Abstract

An end-to-end sensor simulation is a proper tool for the prediction of the sensor’s performance over a range of conditions that cannot be easily measured. In this study, such a tool has been developed that enables the assessment of the optimum spectral resolution configuration of a sensor based on key applications. It employs the spectral molecular absorption and scattering properties of materials that are used for the identification and determination of the abundances of surface and atmospheric constituents and their interdependence on spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio as a basis for the detailed design and consolidation of spectral bands for the future Sentinel-2 sensor. The developed tools allow the computation of synthetic Sentinel-2 spectra that form the frame for the subsequent twofold analysis of bands in the atmospheric absorption and window regions. One part of the study comprises the assessment of optimal spatial and spectral resolution configurations for those bands used for atmospheric correction, optimized with regard to the retrieval of aerosols, water vapor, and the detection of cirrus clouds. The second part of the study presents the optimization of thematic bands, mainly driven by the spectral characteristics of vegetation constituents and minerals. The investigation is performed for different wavelength ranges because most remote sensing applications require the use of specific band combinations rather than single bands. The results from the important “red-edge” and the “short-wave infrared” domains are presented. The recommended optimum spectral design predominantly confirms the sensor parameters given by the European Space Agency. The system is capable of retrieving atmospheric and geobiophysical parameters with enhanced quality compared to existing multispectral sensors. Minor spectral changes of single bands are discussed in the context of typical remote sensing applications, supplemented by the recommendation of a few new bands for the next generation of optical Sentinel sensors.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. B.-C. Gao, P. Yang, W. Han, R.-R. Li, and W. J. Wiscombe, “An algorithm using visible and 1.38 μm channels to retrieve cirrus cloud reflectances from aircraft and satellite data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1659–1668 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Boochs, G. Kufer, G. Docker, and W. Kuhbauch, “Shape of the red edge as vitality indicator for plants,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1741–1753 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. R. Miller, Wu Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. N. H. Horler, J. Barber, J. P. Darch, D. C. Ferns, and A. R. Barringer, “Approaches to detection of geochemical stress in vegetation,” Adv. Space Res. 3, 175–179 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. G. P. W. Clevers and C. Buker, “Feasibility of the red edge index for the detection of nitrogen deficiency,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Colloquium, Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (1991), pp. 165–168.
  29. N. K. Patel, C. Patnaik, S. Dutta, A. M. Shekh, and A. J. Dave, “Study of crop growth parameters using airborne imaging spectrometer data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 2401–2411 (2001).
  30. S. Jacquemoud, W. Verhoef, F. Baret, C. Bacour, P. J. Zarco-Tejada, G. P. Asner, C. François, and S. L. Ustin, “PROSPECT+SAIL models: a review of use for vegetation characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S56–S66 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. B. Féret, C. François, G. P. Asner, A. A. Gitelson, R. E. Martin, L. P. R. Bidel, S. L. Ustin, G. le Maire, and S. Jacquemoud, “PROSPECT-4 and 5: advances in the leaf optical properties model separating photosynthetic pigments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3030–3043 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Jacquemoud, S. L. Ustin, J. Verdebout, G. Schmuck, G. Andreoli, and B. Hosgood, “Estimating leaf biochemistry using the PROSPECT leaf optical properties model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 194–202 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. Verhoef, “Light scattering by leaf layers with application to canopy reflectance modeling: the SAIL model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 16, 125–141 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. R. Miller, E. W. Hare, and J. Wu, “Quantitative characterization of vegetation red edge reflectance: an inverted-Gaussian reflectance model,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1744–1773 (1990).
  35. J. R. Miller, W. Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  36. P. Ceccato, N. Gobron, S. Flasse, B. Pinty, and S. Tarantola, “Designing a spectral index to estimate vegetation water content from remote sensing data: Part 1: theoretical approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 188–197 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010

