Abstract

Indium tin oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymeric films are widely used as substrates for future optoelectronic devices, such as organic LEDs, organic thin film transistors, and organic solar cells. These PET substrates are thin, flexible, and rugged. But residual stresses are trapped in polymeric substrates due to their manufacturing process, and this leads to the birefringence in flexible displays. In this paper we report the measurement of the change in refractive index of PET substrates using Mach–Zehnder interferometry and the Fourier transform fringe analysis technique. Change in refractive index was observed by means of bending the PET substrate. This change in birefringence varies the optical path difference between the two arms of the interferometer, leading to the fringe shift. From the fringe shift the phase change was extracted as a function of bending, and the change in the refractive index was determined experimentally for two wavelengths, i.e., red and green color lasers. We found that the value of change in the refractive index of these substrates increases on bending of the substrates.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2009 (1)

T. A. El-Dessouki, N. I. Hendawy, and A. A. Zaki, “Measuring birefringence of curved sheet and single crystals by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 622–628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Stchakovsky, C. Caillaud, M. Foldyna, R. Ossikovski, and E. G. Caurel, “Polarimetric characterization of optically anisotropic flexible substrates,” Thin Solid Films 516, 1414–1418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. R. Cairns and G. P. Crawford, “Electromechanical properties of transparent conducting substrates for flexible electronic displays,” Proc. IEEE 93, 1451–1458 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Shabana and A. A. Jaleel, “Optical properties of highly birefringent polymer films using simple techniques,” Int. J. Polym. Mater. 54, 1009–1018 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Aernouts, P. Vanlaeke, W. Geens, J. Poortmans, P. Heremans, S. Borghs, R. Mertens, R. Andriessen, and L. Leenders, “Printable anodes for flexible organic solar cell modules,” Thin Solid Films 451, 22–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, D. R. Cairns, and G. P. Crawford, “Optical-strain characteristics of anisotropic polymer films fabricated from a liquid crystal diacrylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2386–2390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

B. L. Van Horn and H. H. Winter, “Conoscopic measurement of birefringence and orientation in biaxially stretched polymer films and sheets,” Macromolecules 36, 8513–8521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Medhat, N. I. Hendawy, and A. A. Zaki, “Fringes of equal tangential inclination by curvature-induced birefringence,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35, 31–35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. J. Lee and K.-H. Lee, “Fabrication of flexible field emitter arrays of carbon nanotubes using self-assembly monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3770–3772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Noda, H. Sato, H. Itaya, and M. Yamada, “Characterization of Sn-doped In2O3 film on roll-to-roll flexible plastic substrate prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 217–222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Kim, S. K. Jeung, J. S. Ahn, Y. J. Kang, and C. K. Je, “Electrical and optical properties of In2O3–ZnO films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 223–227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853–3855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Russo, “An alternative method for the determination of the birefringence in stretched polymeric films,” Polym. Testing 20, 283–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Daly, K. Nguyen, B. Sanschagrin, and K. Cole, “The build-up and measurement of molecular orientation, crystalline morphology, and residual stresses in injection molded parts: a review,” J. Injection Molding Technol. 2, 59–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Takeda, “Spatial-carrier fringe-pattern analysis and its applications to precision interferometry and profilometry: an overview,” Ind. Metrol. 1, 79–99 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Aernouts, T.

T. Aernouts, P. Vanlaeke, W. Geens, J. Poortmans, P. Heremans, S. Borghs, R. Mertens, R. Andriessen, and L. Leenders, “Printable anodes for flexible organic solar cell modules,” Thin Solid Films 451, 22–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J. S.

H. M. Kim, S. K. Jeung, J. S. Ahn, Y. J. Kang, and C. K. Je, “Electrical and optical properties of In2O3–ZnO films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 223–227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andriessen, R.

