Abstract

This work characterizes holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLC) composite material based on a new monomer, urethane trimethacrylate, by fabricating switchable diffraction grating. The highest diffraction efficiency achieved was 90.3%. Details of the fabrication and preliminary results of electro-optical switching of the HPDLC diffraction gratings are presented and discussed based on the functionality of the monomer. These experimental results are explained by means of morphological scanning electron microscopy analyses.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Serbutoviwz, J. G. Kloosterboer, H. M. Boots, and F. J. Touwslager, “Polymerization-induced phase separation. 2. Morphology of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal thin films,” Macromolecules 29, 7690–7698 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. J. E. Mark, A. Eisenberg, W. W. Graessley, L. Mandelkern, and J. L. Koenig, Physical Properties of Polymers (American Chemical Society, 1984).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

V. K. S. Hsiao, and W. T. Chang, “Optically switchable, polarization-independent holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 539–546 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 11, 024021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. Duran, S. Meng, N. Kim, J. Hu, T. Kyu, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Kinetics of photopolymerization-induced phase separation and morphology development in mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal and multi-functional acrylate,” Polymer 49, 534–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals: Materials, formation, and applications,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2008, 684349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Polymerization kinetics and monomer functionality effects in thiolene polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs),” Macromolecules 40, 1112–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Beev, L. Criante, D. E. Lucchetta, F. Simoni, and S. Sainov, “Recording of evanescent waves in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 8, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

2003 (4)

M. DeSarkar, N. L. Gill, J. B. Whitehead, and G. P. Crawford, “Effect of monomer functionality on the morphology and performance of the holographic transmission grating recorded on polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Macromolecules 36, 630–638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, V. K. S. Hsiao, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “Tunable two-photon pumped lasing using a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal grating as a distributed feedback element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2733–2735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal/photopolymer mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 5216, 34–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, “Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186–1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Jazbinsek, I. Drevensek-Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, “Characterization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831–3837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Fiske, L. D. Silverstein, J. Colegrove, and H. Yuan, “H-PDLC color separation device for image capture systems,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 31, 1134–1137 (2000).

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Monomer functionality effects in the anisotropic phase separation of liquid crystals,” Polymer 41, 733–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. K. Fontecchio, C. C. Bowley, and G. P. Crawford, “Improvement in holographically-formed polymer dispersed liquid crystal performance through acrylated monomer functionality studies,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 36–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Y. Fuh, T. C. Ko, M. S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L. C. Chien, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. L. Colvin, R. G. Larson, A. L. Harris, and M. L. Schilling, “Quantitative model of volume hologram formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5913–5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Serbutoviwz, J. G. Kloosterboer, H. M. Boots, and F. J. Touwslager, “Polymerization-induced phase separation. 2. Morphology of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal thin films,” Macromolecules 29, 7690–7698 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ashmead, A. C.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asquini, R.

Beev, K.

K. Beev, L. Criante, D. E. Lucchetta, F. Simoni, and S. Sainov, “Recording of evanescent waves in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 8, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boots, H. M.

C. Serbutoviwz, J. G. Kloosterboer, H. M. Boots, and F. J. Touwslager, “Polymerization-induced phase separation. 2. Morphology of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal thin films,” Macromolecules 29, 7690–7698 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bowley, C. C.

A. K. Fontecchio, C. C. Bowley, and G. P. Crawford, “Improvement in holographically-formed polymer dispersed liquid crystal performance through acrylated monomer functionality studies,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 36–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

H. Duran, S. Meng, N. Kim, J. Hu, T. Kyu, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Kinetics of photopolymerization-induced phase separation and morphology development in mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal and multi-functional acrylate,” Polymer 49, 534–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Polymerization kinetics and monomer functionality effects in thiolene polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs),” Macromolecules 40, 1112–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal/photopolymer mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 5216, 34–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, V. K. S. Hsiao, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “Tunable two-photon pumped lasing using a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal grating as a distributed feedback element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2733–2735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Monomer functionality effects in the anisotropic phase separation of liquid crystals,” Polymer 41, 733–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

Cartwright, A. N.

