Abstract

The addition of electronics, computers, and software to interferometry has enabled enormous improvements in optical metrology. This paper discusses four areas in which computerized interferometric measurement improvements have been made in the measurement of surface shape and surface roughness: (a) The use of computer-generated holograms for the testing of aspheric optics, (b) phase-shifting interferometry for getting interferometric data into a computer so the data can be analyzed, (c) computerized interference microscopes, including multiple-wavelength and coherence scanning, for the precision measurement of surface microstructure, and (d) vibration-insensitive dynamic interferometers for enabling precise measurements in noncontrolled environments.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  43. J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 264–272 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  44. M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6861–6868 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  45. N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Dynamic interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5875, 58750F (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  47. B. Kimbrough and J. Millerd, “The spatial frequency response and resolution limitations of pixelated mask spatial carrier based phase shifting interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 7790, 77900K (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

R. K. Leach, C. L. Giusca, and J. M. Coupland, “Advances in calibration methods for micro- and nanoscale surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300H (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

D. M. Sykora and P. de Groot, “Instantaneous measurement Fizeau interferometer with high spatial resolution,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 812610 (2011).

2010 (1)

B. Kimbrough and J. Millerd, “The spatial frequency response and resolution limitations of pixelated mask spatial carrier based phase shifting interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 7790, 77900K (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

F. Gao, R. K. Leach, J. Petzing, and J. M. Coupland, “Surface measurement errors using commercial scanning white light interferometers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 015303(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, J. Wyant, and J. Hayes, “Low coherence vibration insensitive Fizeau interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6292, 62920F (2006).

2005 (2)

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Dynamic interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5875, 58750F (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Pruss, S. Reichelt, H. J. Tiziani, and W. Olsen, “Computer-generated holograms in interferometric testing,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2534–2540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

Y.-C. Chang and J. H. Burge, “Error analysis for CGH optical testing,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 358–366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Suja Helen, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Achromatic phase-shifting by a rotating polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 154, 249–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

S. M. Arnold and R. Kestner, “Verification and certification of CGH aspheric nulls,” Proc. SPIE 2536, 117–126 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

T. Dresel, G. Hausler, and H. Venzke, “Three-dimensional sensing of rough surfaces by coherence radar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 919–925 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Advances in interferometric optical profiling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 32, 5–10 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. L. Koliopoulos, “Simultaneous phase-shift interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 1531, 119–128 (1991).

1987 (1)

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, and F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” Proc. SPIE 775, 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (5)

1984 (3)

1983 (2)

1982 (1)

1976 (1)

A. F. Fercher, “Computer-generated holograms for testing optical elements: error analysis and error compensation,” Opt. Acta 23, 347–365 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1974 (3)

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

1969 (2)

1966 (1)

P. Carré, “Installation et utilisation du comparateur photoelectrigue et Interferentiel du Bureau International de Poids ek Measures,” Metrologia 2, 13–23 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S. M.

S. M. Arnold and R. Kestner, “Verification and certification of CGH aspheric nulls,” Proc. SPIE 2536, 117–126 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, V. P.

Beyerlein, M.

Bhushan, B.

Brangaccio, D. J.

Brock, N.

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Dynamic interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5875, 58750F (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brock, N. J.

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bruning, J. H.

Burge, J. H.

Burow, R.

Caber, P. J.

Carré, P.

P. Carré, “Installation et utilisation du comparateur photoelectrigue et Interferentiel du Bureau International de Poids ek Measures,” Metrologia 2, 13–23 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chang and J. H. Burge, “Error analysis for CGH optical testing,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 358–366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-Y.

Cohen, F.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, and F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” Proc. SPIE 775, 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Coupland, J. M.

R. K. Leach, C. L. Giusca, and J. M. Coupland, “Advances in calibration methods for micro- and nanoscale surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300H (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Gao, R. K. Leach, J. Petzing, and J. M. Coupland, “Surface measurement errors using commercial scanning white light interferometers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 015303(2008).
[CrossRef]

Crane, R.

Creath, K.

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Advances in interferometric optical profiling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 32, 5–10 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Malacara, K. Creath, J. Schmit, and J. C. Wyant, “Testing of aspheric wavefronts and surfaces,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 477–488.

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometer and method,” U.S. patent 4,832,489 (23May1989).

Davidson, M.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, and F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” Proc. SPIE 775, 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, P.

D. M. Sykora and P. de Groot, “Instantaneous measurement Fizeau interferometer with high spatial resolution,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 812610 (2011).

Dorband, B.

Dresel, T.

Elssner, K.-E.

Feinleib, J.

J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, “Real time phase correction of optical imaging systems,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation through Turbulence, Boulder, Colorado, 9–11 July 1974.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, “Computer-generated holograms for testing optical elements: error analysis and error compensation,” Opt. Acta 23, 347–365 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, J. E.