T. Aernouts, P. Vanlaeke, W. Geens, J. Poortmans, P. Heremans, S. Borghs, R. Mertens, R. Andriessen, and L. Leenders, “Printable anodes for flexible organic solar cell modules,” Thin Solid Films 451, 22–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bodnar, V. H.

J. L. West, V. H. Bodnar, Y. Kim, and H. Wonderly, “Multi-color, cholesteric displays using plastic substrates,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 1999), pp. 335–338.

Borghs, S.

T. Aernouts, P. Vanlaeke, W. Geens, J. Poortmans, P. Heremans, S. Borghs, R. Mertens, R. Andriessen, and L. Leenders, “Printable anodes for flexible organic solar cell modules,” Thin Solid Films 451, 22–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. J.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Caillaud, C.

M. Stchakovsky, C. Caillaud, M. Foldyna, R. Ossikovski, and E. G. Caurel, “Polarimetric characterization of optically anisotropic flexible substrates,” Thin Solid Films 516, 1414–1418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, D. R.

D. R. Cairns and G. P. Crawford, “Electromechanical properties of transparent conducting substrates for flexible electronic displays,” Proc. IEEE 93, 1451–1458 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, D. R. Cairns, and G. P. Crawford, “Optical-strain characteristics of anisotropic polymer films fabricated from a liquid crystal diacrylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2386–2390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campi, J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Caurel, E. G.

M. Stchakovsky, C. Caillaud, M. Foldyna, R. Ossikovski, and E. G. Caurel, “Polarimetric characterization of optically anisotropic flexible substrates,” Thin Solid Films 516, 1414–1418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-C.

Chu, X.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chwang, A. B.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cole, K.

H. Daly, K. Nguyen, B. Sanschagrin, and K. Cole, “The build-up and measurement of molecular orientation, crystalline morphology, and residual stresses in injection molded parts: a review,” J. Injection Molding Technol. 2, 59–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

D. R. Cairns and G. P. Crawford, “Electromechanical properties of transparent conducting substrates for flexible electronic displays,” Proc. IEEE 93, 1451–1458 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, D. R. Cairns, and G. P. Crawford, “Optical-strain characteristics of anisotropic polymer films fabricated from a liquid crystal diacrylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2386–2390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Crawford, Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005).

Daly, H.

H. Daly, K. Nguyen, B. Sanschagrin, and K. Cole, “The build-up and measurement of molecular orientation, crystalline morphology, and residual stresses in injection molded parts: a review,” J. Injection Molding Technol. 2, 59–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

El-Dessouki, T. A.

T. A. El-Dessouki, N. I. Hendawy, and A. A. Zaki, “Measuring birefringence of curved sheet and single crystals by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 622–628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M. J.

M. J. Escuti, D. R. Cairns, and G. P. Crawford, “Optical-strain characteristics of anisotropic polymer films fabricated from a liquid crystal diacrylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2386–2390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foldyna, M.

M. Stchakovsky, C. Caillaud, M. Foldyna, R. Ossikovski, and E. G. Caurel, “Polarimetric characterization of optically anisotropic flexible substrates,” Thin Solid Films 516, 1414–1418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Francl, J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H.

Gardner, T. J.

T. J. Gardner and R. P. Wenz, “STN alignment on rib-spaced plastic LCD substrate,” in Society for Information Display 1995 Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 1995), Vol. 16, pp. 695–698.

Geens, W.

T. Aernouts, P. Vanlaeke, W. Geens, J. Poortmans, P. Heremans, S. Borghs, R. Mertens, R. Andriessen, and L. Leenders, “Printable anodes for flexible organic solar cell modules,” Thin Solid Films 451, 22–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, L. R.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greening, B. K.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gundlack, D. J.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guy, J. W.

C. A. Wedding, J. W. Guy, O. M. Strbik, D. K. Wedding, R. P. Wenzlaff, and W. W. Olsen, “Flexible AC plasma displays using plasma spheres,” in Society for Information Display Digest of Technical Papers Vol. 35 (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 815–818.