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, V. K. S. Hsiao, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “Tunable two-photon pumped lasing using a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal grating as a distributed feedback element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2733–2735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Castagna, R.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 11, 024021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. T.

V. K. S. Hsiao, and W. T. Chang, “Optically switchable, polarization-independent holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 539–546 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L. C.

A. Y. Fuh, T. C. Ko, M. S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L. C. Chien, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, “Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186–1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Colegrove, J.

G. Fiske, L. D. Silverstein, J. Colegrove, and H. Yuan, “H-PDLC color separation device for image capture systems,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 31, 1134–1137 (2000).

Colvin, V. L.

V. L. Colvin, R. G. Larson, A. L. Harris, and M. L. Schilling, “Quantitative model of volume hologram formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5913–5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

M. DeSarkar, N. L. Gill, J. B. Whitehead, and G. P. Crawford, “Effect of monomer functionality on the morphology and performance of the holographic transmission grating recorded on polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Macromolecules 36, 630–638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Jazbinsek, I. Drevensek-Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, “Characterization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831–3837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Fontecchio, C. C. Bowley, and G. P. Crawford, “Improvement in holographically-formed polymer dispersed liquid crystal performance through acrylated monomer functionality studies,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 36–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Criante, L.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 11, 024021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Beev, L. Criante, D. E. Lucchetta, F. Simoni, and S. Sainov, “Recording of evanescent waves in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 8, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

d’Alessandro, A.

De Sio, L.

DeSarkar, M.

M. DeSarkar, N. L. Gill, J. B. Whitehead, and G. P. Crawford, “Effect of monomer functionality on the morphology and performance of the holographic transmission grating recorded on polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Macromolecules 36, 630–638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Domash, L. H.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Drazic, P. S.

P. S. Drazic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, 1995).

Drevensek-Olenik, I.

M. Jazbinsek, I. Drevensek-Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, “Characterization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831–3837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duran, H.

H. Duran, S. Meng, N. Kim, J. Hu, T. Kyu, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Kinetics of photopolymerization-induced phase separation and morphology development in mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal and multi-functional acrylate,” Polymer 49, 534–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eisenberg, A.

J. E. Mark, A. Eisenberg, W. W. Graessley, L. Mandelkern, and J. L. Koenig, Physical Properties of Polymers (American Chemical Society, 1984).

Fiske, G.

G. Fiske, L. D. Silverstein, J. Colegrove, and H. Yuan, “H-PDLC color separation device for image capture systems,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 31, 1134–1137 (2000).

Fontecchio, A. K.

M. Jazbinsek, I. Drevensek-Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, “Characterization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831–3837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Fontecchio, C. C. Bowley, and G. P. Crawford, “Improvement in holographically-formed polymer dispersed liquid crystal performance through acrylated monomer functionality studies,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 36–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.

A. Y. Fuh, T. C. Ko, M. S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L. C. Chien, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gill, N. L.

M. DeSarkar, N. L. Gill, J. B. Whitehead, and G. P. Crawford, “Effect of monomer functionality on the morphology and performance of the holographic transmission grating recorded on polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Macromolecules 36, 630–638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gizzi, C.

Graessley, W. W.

J. E. Mark, A. Eisenberg, W. W. Graessley, L. Mandelkern, and J. L. Koenig, Physical Properties of Polymers (American Chemical Society, 1984).

Guymon, C. A.

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Polymerization kinetics and monomer functionality effects in thiolene polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs),” Macromolecules 40, 1112–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harris, A. L.

V. L. Colvin, R. G. Larson, A. L. Harris, and M. L. Schilling, “Quantitative model of volume hologram formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5913–5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, V. K. S. Hsiao, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “Tunable two-photon pumped lasing using a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal grating as a distributed feedback element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2733–2735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, M. E.