Gao, F.

F. Gao, R. K. Leach, J. Petzing, and J. M. Coupland, “Surface measurement errors using commercial scanning white light interferometers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 015303(2008).
[CrossRef]

Giusca, C. L.

R. K. Leach, C. L. Giusca, and J. M. Coupland, “Advances in calibration methods for micro- and nanoscale surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300H (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grzanna, J.

Gu, Q.

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, “Real time phase correction of optical imaging systems,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation through Turbulence, Boulder, Colorado, 9–11 July 1974.

Hausler, G.

Hayes, J.

B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, J. Wyant, and J. Hayes, “Low coherence vibration insensitive Fizeau interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6292, 62920F (2006).

N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Dynamic interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5875, 58750F (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. B.

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D. R.

Ina, H.

Kabayashi, S.

Kaufman, K.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, and F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” Proc. SPIE 775, 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kestner, R.

S. M. Arnold and R. Kestner, “Verification and certification of CGH aspheric nulls,” Proc. SPIE 2536, 117–126 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimbrough, B.

B. Kimbrough and J. Millerd, “The spatial frequency response and resolution limitations of pixelated mask spatial carrier based phase shifting interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 7790, 77900K (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, J. Wyant, and J. Hayes, “Low coherence vibration insensitive Fizeau interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6292, 62920F (2006).

N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Dynamic interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5875, 58750F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, M.

Koliopoulos, C. L.

Kothiyal, M. P.

S. Suja Helen, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Achromatic phase-shifting by a rotating polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 154, 249–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O. Y.

Langenbeck, P. H.

Leach, R. K.

R. K. Leach, C. L. Giusca, and J. M. Coupland, “Advances in calibration methods for micro- and nanoscale surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300H (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Gao, R. K. Leach, J. Petzing, and J. M. Coupland, “Surface measurement errors using commercial scanning white light interferometers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 015303(2008).
[CrossRef]

Lindlein, N.

MacGovern, A. J.

J. C. Wyant, P. K. O’Neill, and A. J. MacGovern, “Interferometric method of measuring plotter distortion,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1549–1551 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. J. MacGovern and J. C. Wyant, “Computer generated holograms for testing optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 10, 619–624 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant and A. J. MacGovern, “Computer generated holograms for testing aspheric optical elements,” Applications de L’Holographie, Laboratoire de Physique Generale et Optique (Universite de Besancon, 1970), pp. 13–18.

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, K. Creath, J. Schmit, and J. C. Wyant, “Testing of aspheric wavefronts and surfaces,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 477–488.

Mazor, I.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, and F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” Proc. SPIE 775, 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Merkel, K.

Millerd, J.

B. Kimbrough and J. Millerd, “The spatial frequency response and resolution limitations of pixelated mask spatial carrier based phase shifting interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 7790, 77900K (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, J. Wyant, and J. Hayes, “Low coherence vibration insensitive Fizeau interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6292, 62920F (2006).

N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Dynamic interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5875, 58750F (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Millerd, J. E.

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

North-Morris, M.

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Dynamic interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5875, 58750F (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Novak, M.

N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Dynamic interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5875, 58750F (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, P. K.

Olsen, W.

C. Pruss, S. Reichelt, H. J. Tiziani, and W. Olsen, “Computer-generated holograms in interferometric testing,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2534–2540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ono, A.

Pastor, J.

Petzing, J.

F. Gao, R. K. Leach, J. Petzing, and J. M. Coupland, “Surface measurement errors using commercial scanning white light interferometers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 015303(2008).
[CrossRef]

Pilston, R.

Polster, H. D.

Pruss, C.

C. Pruss, S. Reichelt, H. J. Tiziani, and W. Olsen, “Computer-generated holograms in interferometric testing,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2534–2540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Reichelt, C. Pruss, and H. J. Tiziani, “Absolute interferometric test of aspheres by use of twin computer-generated holograms,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4468–4479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reichelt, S.

C. Pruss, S. Reichelt, H. J. Tiziani, and W. Olsen, “Computer-generated holograms in interferometric testing,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2534–2540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Reichelt, C. Pruss, and H. J. Tiziani, “Absolute interferometric test of aspheres by use of twin computer-generated holograms,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4468–4479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, D. P.

Schmit, J.

D. Malacara, K. Creath, J. Schmit, and J. C. Wyant, “Testing of aspheric wavefronts and surfaces,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 477–488.

Schwider, J.

Scott, R. M.

Sirohi, R. S.

S. Suja Helen, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Achromatic phase-shifting by a rotating polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 154, 249–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spolaczyk, R.

Steinberg, G.

Suja Helen, S.

S. Suja Helen, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Achromatic phase-shifting by a rotating polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 154, 249–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sykora, D. M.