K. Segl, L. Guanter, and H. Kaufmann, “Simulation of spatial sensor characteristics in the context of the EnMAP hyperspectral mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 48, 3046–3054 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. Guanter, K. Segl, and H. Kaufmann, “Simulation of optical remote sensing scenes with application to the EnMAP hyperspectral mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 2340–2351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Jacquemoud, W. Verhoef, F. Baret, C. Bacour, P. J. Zarco-Tejada, G. P. Asner, C. François, and S. L. Ustin, “PROSPECT+SAIL models: a review of use for vegetation characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S56–S66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. B. Féret, C. François, G. P. Asner, A. A. Gitelson, R. E. Martin, L. P. R. Bidel, S. L. Ustin, G. le Maire, and S. Jacquemoud, “PROSPECT-4 and 5: advances in the leaf optical properties model separating photosynthetic pigments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3030–3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Santer, D. Ramon, J. Vidot, and E. Dilligeard, “A surface reflectance model for aerosol remote sensing over land,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 737–760 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. P. Kerekes and J. E. Baum, “Full-spectrum spectral imaging system analytical model,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 571–580 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. Verhoef and H. Bach, “Simulation of hyperspectral and directional radiance images using coupled biophysical and atmospheric radiative transfer models,” Remote Sens. Environ. 87, 23–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Ceccato, N. Gobron, S. Flasse, B. Pinty, and S. Tarantola, “Designing a spectral index to estimate vegetation water content from remote sensing data: Part 1: theoretical approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 188–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Gao, P. Yang, W. Han, R.-R. Li, and W. J. Wiscombe, “An algorithm using visible and 1.38 μm channels to retrieve cirrus cloud reflectances from aircraft and satellite data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1659–1668 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. K. Patel, C. Patnaik, S. Dutta, A. M. Shekh, and A. J. Dave, “Study of crop growth parameters using airborne imaging spectrometer data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 2401–2411 (2001).

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogram. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. J. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Schläpfer, C. C. Borel, J. Keller, and K. I. Itten, “Atmospheric precorrected differential absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 353–366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B.-C. Gao, R.-R. Li, and L. Flynn, “The MODIS 2.1 μm channel—correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286–1298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Liang, H. Fallah-Adl, S. Kalluri, J. Jaja, Y. J. Kaufman, and J. R. G. Townshend, “An operational atmospheric correction algorithm for Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery over the land,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17173–17186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Jacquemoud, S. L. Ustin, J. Verdebout, G. Schmuck, G. Andreoli, and B. Hosgood, “Estimating leaf biochemistry using the PROSPECT leaf optical properties model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 194–202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Berger and H. Kaufmann, “MOMS-02—D2/STS-55 Mission—validation of spectral and panchromatic modules,” Geo-Informationssysteme 8/2, 21–31 (1995).

1993

B.-C. Gao, A. F. H. Goetz, and W. J. Wiscombe, “Cirrus cloud detection from airborne imaging spectrometer data using the 1.38 μm water vapor band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 301–304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Carrere and J. E. Conel, “Recovery of atmospheric water vapor total column abundance from imaging spectrometer data around 940 nm—Sensitivity analysis and applications to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 179–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

Y. J. Kaufman and D. Tanre, “Atmospherically resistant vegetation index (ARVI) for EOS-MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 261–270 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Schueler and L. Woody, “Digital electro-optical imaging sensors,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 4, 170–200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. R. Miller, Wu Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Miller, W. Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. R. Miller, E. W. Hare, and J. Wu, “Quantitative characterization of vegetation red edge reflectance: an inverted-Gaussian reflectance model,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1744–1773 (1990).

F. Boochs, G. Kufer, G. Docker, and W. Kuhbauch, “Shape of the red edge as vitality indicator for plants,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1741–1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, P. Y. Deschamp, and P. Lecomte, “Determination from space of atmospheric total water vapor amounts by differential absorption near 940 nm: theory and airborne verification,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 448–460 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. Kaufmann, D. Meißner, J. Bodechtel, and F.-J. Behr, “Design of spectral and panchromatic bands for the German MOMS-02 sensor,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 55, 875–881 (1989).

1988

Y. J. Kaufman and C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 1357–1381 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

W. Verhoef, “Light scattering by leaf layers with application to canopy reflectance modeling: the SAIL model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 16, 125–141 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

D. N. H. Horler, J. Barber, J. P. Darch, D. C. Ferns, and A. R. Barringer, “Approaches to detection of geochemical stress in vegetation,” Adv. Space Res. 3, 175–179 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, P. K.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. J. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, M. Hoke, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN4 Version 3 revision 1 User’s Manual (Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2003).

Adler-Golden, S. M.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. J. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, M. Hoke, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN4 Version 3 revision 1 User’s Manual (Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2003).

Anderson, G. P.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. J. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, M. Hoke, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN4 Version 3 revision 1 User’s Manual (Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2003).

Andreoli, G.

