imaginary part) display the AERONET maximum and minimum values of the real and imaginary part in the wavelength range from 441 to 1021 nm. The boxes show the significant enhancement of the imaginary part toward shorter wavelengths (441 nm) and the comparably low wavelength dependence of the real part. The individual values of the CRI for the case of 19 May 2006 are shown in Fig. 5 of [57]. The AERONET results are only for level 1.5 data on 18 and 19 May. The gray and red bars at the bottom of the x axis show the real and imaginary parts we obtained from ground-based mineralogical analysis of the dust particles [5,57]. The bars at 3246 and 4853 m represent the real and imaginary parts and the flight levels of the Falcon aircraft on 19 May 2006. Each bars denote the minimum and maximum values in the wavelength range from 441 to 1021 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Particle volume size distribution retrieved from the lidar data for the height layer at (a) 3023 m on 18 May and (b) 3773 m on 19 May 2006. The results follow from the inversion of the 3β+2α data set (dashed–dotted line) and the 3β+2α+1δ data set (solid line). The column-mean PSD obtained from the AERONET Sun photometer measurements are shown for comparison (solid line with squares). The last measurement time for the Sun photometer data was 0712 UTC on 18 May 2006 and 0830 UTC on 19 June 2006.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

PSDs (volume concentration) retrieved from lidar measurements (a) at 3023 m height on 18 May and (b) at 2243 m height on 19 May 2006, assuming a spectrally resolved independent imaginary part mI (solid line) and a spectral dependence of the imaginary part. We show the results for the ratio mI(355)/mI(532)=2 (dotted line) (maximum value of mI=0.01) and 10 (dashed–dotted line) (maximal value of mI=0.05). In both cases the values of mI(532) and mI(1064) were set to 0.005. The intermediate case of mI(355)/mI(532)=5 coincides with the case of mI(355)/mI(532)=10. This means that the solutions at very high mI had a large discrepancy and were excluded. The discrepancy is a measure of the quality of the inversion results; see [18,19,40] for further explanations. The retrieval was done for the 3β+2α data set.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Same as Fig. 1 but for the measurement from 2005 to 2231 UTC on 22 January 2008.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Volume, surface-area and number concentration, and effective radius on 22 January 2008. The meaning of the symbols is the same as in Fig. 2. Note the large time gap of the AERONET results (level 1.5), which were taken at 0915 UTC on 23 January 2008. Pink boxes denote results for smoke (0.5–4.3 km) and pure dust (0–1 km). Details are given in the text.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Real and imaginary part of the refractive index on 22 January 2008. The meaning of the symbols that represent the lidar and AERONET results is the same as in Fig. 4. In addition we show campaign-mean values of the real part (vertical gray box) and the imaginary part (vertical red box) of the dust. The values were derived from the mineralogical analysis of dust collected aboard the Falcon aircraft during several flights [52,60]. The real (horizonal gray box) and imaginary (horizontal red box) part of the smoke particles were taken from [38] (T11b) (representative of the measurement on 22 January 2008) and [66] (D02). The horizontal gray and red bars represent the findings for pure dust observed during SAMUM-1 [5,58].

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

PSDs on 22 January 2008 obtained from 3β+2α+1δ measurements at 1770, 2790, and 3270 m. For comparison the AERONET column-integrated volume distribution on January 23 is also shown (solid line with squares).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Same as Fig. 1 but for the measurements between 2015 and 2232 UTC on 31 January 2008.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Volume, surface-area and number concentration, and effective radius on 31 January 2008. The meaning of the symbols is the same as in Fig. 2. The results from AERONET represent the measurement at 18:25 UTC on 31 January 2008. The AERONET results are derived from level 2.0 data (also in Fig. 13 and Fig. 14). We marked with big gray symbols the data points for the 3β+2α+1δ data in the lower part of the aerosol layer that seems mainly determined by mineral dust (nonspherical particles). There is one transition height, and the upper four points more likely describe smoke, for which we used the spherical particle model in data inversion. More explanations are given in the text.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Real and imaginary parts of the refractive index on 31 January 2008. The meaning of the symbols and the references is the same as in Fig. 9.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

PSDs on 31 January 2008 obtained from 3β+2α measurements at 3750 and 4260 m. For comparison the AERONET column-integrated volume size distribution acquired on 31 January 2008 is also shown.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Correlation plots show (a) effective radius (from inversion of lidar data) versus Ångström exponent (wavelength pair 355/532nm) and (b) surface-area concentration versus extinction coefficient at 355 nm, and (c) volume concentration versus backscatter coefficient at 355 nm for all four measurement days. The symbols and colors (white and gray) denote the different data combinations and measurement days. In all cases only the results obtained with the spheroid particle model are shown. The coefficients from linear regression are shown in (a) and (b) together with the correlation coefficients R2. The horizontal line in (c) denotes the minimum volume concentration we found from all the SAMUM-1 data sets (18 and 19 May, spheroid particle model, 3β+2α+1δ and 3β+2α data combination) that we processed in this study. The dashed line (from origin to top x axis) indicates the upper limit of the maximum volume concentration that may exist for given particle backscatter coefficient. The dashed line (from the origin to the right y axis) indicates the limit of the minimum volume concentration that may exist for given particle backscatter coefficient. Note that these lines rest upon the analysis of four measurement cases only and that we considered the four triangles below the lower dashed line as outliers. In this sense this dashed lines only serve as a guideline and must be verified by more measurement cases.

Equations (3)

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gp=lnrminlnrmax[(1η)Kps(m,r)+ηKpns(m,r)]V(r)lnrdlnr,p=(i,λk)=1,N0.
g=[(η1)As(m)+ηAns(m)]C=A(η,m)C.
[As/ns]ij=lnrminlnrmaxKis/ns(m,r)Bj(lnr)dlnr.

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