D. M. Sykora and P. de Groot, “Instantaneous measurement Fizeau interferometer with high spatial resolution,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 812610 (2011).

Takahashi, Y.

Takai, H.

Takeda, M.

Tiziani, H. J.

Venzke, H.

White, A. D.

Womack, K. H.

K. H. Womack, “Interferometric phase measurement using spatial synchronous detection,” Proc. SPIE 429, 8–15 (1983).

Wyant, J.

B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, J. Wyant, and J. Hayes, “Low coherence vibration insensitive Fizeau interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6292, 62920F (2006).

Wyant, J. C.

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Dynamic interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5875, 58750F (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Advances in interferometric optical profiling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 32, 5–10 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, “Multiple-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 804–807 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, “Optical profilers for surface roughness,” Proc. SPIE 525, 174–180 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. Bhushan, J. C. Wyant, and C. L. Koliopoulos, “Measurement of surface topography of magnetic tapes by Mirau interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1489–1497 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Ono and J. C. Wyant, “Aspherical mirror testing using a CGH with small errors,” Appl. Opt. 24, 560–563(1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Ono and J. C. Wyant, “Plotting errors measurement of CGH using an improved interferometric method,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3905–3910 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, “Two-wavelength phase shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4539–4543 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, “Use of an ac heterodyne lateral shear interferometer with real-time wavefront correction systems,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2622–2626 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant and P. K. O’Neill, “Computer generated hologram: null lens test of aspheric wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2762–2765 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, P. K. O’Neill, and A. J. MacGovern, “Interferometric method of measuring plotter distortion,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1549–1551 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, “Double frequency grating lateral shear interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2057–2060 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant and V. P. Bennett, “Using computer generated holograms to test aspheric wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2833–2839 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. J. MacGovern and J. C. Wyant, “Computer generated holograms for testing optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 10, 619–624 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. Malacara, K. Creath, J. Schmit, and J. C. Wyant, “Testing of aspheric wavefronts and surfaces,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 477–488.

J. C. Wyant and A. J. MacGovern, “Computer generated holograms for testing aspheric optical elements,” Applications de L’Holographie, Laboratoire de Physique Generale et Optique (Universite de Besancon, 1970), pp. 13–18.

J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, “Real time phase correction of optical imaging systems,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation through Turbulence, Boulder, Colorado, 9–11 July 1974.

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometer and method,” U.S. patent 4,832,489 (23May1989).

Zhou, P.

Appl. Opt. (23)

H. D. Polster, J. Pastor, R. M. Scott, R. Crane, P. H. Langenbeck, R. Pilston, and G. Steinberg, “New developments in interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 8, 521–556 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. J. MacGovern and J. C. Wyant, “Computer generated holograms for testing optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 10, 619–624 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant and V. P. Bennett, “Using computer generated holograms to test aspheric wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2833–2839 (1972).
[CrossRef]

B. Dorband and H. J. Tiziani, “Testing aspheric surfaces with computer generated holograms: analysis of adjustment and shape errors,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2604–2611 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou and J. H. Burge, “Fabrication error analysis and experimental demonstration for computer-generated holograms,” Appl. Opt. 46, 657–663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ono and J. C. Wyant, “Plotting errors measurement of CGH using an improved interferometric method,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3905–3910 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Ono and J. C. Wyant, “Aspherical mirror testing using a CGH with small errors,” Appl. Opt. 24, 560–563(1985).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, P. K. O’Neill, and A. J. MacGovern, “Interferometric method of measuring plotter distortion,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1549–1551 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Beyerlein, N. Lindlein, and J. Schwider, “Dual-wave-front computer-generated holograms for quasi-absolute testing of aspherics,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2440–2447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Reichelt, C. Pruss, and H. J. Tiziani, “Absolute interferometric test of aspheres by use of twin computer-generated holograms,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4468–4479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Crane, “Interference phase measurement,” Appl. Opt. 8, 538–542 (1969).

J. C. Wyant, “Double frequency grating lateral shear interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2057–2060 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Bruning, D. R. Herriott, J. E. Gallagher, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, and D. J. Brangaccio, “Digital wavefront measuring interferometer for testing optical surfaces and lenses,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2693–2703 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, “Use of an ac heterodyne lateral shear interferometer with real-time wavefront correction systems,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2622–2626 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, and K. Merkel, “Digital wave-front measuring interferometry: some systematic error sources,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3421–3432 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant and P. K. O’Neill, “Computer generated hologram: null lens test of aspheric wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2762–2765 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. Bhushan, J. C. Wyant, and C. L. Koliopoulos, “Measurement of surface topography of magnetic tapes by Mirau interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1489–1497 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, “Two-wavelength phase shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4539–4543 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, “Multiple-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 804–807 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Dresel, G. Hausler, and H. Venzke, “Three-dimensional sensing of rough surfaces by coherence radar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 919–925 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Caber, “An interferometric profiler for rough surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3438–3441 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Takeda, Q. Gu, M. Kinoshita, H. Takai, and Y. Takahashi, “Frequency-multiplex Fourier-transform profilometry: a single shot three-dimensional shape measurement of objects with large height discontinuities and/or surface isolations,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5347–5354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. (1)