S. Jacquemoud, S. L. Ustin, J. Verdebout, G. Schmuck, G. Andreoli, and B. Hosgood, “Estimating leaf biochemistry using the PROSPECT leaf optical properties model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 194–202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asner, G. P.

S. Jacquemoud, W. Verhoef, F. Baret, C. Bacour, P. J. Zarco-Tejada, G. P. Asner, C. François, and S. L. Ustin, “PROSPECT+SAIL models: a review of use for vegetation characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S56–S66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Féret, C. François, G. P. Asner, A. A. Gitelson, R. E. Martin, L. P. R. Bidel, S. L. Ustin, G. le Maire, and S. Jacquemoud, “PROSPECT-4 and 5: advances in the leaf optical properties model separating photosynthetic pigments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3030–3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bach, H.

W. Verhoef and H. Bach, “Simulation of hyperspectral and directional radiance images using coupled biophysical and atmospheric radiative transfer models,” Remote Sens. Environ. 87, 23–41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bacour, C.

S. Jacquemoud, W. Verhoef, F. Baret, C. Bacour, P. J. Zarco-Tejada, G. P. Asner, C. François, and S. L. Ustin, “PROSPECT+SAIL models: a review of use for vegetation characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S56–S66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barber, J.

D. N. H. Horler, J. Barber, J. P. Darch, D. C. Ferns, and A. R. Barringer, “Approaches to detection of geochemical stress in vegetation,” Adv. Space Res. 3, 175–179 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Baret, F.

S. Jacquemoud, W. Verhoef, F. Baret, C. Bacour, P. J. Zarco-Tejada, G. P. Asner, C. François, and S. L. Ustin, “PROSPECT+SAIL models: a review of use for vegetation characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S56–S66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barringer, A. R.

D. N. H. Horler, J. Barber, J. P. Darch, D. C. Ferns, and A. R. Barringer, “Approaches to detection of geochemical stress in vegetation,” Adv. Space Res. 3, 175–179 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Baum, J. E.

J. P. Kerekes and J. E. Baum, “Full-spectrum spectral imaging system analytical model,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 571–580 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Behr, F.-J.

H. Kaufmann, D. Meißner, J. Bodechtel, and F.-J. Behr, “Design of spectral and panchromatic bands for the German MOMS-02 sensor,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 55, 875–881 (1989).

Belanger, M.

J. R. Miller, W. Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Miller, Wu Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berger, M.

M. Berger and H. Kaufmann, “MOMS-02—D2/STS-55 Mission—validation of spectral and panchromatic modules,” Geo-Informationssysteme 8/2, 21–31 (1995).

Berk, A.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. J. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, M. Hoke, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN4 Version 3 revision 1 User’s Manual (Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2003).

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. J. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, M. Hoke, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN4 Version 3 revision 1 User’s Manual (Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2003).

Bidel, L. P. R.

J. B. Féret, C. François, G. P. Asner, A. A. Gitelson, R. E. Martin, L. P. R. Bidel, S. L. Ustin, G. le Maire, and S. Jacquemoud, “PROSPECT-4 and 5: advances in the leaf optical properties model separating photosynthetic pigments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3030–3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bodechtel, J.

H. Kaufmann, D. Meißner, J. Bodechtel, and F.-J. Behr, “Design of spectral and panchromatic bands for the German MOMS-02 sensor,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 55, 875–881 (1989).

Boochs, F.

F. Boochs, G. Kufer, G. Docker, and W. Kuhbauch, “Shape of the red edge as vitality indicator for plants,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1741–1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Borel, C. C.

D. Schläpfer, C. C. Borel, J. Keller, and K. I. Itten, “Atmospheric precorrected differential absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 353–366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Börner, A.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogram. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, M. G.

J. R. Miller, W. Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Miller, Wu Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Breon, F. M.

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buker, C.

J. G. P. W. Clevers and C. Buker, “Feasibility of the red edge index for the detection of nitrogen deficiency,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Colloquium, Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (1991), pp. 165–168.

Carrere, V.

V. Carrere and J. E. Conel, “Recovery of atmospheric water vapor total column abundance from imaging spectrometer data around 940 nm—Sensitivity analysis and applications to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 179–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ceccato, P.

P. Ceccato, N. Gobron, S. Flasse, B. Pinty, and S. Tarantola, “Designing a spectral index to estimate vegetation water content from remote sensing data: Part 1: theoretical approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 188–197 (2002).
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, M. Hoke, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN4 Version 3 revision 1 User’s Manual (Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2003).