M. S. Malcuit, M. E. Holmes, and M. A. Rodriguez, “Characterization of PDLC holographic gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2002), pp. 395–396.

Hsiao, V. K. S.

V. K. S. Hsiao, and W. T. Chang, “Optically switchable, polarization-independent holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 539–546 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, V. K. S. Hsiao, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “Tunable two-photon pumped lasing using a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal grating as a distributed feedback element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2733–2735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

H. Duran, S. Meng, N. Kim, J. Hu, T. Kyu, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Kinetics of photopolymerization-induced phase separation and morphology development in mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal and multi-functional acrylate,” Polymer 49, 534–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. Y.

A. Y. Fuh, T. C. Ko, M. S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L. C. Chien, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jakubiak, R.

R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, V. K. S. Hsiao, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “Tunable two-photon pumped lasing using a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal grating as a distributed feedback element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2733–2735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jazbinsek, M.

M. Jazbinsek, I. Drevensek-Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, “Characterization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831–3837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N.

H. Duran, S. Meng, N. Kim, J. Hu, T. Kyu, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Kinetics of photopolymerization-induced phase separation and morphology development in mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal and multi-functional acrylate,” Polymer 49, 534–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kloosterboer, J. G.

C. Serbutoviwz, J. G. Kloosterboer, H. M. Boots, and F. J. Touwslager, “Polymerization-induced phase separation. 2. Morphology of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal thin films,” Macromolecules 29, 7690–7698 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klosterman, J.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. C.

A. Y. Fuh, T. C. Ko, M. S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L. C. Chien, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, J. L.

J. E. Mark, A. Eisenberg, W. W. Graessley, L. Mandelkern, and J. L. Koenig, Physical Properties of Polymers (American Chemical Society, 1984).

Kyu, T.

H. Duran, S. Meng, N. Kim, J. Hu, T. Kyu, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Kinetics of photopolymerization-induced phase separation and morphology development in mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal and multi-functional acrylate,” Polymer 49, 534–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Larson, R. G.

V. L. Colvin, R. G. Larson, A. L. Harris, and M. L. Schilling, “Quantitative model of volume hologram formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5913–5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. C.

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, V. K. S. Hsiao, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “Tunable two-photon pumped lasing using a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal grating as a distributed feedback element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2733–2735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals: Materials, formation, and applications,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2008, 684349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lucchetta, D. E.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 11, 024021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Beev, L. Criante, D. E. Lucchetta, F. Simoni, and S. Sainov, “Recording of evanescent waves in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 8, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malcuit, M. S.

M. S. Malcuit, M. E. Holmes, and M. A. Rodriguez, “Characterization of PDLC holographic gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2002), pp. 395–396.

Mandelkern, L.

J. E. Mark, A. Eisenberg, W. W. Graessley, L. Mandelkern, and J. L. Koenig, Physical Properties of Polymers (American Chemical Society, 1984).

Mark, J. E.

J. E. Mark, A. Eisenberg, W. W. Graessley, L. Mandelkern, and J. L. Koenig, Physical Properties of Polymers (American Chemical Society, 1984).

Mazzulla, A.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, “Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186–1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meng, S.

H. Duran, S. Meng, N. Kim, J. Hu, T. Kyu, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Kinetics of photopolymerization-induced phase separation and morphology development in mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal and multi-functional acrylate,” Polymer 49, 534–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

H. Duran, S. Meng, N. Kim, J. Hu, T. Kyu, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Kinetics of photopolymerization-induced phase separation and morphology development in mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal and multi-functional acrylate,” Polymer 49, 534–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Polymerization kinetics and monomer functionality effects in thiolene polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs),” Macromolecules 40, 1112–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, V. K. S. Hsiao, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “Tunable two-photon pumped lasing using a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal grating as a distributed feedback element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2733–2735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal/photopolymer mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 5216, 34–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Monomer functionality effects in the anisotropic phase separation of liquid crystals,” Polymer 41, 733–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, R. T.

