Reliable data transmission in optical wireless communication is on the premise of the successful establishment of the optical link. In this paper, we propose an ultra-wide field-of-view (FOV) acquisition scheme, which combines the fisheye lens and Voigt anomalous dispersion optical filter (VADOF) to achieve rapid establishment of wireless optical links. Furthermore, the ultra-wide FOV signal-receiving model for this acquisition scheme is presented to analyze the receiving performance. This acquisition scheme utilizes the fisheye lens to obtain the ultra-wide FOV, not only simplifying the system architecture of the spatial acquisition, but also reducing the acquisition time; a VADOF with ultra-narrow-pass bandwidth is adopted to resist the strong background radiation induced by the ultra-wide FOV. For this ultra-wide FOV acquisition scheme, the mathematical model of long-term average acquisition probability (LTAAP) is derived based on the gamma–gamma (GG) distribution. In an atmospheric turbulence environment, the average signal count and the acquisition probability are both random variables; therefore, the probability density of the average signal count needs to be considered and LTAAP can be calculated based on the GG distribution. Comprehensive analysis and numerical results of the key parameters of this ultra-wide FOV acquisition scheme, such as LTAAP, false-alarm probability, signal-to-noise ratio, incident angle of beam, scintillation index, and acquisition threshold, provide an advantageous basis for the actual spatial acquisition system.
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