Hack, M.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, M. S.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hendawy, N. I.

T. A. El-Dessouki, N. I. Hendawy, and A. A. Zaki, “Measuring birefringence of curved sheet and single crystals by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 622–628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Medhat, N. I. Hendawy, and A. A. Zaki, “Fringes of equal tangential inclination by curvature-induced birefringence,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35, 31–35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heremans, P.

T. Aernouts, P. Vanlaeke, W. Geens, J. Poortmans, P. Heremans, S. Borghs, R. Mertens, R. Andriessen, and L. Leenders, “Printable anodes for flexible organic solar cell modules,” Thin Solid Films 451, 22–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hewitt, R. H.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hill, I. G.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. R.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.-T.

Itaya, H.

K. Noda, H. Sato, H. Itaya, and M. Yamada, “Characterization of Sn-doped In2O3 film on roll-to-roll flexible plastic substrate prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 217–222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, T. N.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jaleel, A. A.

H. M. Shabana and A. A. Jaleel, “Optical properties of highly birefringent polymer films using simple techniques,” Int. J. Polym. Mater. 54, 1009–1018 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Je, C. K.

H. M. Kim, S. K. Jeung, J. S. Ahn, Y. J. Kang, and C. K. Je, “Electrical and optical properties of In2O3–ZnO films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 223–227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeung, S. K.

H. M. Kim, S. K. Jeung, J. S. Ahn, Y. J. Kang, and C. K. Je, “Electrical and optical properties of In2O3–ZnO films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 223–227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kane, M. G.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y. J.

H. M. Kim, S. K. Jeung, J. S. Ahn, Y. J. Kang, and C. K. Je, “Electrical and optical properties of In2O3–ZnO films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 223–227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. M.

H. M. Kim, S. K. Jeung, J. S. Ahn, Y. J. Kang, and C. K. Je, “Electrical and optical properties of In2O3–ZnO films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 223–227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

J. L. West, V. H. Bodnar, Y. Kim, and H. Wonderly, “Multi-color, cholesteric displays using plastic substrates,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 1999), pp. 335–338.

Krajewski, T.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krasnov, A. N.

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853–3855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-H.

O. J. Lee and K.-H. Lee, “Fabrication of flexible field emitter arrays of carbon nanotubes using self-assembly monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3770–3772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, O. J.

O. J. Lee and K.-H. Lee, “Fabrication of flexible field emitter arrays of carbon nanotubes using self-assembly monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3770–3772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leenders, L.

T. Aernouts, P. Vanlaeke, W. Geens, J. Poortmans, P. Heremans, S. Borghs, R. Mertens, R. Andriessen, and L. Leenders, “Printable anodes for flexible organic solar cell modules,” Thin Solid Films 451, 22–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y.-M.

Mansuripur, M.

Mao, S. Y.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Medhat, M.

M. Medhat, N. I. Hendawy, and A. A. Zaki, “Fringes of equal tangential inclination by curvature-induced birefringence,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35, 31–35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mertens, R.

T. Aernouts, P. Vanlaeke, W. Geens, J. Poortmans, P. Heremans, S. Borghs, R. Mertens, R. Andriessen, and L. Leenders, “Printable anodes for flexible organic solar cell modules,” Thin Solid Films 451, 22–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moro, L.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nevitt, T. J.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, K.

H. Daly, K. Nguyen, B. Sanschagrin, and K. Cole, “The build-up and measurement of molecular orientation, crystalline morphology, and residual stresses in injection molded parts: a review,” J. Injection Molding Technol. 2, 59–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Noda, K.

K. Noda, H. Sato, H. Itaya, and M. Yamada, “Characterization of Sn-doped In2O3 film on roll-to-roll flexible plastic substrate prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 217–222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, W. W.

C. A. Wedding, J. W. Guy, O. M. Strbik, D. K. Wedding, R. P. Wenzlaff, and W. W. Olsen, “Flexible AC plasma displays using plasma spheres,” in Society for Information Display Digest of Technical Papers Vol. 35 (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 815–818.