Chetwynd, J. J.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. J. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367–375 (1998).
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J. G. P. W. Clevers and C. Buker, “Feasibility of the red edge index for the detection of nitrogen deficiency,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Colloquium, Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (1991), pp. 165–168.

Conel, J. E.

V. Carrere and J. E. Conel, “Recovery of atmospheric water vapor total column abundance from imaging spectrometer data around 940 nm—Sensitivity analysis and applications to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 179–204 (1993).
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Darch, J. P.

D. N. H. Horler, J. Barber, J. P. Darch, D. C. Ferns, and A. R. Barringer, “Approaches to detection of geochemical stress in vegetation,” Adv. Space Res. 3, 175–179 (1983).
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Dave, A. J.

N. K. Patel, C. Patnaik, S. Dutta, A. M. Shekh, and A. J. Dave, “Study of crop growth parameters using airborne imaging spectrometer data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 2401–2411 (2001).

Deschamp, P. Y.

R. Frouin, P. Y. Deschamp, and P. Lecomte, “Determination from space of atmospheric total water vapor amounts by differential absorption near 940 nm: theory and airborne verification,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 448–460 (1990).
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Deuze, J. L.

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001).
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Devaux, C.

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dilligeard, E.

R. Santer, D. Ramon, J. Vidot, and E. Dilligeard, “A surface reflectance model for aerosol remote sensing over land,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 737–760 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Docker, G.

F. Boochs, G. Kufer, G. Docker, and W. Kuhbauch, “Shape of the red edge as vitality indicator for plants,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1741–1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, S.

N. K. Patel, C. Patnaik, S. Dutta, A. M. Shekh, and A. J. Dave, “Study of crop growth parameters using airborne imaging spectrometer data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 2401–2411 (2001).

Fallah-Adl, H.

S. Liang, H. Fallah-Adl, S. Kalluri, J. Jaja, Y. J. Kaufman, and J. R. G. Townshend, “An operational atmospheric correction algorithm for Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery over the land,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17173–17186 (1997).
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Féret, J. B.

J. B. Féret, C. François, G. P. Asner, A. A. Gitelson, R. E. Martin, L. P. R. Bidel, S. L. Ustin, G. le Maire, and S. Jacquemoud, “PROSPECT-4 and 5: advances in the leaf optical properties model separating photosynthetic pigments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3030–3043 (2008).
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Ferns, D. C.

D. N. H. Horler, J. Barber, J. P. Darch, D. C. Ferns, and A. R. Barringer, “Approaches to detection of geochemical stress in vegetation,” Adv. Space Res. 3, 175–179 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Flasse, S.

P. Ceccato, N. Gobron, S. Flasse, B. Pinty, and S. Tarantola, “Designing a spectral index to estimate vegetation water content from remote sensing data: Part 1: theoretical approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 188–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, L.

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B.-C. Gao, R.-R. Li, and L. Flynn, “The MODIS 2.1 μm channel—correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286–1298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

François, C.

S. Jacquemoud, W. Verhoef, F. Baret, C. Bacour, P. J. Zarco-Tejada, G. P. Asner, C. François, and S. L. Ustin, “PROSPECT+SAIL models: a review of use for vegetation characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S56–S66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Féret, C. François, G. P. Asner, A. A. Gitelson, R. E. Martin, L. P. R. Bidel, S. L. Ustin, G. le Maire, and S. Jacquemoud, “PROSPECT-4 and 5: advances in the leaf optical properties model separating photosynthetic pigments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3030–3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

R. Frouin, P. Y. Deschamp, and P. Lecomte, “Determination from space of atmospheric total water vapor amounts by differential absorption near 940 nm: theory and airborne verification,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 448–460 (1990).
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Gao, B.-C.

B.-C. Gao, P. Yang, W. Han, R.-R. Li, and W. J. Wiscombe, “An algorithm using visible and 1.38 μm channels to retrieve cirrus cloud reflectances from aircraft and satellite data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1659–1668 (2002).
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Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B.-C. Gao, R.-R. Li, and L. Flynn, “The MODIS 2.1 μm channel—correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286–1298 (1997).
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B.-C. Gao, A. F. H. Goetz, and W. J. Wiscombe, “Cirrus cloud detection from airborne imaging spectrometer data using the 1.38 μm water vapor band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 301–304 (1993).
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Gitelson, A. A.