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Advances in interferometric optical profiling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 32, 5–10 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

F. Gao, R. K. Leach, J. Petzing, and J. M. Coupland, “Surface measurement errors using commercial scanning white light interferometers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 015303(2008).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

P. Carré, “Installation et utilisation du comparateur photoelectrigue et Interferentiel du Bureau International de Poids ek Measures,” Metrologia 2, 13–23 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

A. F. Fercher, “Computer-generated holograms for testing optical elements: error analysis and error compensation,” Opt. Acta 23, 347–365 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Suja Helen, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Achromatic phase-shifting by a rotating polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 154, 249–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Pruss, S. Reichelt, H. J. Tiziani, and W. Olsen, “Computer-generated holograms in interferometric testing,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2534–2540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (13)

C. L. Koliopoulos, “Simultaneous phase-shift interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 1531, 119–128 (1991).

K. H. Womack, “Interferometric phase measurement using spatial synchronous detection,” Proc. SPIE 429, 8–15 (1983).

R. K. Leach, C. L. Giusca, and J. M. Coupland, “Advances in calibration methods for micro- and nanoscale surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 8430, 84300H (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, “Optical profilers for surface roughness,” Proc. SPIE 525, 174–180 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, and F. Cohen, “An application of interference microscopy to integrated circuit inspection and metrology,” Proc. SPIE 775, 233–247 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Arnold and R. Kestner, “Verification and certification of CGH aspheric nulls,” Proc. SPIE 2536, 117–126 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chang and J. H. Burge, “Error analysis for CGH optical testing,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 358–366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Kimbrough and J. Millerd, “The spatial frequency response and resolution limitations of pixelated mask spatial carrier based phase shifting interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 7790, 77900K (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Sykora and P. de Groot, “Instantaneous measurement Fizeau interferometer with high spatial resolution,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 812610 (2011).

B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, J. Wyant, and J. Hayes, “Low coherence vibration insensitive Fizeau interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6292, 62920F (2006).

N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Dynamic interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5875, 58750F (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, “Real time phase correction of optical imaging systems,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation through Turbulence, Boulder, Colorado, 9–11 July 1974.

J. Schwider, “Interferometric tests for aspherics,” in Fabrication and Testing of Aspheres, M. Taylor, M Piscotty, and A. Lindquist, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper T3.

D. Malacara, K. Creath, J. Schmit, and J. C. Wyant, “Testing of aspheric wavefronts and surfaces,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 477–488.

J. C. Wyant and A. J. MacGovern, “Computer generated holograms for testing aspheric optical elements,” Applications de L’Holographie, Laboratoire de Physique Generale et Optique (Universite de Besancon, 1970), pp. 13–18.

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometer and method,” U.S. patent 4,832,489 (23May1989).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Typical CGH.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Laser-based Fizeau interferometer with CGH for testing an aspheric surface.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Computerized interference microscope.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Use polarizer as phase shifter. (b) Array of oriented micropolarizers. (c) SEM of patterned polarizers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Twyman–Green interferometer with pixelated polarizer array phase shifting.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Surface vibrating at frequency of 408 Hz.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Testing glass sample in transmission or testing each surface in reflection.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Interference fringes obtain testing a thin glass plate.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ W ( x , y ) = λ ε ( x , y ) S ( x , y ) ,
I ( x , y ) = I dc + I ac cos [ ϕ ( x , y ) + α ( t ) ] ,
I 1 ( x , y ) = I dc + I ac cos [ ϕ ( x , y ) ] if ϕ ( t ) = 0
I 2 ( x , y ) = I dc I ac sin [ ϕ ( x , y ) ] if ϕ ( t ) = π 2
I 3 ( x , y ) = I dc I ac cos [ ϕ ( x , y ) ] if ϕ ( t ) = π
I 4 ( x , y ) = I dc + I ac sin [ ϕ ( x , y ) ] if ϕ ( t ) = 3 π 2
tan [ ϕ ( x , y ) ] = I 4 ( x , y ) I 2 ( x , y ) I 1 ( x , y ) I 3 ( x , y ) .
h ( x , y ) = λ 4 π ϕ ( x , y ) ,
phase λ 2 phase λ 1 = 2 π ( 1 λ 2 1 λ 1 ) OPD = 2 π λ eq OPD , where λ eq = λ 2 λ 1 Abs [ λ 2 λ 1 ] .

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