Ossikovski, R.

M. Stchakovsky, C. Caillaud, M. Foldyna, R. Ossikovski, and E. G. Caurel, “Polarimetric characterization of optically anisotropic flexible substrates,” Thin Solid Films 516, 1414–1418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ouderkirk, A. J.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poortmans, J.

T. Aernouts, P. Vanlaeke, W. Geens, J. Poortmans, P. Heremans, S. Borghs, R. Mertens, R. Andriessen, and L. Leenders, “Printable anodes for flexible organic solar cell modules,” Thin Solid Films 451, 22–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rajan, K.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, M. A.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R.

R. Russo, “An alternative method for the determination of the birefringence in stretched polymeric films,” Polym. Testing 20, 283–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rutherford, N.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanschagrin, B.

H. Daly, K. Nguyen, B. Sanschagrin, and K. Cole, “The build-up and measurement of molecular orientation, crystalline morphology, and residual stresses in injection molded parts: a review,” J. Injection Molding Technol. 2, 59–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

K. Noda, H. Sato, H. Itaya, and M. Yamada, “Characterization of Sn-doped In2O3 film on roll-to-roll flexible plastic substrate prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 217–222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shabana, H. M.

H. M. Shabana and A. A. Jaleel, “Optical properties of highly birefringent polymer films using simple techniques,” Int. J. Polym. Mater. 54, 1009–1018 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheraw, C. D.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Silvernail, J. A.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stchakovsky, M.

M. Stchakovsky, C. Caillaud, M. Foldyna, R. Ossikovski, and E. G. Caurel, “Polarimetric characterization of optically anisotropic flexible substrates,” Thin Solid Films 516, 1414–1418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stover, C. A.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strbik, O. M.

C. A. Wedding, J. W. Guy, O. M. Strbik, D. K. Wedding, R. P. Wenzlaff, and W. W. Olsen, “Flexible AC plasma displays using plasma spheres,” in Society for Information Display Digest of Technical Papers Vol. 35 (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 815–818.

Suematsu, M.

Takeda, M.

M. Suematsu, and M. Takeda, “Wavelength-shift interferometry for distance measurements using the Fourier transform technique for fringe analysis,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4046–4055(1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Takeda, “Spatial-carrier fringe-pattern analysis and its applications to precision interferometry and profilometry: an overview,” Ind. Metrol. 1, 79–99 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Title, A. M.

Van Horn, B. L.

B. L. Van Horn and H. H. Winter, “Conoscopic measurement of birefringence and orientation in biaxially stretched polymer films and sheets,” Macromolecules 36, 8513–8521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vanlaeke, P.

T. Aernouts, P. Vanlaeke, W. Geens, J. Poortmans, P. Heremans, S. Borghs, R. Mertens, R. Andriessen, and L. Leenders, “Printable anodes for flexible organic solar cell modules,” Thin Solid Films 451, 22–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, M. S.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. F.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wedding, C. A.

C. A. Wedding, J. W. Guy, O. M. Strbik, D. K. Wedding, R. P. Wenzlaff, and W. W. Olsen, “Flexible AC plasma displays using plasma spheres,” in Society for Information Display Digest of Technical Papers Vol. 35 (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 815–818.

Wedding, D. K.

C. A. Wedding, J. W. Guy, O. M. Strbik, D. K. Wedding, R. P. Wenzlaff, and W. W. Olsen, “Flexible AC plasma displays using plasma spheres,” in Society for Information Display Digest of Technical Papers Vol. 35 (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 815–818.

Wenz, R. P.

T. J. Gardner and R. P. Wenz, “STN alignment on rib-spaced plastic LCD substrate,” in Society for Information Display 1995 Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 1995), Vol. 16, pp. 695–698.

Wenzlaff, R. P.