J. B. Féret, C. François, G. P. Asner, A. A. Gitelson, R. E. Martin, L. P. R. Bidel, S. L. Ustin, G. le Maire, and S. Jacquemoud, “PROSPECT-4 and 5: advances in the leaf optical properties model separating photosynthetic pigments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3030–3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gobron, N.

P. Ceccato, N. Gobron, S. Flasse, B. Pinty, and S. Tarantola, “Designing a spectral index to estimate vegetation water content from remote sensing data: Part 1: theoretical approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 188–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, A. F. H.

B.-C. Gao, A. F. H. Goetz, and W. J. Wiscombe, “Cirrus cloud detection from airborne imaging spectrometer data using the 1.38 μm water vapor band,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 301–304 (1993).
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Goloub, P.

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guanter, L.

K. Segl, L. Guanter, and H. Kaufmann, “Simulation of spatial sensor characteristics in the context of the EnMAP hyperspectral mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 48, 3046–3054 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Guanter, K. Segl, and H. Kaufmann, “Simulation of optical remote sensing scenes with application to the EnMAP hyperspectral mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 2340–2351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.

B.-C. Gao, P. Yang, W. Han, R.-R. Li, and W. J. Wiscombe, “An algorithm using visible and 1.38 μm channels to retrieve cirrus cloud reflectances from aircraft and satellite data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1659–1668 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hare, E. W.

J. R. Miller, Wu Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Miller, W. Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Miller, E. W. Hare, and J. Wu, “Quantitative characterization of vegetation red edge reflectance: an inverted-Gaussian reflectance model,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1744–1773 (1990).

Herman, M.

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hoke, M.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, M. Hoke, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN4 Version 3 revision 1 User’s Manual (Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2003).

Horler, D. N. H.

D. N. H. Horler, J. Barber, J. P. Darch, D. C. Ferns, and A. R. Barringer, “Approaches to detection of geochemical stress in vegetation,” Adv. Space Res. 3, 175–179 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hosgood, B.

S. Jacquemoud, S. L. Ustin, J. Verdebout, G. Schmuck, G. Andreoli, and B. Hosgood, “Estimating leaf biochemistry using the PROSPECT leaf optical properties model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 194–202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Itten, K. I.

D. Schläpfer, C. C. Borel, J. Keller, and K. I. Itten, “Atmospheric precorrected differential absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 353–366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemoud, S.

S. Jacquemoud, W. Verhoef, F. Baret, C. Bacour, P. J. Zarco-Tejada, G. P. Asner, C. François, and S. L. Ustin, “PROSPECT+SAIL models: a review of use for vegetation characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S56–S66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Féret, C. François, G. P. Asner, A. A. Gitelson, R. E. Martin, L. P. R. Bidel, S. L. Ustin, G. le Maire, and S. Jacquemoud, “PROSPECT-4 and 5: advances in the leaf optical properties model separating photosynthetic pigments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3030–3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jacquemoud, S. L. Ustin, J. Verdebout, G. Schmuck, G. Andreoli, and B. Hosgood, “Estimating leaf biochemistry using the PROSPECT leaf optical properties model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 194–202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jaja, J.

S. Liang, H. Fallah-Adl, S. Kalluri, J. Jaja, Y. J. Kaufman, and J. R. G. Townshend, “An operational atmospheric correction algorithm for Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery over the land,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17173–17186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiyou, W.

J. R. Miller, W. Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jiyou, Wu

J. R. Miller, Wu Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kalluri, S.

S. Liang, H. Fallah-Adl, S. Kalluri, J. Jaja, Y. J. Kaufman, and J. R. G. Townshend, “An operational atmospheric correction algorithm for Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery over the land,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17173–17186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

S. Liang, H. Fallah-Adl, S. Kalluri, J. Jaja, Y. J. Kaufman, and J. R. G. Townshend, “An operational atmospheric correction algorithm for Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery over the land,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17173–17186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B.-C. Gao, R.-R. Li, and L. Flynn, “The MODIS 2.1 μm channel—correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286–1298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman and D. Tanre, “Atmospherically resistant vegetation index (ARVI) for EOS-MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 261–270 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman and C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 1357–1381 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, H.

K. Segl, L. Guanter, and H. Kaufmann, “Simulation of spatial sensor characteristics in the context of the EnMAP hyperspectral mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 48, 3046–3054 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Guanter, K. Segl, and H. Kaufmann, “Simulation of optical remote sensing scenes with application to the EnMAP hyperspectral mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 2340–2351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Berger and H. Kaufmann, “MOMS-02—D2/STS-55 Mission—validation of spectral and panchromatic modules,” Geo-Informationssysteme 8/2, 21–31 (1995).