R. T. Pogue, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Monomer functionality effects in the anisotropic phase separation of liquid crystals,” Polymer 41, 733–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Popovich, M. M.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, V. K. S. Hsiao, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “Tunable two-photon pumped lasing using a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal grating as a distributed feedback element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2733–2735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, R. A.

Rodriguez, M. A.

M. S. Malcuit, M. E. Holmes, and M. A. Rodriguez, “Characterization of PDLC holographic gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2002), pp. 395–396.

Russo, G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, “Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186–1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sainov, S.

K. Beev, L. Criante, D. E. Lucchetta, F. Simoni, and S. Sainov, “Recording of evanescent waves in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 8, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M. L.

V. L. Colvin, R. G. Larson, A. L. Harris, and M. L. Schilling, “Quantitative model of volume hologram formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5913–5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Serbutoviwz, C.

C. Serbutoviwz, J. G. Kloosterboer, H. M. Boots, and F. J. Touwslager, “Polymerization-induced phase separation. 2. Morphology of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal thin films,” Macromolecules 29, 7690–7698 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S. C.

Silverstein, L. D.

G. Fiske, L. D. Silverstein, J. Colegrove, and H. Yuan, “H-PDLC color separation device for image capture systems,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 31, 1134–1137 (2000).

Simoni, F.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 11, 024021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Beev, L. Criante, D. E. Lucchetta, F. Simoni, and S. Sainov, “Recording of evanescent waves in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 8, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siwecki, S. A.

R. T. Pogue, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Monomer functionality effects in the anisotropic phase separation of liquid crystals,” Polymer 41, 733–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. T.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Storey, J.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

Sun, X. W.

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals: Materials, formation, and applications,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2008, 684349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal/photopolymer mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 5216, 34–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Monomer functionality effects in the anisotropic phase separation of liquid crystals,” Polymer 41, 733–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

H. Duran, S. Meng, N. Kim, J. Hu, T. Kyu, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Kinetics of photopolymerization-induced phase separation and morphology development in mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal and multi-functional acrylate,” Polymer 49, 534–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Polymerization kinetics and monomer functionality effects in thiolene polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs),” Macromolecules 40, 1112–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, V. K. S. Hsiao, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “Tunable two-photon pumped lasing using a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal grating as a distributed feedback element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2733–2735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal/photopolymer mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 5216, 34–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Monomer functionality effects in the anisotropic phase separation of liquid crystals,” Polymer 41, 733–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Touwslager, F. J.

C. Serbutoviwz, J. G. Kloosterboer, H. M. Boots, and F. J. Touwslager, “Polymerization-induced phase separation. 2. Morphology of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal thin films,” Macromolecules 29, 7690–7698 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. S.

A. Y. Fuh, T. C. Ko, M. S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L. C. Chien, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, O.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

Urbas, A.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaia, R. A.

R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, V. K. S. Hsiao, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “Tunable two-photon pumped lasing using a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal grating as a distributed feedback element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2733–2735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veltri, A.

Vita, F.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 11, 024021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, T. J.

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Polymerization kinetics and monomer functionality effects in thiolene polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs),” Macromolecules 40, 1112–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, J. B.

M. DeSarkar, N. L. Gill, J. B. Whitehead, and G. P. Crawford, “Effect of monomer functionality on the morphology and performance of the holographic transmission grating recorded on polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Macromolecules 36, 630–638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H.

G. Fiske, L. D. Silverstein, J. Colegrove, and H. Yuan, “H-PDLC color separation device for image capture systems,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 31, 1134–1137 (2000).

Zgonik, M.