C. A. Wedding, J. W. Guy, O. M. Strbik, D. K. Wedding, R. P. Wenzlaff, and W. W. Olsen, “Flexible AC plasma displays using plasma spheres,” in Society for Information Display Digest of Technical Papers Vol. 35 (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 815–818.

West, J. L.

J. L. West, V. H. Bodnar, Y. Kim, and H. Wonderly, “Multi-color, cholesteric displays using plastic substrates,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 1999), pp. 335–338.

West, J. W.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winter, H. H.

B. L. Van Horn and H. H. Winter, “Conoscopic measurement of birefringence and orientation in biaxially stretched polymer films and sheets,” Macromolecules 36, 8513–8521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wonderly, H.

J. L. West, V. H. Bodnar, Y. Kim, and H. Wonderly, “Multi-color, cholesteric displays using plastic substrates,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 1999), pp. 335–338.

Yamada, M.

K. Noda, H. Sato, H. Itaya, and M. Yamada, “Characterization of Sn-doped In2O3 film on roll-to-roll flexible plastic substrate prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 217–222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Z.

Zaki, A. A.

T. A. El-Dessouki, N. I. Hendawy, and A. A. Zaki, “Measuring birefringence of curved sheet and single crystals by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 622–628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Medhat, N. I. Hendawy, and A. A. Zaki, “Fringes of equal tangential inclination by curvature-induced birefringence,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35, 31–35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. D. Sheraw, L. Zhou, J. R. Huang, D. J. Gundlack, T. N. Jackson, M. G. Kane, I. G. Hill, M. S. Hammond, J. Campi, B. K. Greening, J. Francl, and J. W. West, “Organic thin-film transistor-driven polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1088–1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853–3855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 413–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. J. Lee and K.-H. Lee, “Fabrication of flexible field emitter arrays of carbon nanotubes using self-assembly monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3770–3772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Metrol. (1)

M. Takeda, “Spatial-carrier fringe-pattern analysis and its applications to precision interferometry and profilometry: an overview,” Ind. Metrol. 1, 79–99 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Polym. Mater. (1)

H. M. Shabana and A. A. Jaleel, “Optical properties of highly birefringent polymer films using simple techniques,” Int. J. Polym. Mater. 54, 1009–1018 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. J. Escuti, D. R. Cairns, and G. P. Crawford, “Optical-strain characteristics of anisotropic polymer films fabricated from a liquid crystal diacrylate,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2386–2390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Injection Molding Technol. (1)

H. Daly, K. Nguyen, B. Sanschagrin, and K. Cole, “The build-up and measurement of molecular orientation, crystalline morphology, and residual stresses in injection molded parts: a review,” J. Injection Molding Technol. 2, 59–85 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Noda, H. Sato, H. Itaya, and M. Yamada, “Characterization of Sn-doped In2O3 film on roll-to-roll flexible plastic substrate prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 217–222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Kim, S. K. Jeung, J. S. Ahn, Y. J. Kang, and C. K. Je, “Electrical and optical properties of In2O3–ZnO films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 223–227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

B. L. Van Horn and H. H. Winter, “Conoscopic measurement of birefringence and orientation in biaxially stretched polymer films and sheets,” Macromolecules 36, 8513–8521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

M. Medhat, N. I. Hendawy, and A. A. Zaki, “Fringes of equal tangential inclination by curvature-induced birefringence,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35, 31–35 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

T. A. El-Dessouki, N. I. Hendawy, and A. A. Zaki, “Measuring birefringence of curved sheet and single crystals by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 622–628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Testing (1)

R. Russo, “An alternative method for the determination of the birefringence in stretched polymeric films,” Polym. Testing 20, 283–286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. R. Cairns and G. P. Crawford, “Electromechanical properties of transparent conducting substrates for flexible electronic displays,” Proc. IEEE 93, 1451–1458 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