H. Kaufmann, D. Meißner, J. Bodechtel, and F.-J. Behr, “Design of spectral and panchromatic bands for the German MOMS-02 sensor,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 55, 875–881 (1989).

K. Segl, H. Kaufmann, and R. Richter, “Study for the consolidation of the Sentinel-2 spectral, radiometric and spatial resolution requirements,” ESA contract 19962/06/NL/E (2006).

Keller, J.

D. Schläpfer, C. C. Borel, J. Keller, and K. I. Itten, “Atmospheric precorrected differential absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 353–366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keller, P.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogram. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
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J. P. Kerekes and J. E. Baum, “Full-spectrum spectral imaging system analytical model,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 571–580 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kufer, G.

F. Boochs, G. Kufer, G. Docker, and W. Kuhbauch, “Shape of the red edge as vitality indicator for plants,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1741–1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kuhbauch, W.

F. Boochs, G. Kufer, G. Docker, and W. Kuhbauch, “Shape of the red edge as vitality indicator for plants,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1741–1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lafrance, B.

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

le Maire, G.

J. B. Féret, C. François, G. P. Asner, A. A. Gitelson, R. E. Martin, L. P. R. Bidel, S. L. Ustin, G. le Maire, and S. Jacquemoud, “PROSPECT-4 and 5: advances in the leaf optical properties model separating photosynthetic pigments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3030–3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, P.

R. Frouin, P. Y. Deschamp, and P. Lecomte, “Determination from space of atmospheric total water vapor amounts by differential absorption near 940 nm: theory and airborne verification,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 448–460 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.-R.

B.-C. Gao, P. Yang, W. Han, R.-R. Li, and W. J. Wiscombe, “An algorithm using visible and 1.38 μm channels to retrieve cirrus cloud reflectances from aircraft and satellite data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1659–1668 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B.-C. Gao, R.-R. Li, and L. Flynn, “The MODIS 2.1 μm channel—correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286–1298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liang, S.

S. Liang, H. Fallah-Adl, S. Kalluri, J. Jaja, Y. J. Kaufman, and J. R. G. Townshend, “An operational atmospheric correction algorithm for Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery over the land,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17173–17186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maignan, F.

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, A.

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. E.

J. B. Féret, C. François, G. P. Asner, A. A. Gitelson, R. E. Martin, L. P. R. Bidel, S. L. Ustin, G. le Maire, and S. Jacquemoud, “PROSPECT-4 and 5: advances in the leaf optical properties model separating photosynthetic pigments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3030–3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matthew, M. W.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, M. Hoke, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN4 Version 3 revision 1 User’s Manual (Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2003).

Meißner, D.

H. Kaufmann, D. Meißner, J. Bodechtel, and F.-J. Behr, “Design of spectral and panchromatic bands for the German MOMS-02 sensor,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sens. 55, 875–881 (1989).

Miller, J. R.

J. R. Miller, W. Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Miller, Wu Jiyou, M. G. Boyer, M. Belanger, and E. W. Hare, “Seasonal patterns in leaf reflectance red edge characteristics,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 1509–1523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Miller, E. W. Hare, and J. Wu, “Quantitative characterization of vegetation red edge reflectance: an inverted-Gaussian reflectance model,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 11, 1744–1773 (1990).

Nadal, F.

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N. K.

N. K. Patel, C. Patnaik, S. Dutta, A. M. Shekh, and A. J. Dave, “Study of crop growth parameters using airborne imaging spectrometer data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 2401–2411 (2001).

Patnaik, C.

N. K. Patel, C. Patnaik, S. Dutta, A. M. Shekh, and A. J. Dave, “Study of crop growth parameters using airborne imaging spectrometer data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 2401–2411 (2001).

Perry, G.

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pinty, B.

P. Ceccato, N. Gobron, S. Flasse, B. Pinty, and S. Tarantola, “Designing a spectral index to estimate vegetation water content from remote sensing data: Part 1: theoretical approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 188–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramon, D.

R. Santer, D. Ramon, J. Vidot, and E. Dilligeard, “A surface reflectance model for aerosol remote sensing over land,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 737–760 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Remer, L. A.