M. Jazbinsek, I. Drevensek-Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, “Characterization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831–3837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable Bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1453–1456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Jakubiak, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, L. V. Natarajan, and V. P. Tondiglia, “Electrically switchable, one-dimensional polymeric resonators from holographic photopolymerization: a new approach for active photonic bandgap materials,” Adv. Mater. 15, 241–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Optoelectron. (1)

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals: Materials, formation, and applications,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2008, 684349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. K. S. Hsiao, and W. T. Chang, “Optically switchable, polarization-independent holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 539–546 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, “Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186–1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, V. K. S. Hsiao, A. N. Cartwright, P. N. Prasad, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, and T. J. Bunning, “Tunable two-photon pumped lasing using a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal grating as a distributed feedback element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2733–2735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

A. Y. Fuh, T. C. Ko, M. S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L. C. Chien, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Jazbinsek, I. Drevensek-Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, “Characterization of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3831–3837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Colvin, R. G. Larson, A. L. Harris, and M. L. Schilling, “Quantitative model of volume hologram formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5913–5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (2)

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 11, 024021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Beev, L. Criante, D. E. Lucchetta, F. Simoni, and S. Sainov, “Recording of evanescent waves in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Opt. A 8, 205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (3)

T. J. White, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and C. A. Guymon, “Polymerization kinetics and monomer functionality effects in thiolene polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs),” Macromolecules 40, 1112–1120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. DeSarkar, N. L. Gill, J. B. Whitehead, and G. P. Crawford, “Effect of monomer functionality on the morphology and performance of the holographic transmission grating recorded on polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Macromolecules 36, 630–638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Serbutoviwz, J. G. Kloosterboer, H. M. Boots, and F. J. Touwslager, “Polymerization-induced phase separation. 2. Morphology of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal thin films,” Macromolecules 29, 7690–7698 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Polymer (2)

H. Duran, S. Meng, N. Kim, J. Hu, T. Kyu, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Kinetics of photopolymerization-induced phase separation and morphology development in mixtures of a nematic liquid crystal and multi-functional acrylate,” Polymer 49, 534–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Monomer functionality effects in the anisotropic phase separation of liquid crystals,” Polymer 41, 733–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

A. K. Fontecchio, C. C. Bowley, and G. P. Crawford, “Improvement in holographically-formed polymer dispersed liquid crystal performance through acrylated monomer functionality studies,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 36–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal/photopolymer mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 5216, 34–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, “Holographic PDLC for photonic applications,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 46–58 (2000).
[CrossRef]

SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (1)

G. Fiske, L. D. Silverstein, J. Colegrove, and H. Yuan, “H-PDLC color separation device for image capture systems,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 31, 1134–1137 (2000).

Other (3)

P. S. Drazic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, 1995).

M. S. Malcuit, M. E. Holmes, and M. A. Rodriguez, “Characterization of PDLC holographic gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2002), pp. 395–396.

J. E. Mark, A. Eisenberg, W. W. Graessley, L. Mandelkern, and J. L. Koenig, Physical Properties of Polymers (American Chemical Society, 1984).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Chemical structures of the components of the PDLC mixtures.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effect of irradiation power on diffraction efficiency of HPDLC-A grating.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) SEM micrographs of HPDLC-A, (b) HPDLC-B, and (c) HPDLC-C.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Diffraction efficiency as a function of applied voltage for HPDLC-A, B, and C.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dynamic measurement of diffraction intensity of the switchable HPDLC transmission gratings corresponding to the on-off switching voltage 27 V, 11.6 V, and 11.6 V for HPDLC-A, HPDLC-B, and HPDLC-C, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Effect of probe angular polarization on diffraction efficiency of (a) HPDLC-A, (b) HPDLC-B, and (c) HPDLC-C gratings.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Zero and first-order diffracted He-Ne probe beam. (b) Reconstructed image of a photomask in first-order diffracted beam, obtained using CCD.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specifications of Samples

Tables Icon

Table 2. Switching Parameters of HPDLC Films for Different Samples

Equations (1)

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Vthdr[K(21)ε0Δε]1/2,

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