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B.-C. Gao, R.-R. Li, and L. Flynn, “The MODIS 2.1 μm channel—correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286–1298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reulke, R.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogram. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richter, R.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogram. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Richter, “Sentinel-2 MSI—Level 2A Products Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document”—Volume B (ATCOR), ESA contract 21450/08/I-EC (2010).

K. Segl, H. Kaufmann, and R. Richter, “Study for the consolidation of the Sentinel-2 spectral, radiometric and spatial resolution requirements,” ESA contract 19962/06/NL/E (2006).

Robertson, D. C.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. J. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

R. Santer, D. Ramon, J. Vidot, and E. Dilligeard, “A surface reflectance model for aerosol remote sensing over land,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 737–760 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schaepman, M.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogram. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schläpfer, D.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogram. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Schläpfer, C. C. Borel, J. Keller, and K. I. Itten, “Atmospheric precorrected differential absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 353–366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmuck, G.

S. Jacquemoud, S. L. Ustin, J. Verdebout, G. Schmuck, G. Andreoli, and B. Hosgood, “Estimating leaf biochemistry using the PROSPECT leaf optical properties model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 56, 194–202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schueler, C.

C. Schueler and L. Woody, “Digital electro-optical imaging sensors,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 4, 170–200 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Segl, K.

K. Segl, L. Guanter, and H. Kaufmann, “Simulation of spatial sensor characteristics in the context of the EnMAP hyperspectral mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 48, 3046–3054 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Guanter, K. Segl, and H. Kaufmann, “Simulation of optical remote sensing scenes with application to the EnMAP hyperspectral mission,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 2340–2351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Segl, H. Kaufmann, and R. Richter, “Study for the consolidation of the Sentinel-2 spectral, radiometric and spatial resolution requirements,” ESA contract 19962/06/NL/E (2006).

Sendra, C.

Y. J. Kaufman and C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 1357–1381 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shekh, A. M.

N. K. Patel, C. Patnaik, S. Dutta, A. M. Shekh, and A. J. Dave, “Study of crop growth parameters using airborne imaging spectrometer data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 2401–2411 (2001).

Shettle, E. P.

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N. K. Patel, C. Patnaik, S. Dutta, A. M. Shekh, and A. J. Dave, “Study of crop growth parameters using airborne imaging spectrometer data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 2401–2411 (2001).

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. B. Féret, C. François, G. P. Asner, A. A. Gitelson, R. E. Martin, L. P. R. Bidel, S. L. Ustin, G. le Maire, and S. Jacquemoud, “PROSPECT-4 and 5: advances in the leaf optical properties model separating photosynthetic pigments,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3030–3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of the simulation flow.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Band 1, spectral response function of Sentinel-2 (solid curve) and modeled function (dashed curve).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Atmospheric transmittance (top), canopy reflectance (bottom), and water vapor band configurations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

TOA radiance as a function of channel position and bandwidth (1, 10, 20, 30 nm: no symbol, diamond, triangle, square, respectively).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Surface reflectance error as a function of ozone column for ρ = 0.05 and 0.15, assuming an atmosphere with 330 DU (shaded areas: Sentinel-2 bands B1 to B5).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Inverted-Gaussian reflectance model.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Correlation plot depicting the dependency between chlorophyll a + b content and wavelength of the inflection point (IGRM).

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Preliminary Set of 13 Spectral Bands of Sentinel-2 (from Mission Requirements Document and System Requirements Document)

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameter Ranges for Band Centers ( λ C ) and Bandwidth ( Δ λ )

Tables Icon

Table 3. Results of Optimized Chlorophyll Retrieval Using the IGRM

Tables Icon

Table 4. Spectral Sensitivity Analysis of Band 4

Tables Icon

Table 5. Spectral Sensitivity Analysis of Band 11 (GVMI)

Tables Icon

Table 6. Spectral Sensitivity Analysis of Band 12 (SAM)

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X e = 6 Δ λ = FWHM R k ( λ ) = X 0 + X s * e | 2 ( λ λ C ) α Δ λ | X e X 0 = 0.0001 λ c = Center X S = 0.8999 α = 1.06299 .
ρ ( λ ) = ρ Max ( ρ Max ρ Min ) * e ( λ λ Min ) 2 2 σ 2 .
GVMI = ( NIR + 0.1 ) ( SWIR + 0.02 ) ( NIR + 0.1 ) + ( SWIR + 0.02 ) .

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