T. Aernouts, P. Vanlaeke, W. Geens, J. Poortmans, P. Heremans, S. Borghs, R. Mertens, R. Andriessen, and L. Leenders, “Printable anodes for flexible organic solar cell modules,” Thin Solid Films 451, 22–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stchakovsky, C. Caillaud, M. Foldyna, R. Ossikovski, and E. G. Caurel, “Polarimetric characterization of optically anisotropic flexible substrates,” Thin Solid Films 516, 1414–1418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. A. Wedding, J. W. Guy, O. M. Strbik, D. K. Wedding, R. P. Wenzlaff, and W. W. Olsen, “Flexible AC plasma displays using plasma spheres,” in Society for Information Display Digest of Technical Papers Vol. 35 (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 815–818.

T. J. Gardner and R. P. Wenz, “STN alignment on rib-spaced plastic LCD substrate,” in Society for Information Display 1995 Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 1995), Vol. 16, pp. 695–698.

J. L. West, V. H. Bodnar, Y. Kim, and H. Wonderly, “Multi-color, cholesteric displays using plastic substrates,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 1999), pp. 335–338.

G. P. Crawford, Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the bending of the ITO/PET substrate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the ITO/PET substrate in bending form, illuminated by the collimated monochromatic (red or green) light.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer used for the study of the ITO/PET substrate.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical interferograms recorded for different amounts of bending of the ITO/PET substrate using the setup shown in Fig. 3 for dual wavelengths.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Object interferograms; (e) reference interferograms; (b), (f) Fourier spectra; (c), (g) wrapped phase maps; (d), (h) unwrapped phase maps.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Phase difference of unwrapped phase maps shown in Figs. 5(d) and 5(h) and (b) 2D change in refractive index calculated from phase difference.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Interferograms for wavelength λ1=532nm (a) without bending and (b)–(d) with gradually increasing bending; (e)–(h) the corresponding wrapped phase maps for the recorded interferograms (a)–(d); (i)–(k) the phase differences for the unwrapped phase maps with respect to the reference interferograms; (l)–(n) the changes in refractive index corresponding to the phase differences shown in (i)–(k).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Interferograms for wavelength λ1=632.8nm: (a) without bending and (b)–(d) with gradually increasing bending; (e)–(h) the corresponding wrapped phase maps for the recorded interferograms (a)–(h); (i)–(k) the phase differences for the unwrapped phase maps with respect to the reference interferograms; (l)–(n) the changes in refractive index corresponding to the phase differences shown in (i)–(k).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Graph of the change in induced birefringence by the bending curvature versus the reciprocal of the radius of curvature for the red and green wavelengths.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Change in Refractive Index by Applied Bending to ITO/PET Substrate for Dual Wavelength

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(x,y)=IR(x,y)+IO(x,y)+2IR(x,y)·IO(x,y)cos(ϕ0(x,y)),
h(x,y)=a(x,y)+b(x,y)cos[2πf(x,y)+ϕ(x,y)],
g(x,y)=a(x,y)+c(x,y)exp(2πif0)+c(x,y)exp*(2πif0),
c(x,y)=12b(x,y)exp[iϕ(x,y)],
H(fx,y)=A(fx,y)+C(fxf0,y)+C*[(fx+f0),y],
ϕ(x,y)=tan1{Im[C(x,y)]Re[C(x,y)]}.
Δϕ(x,y)=2πλiOPD=2πλi[Δn(x,y)d(x,y)],
Δn(x,y)=λi2π[Δϕ(x,y)d(x,y)].
R=4F2+C28F.
cosθ(r+d)(r+d)2+Z2,
Δnl=(m+ε)λ,
[d/(r+d)](r+d)2+Z2=(m+ε)λ/Δn.
Z2=[2λ(r+d)2dΔn]m.
n2(λ)1=a+bλ2/(λ2λ02).
n(λ)=A+B/λ2.
Δn(λ)=ne(λ)no(λ)Δn+C/λ2.
δ(Δn)Δn=δλλ+δ(Δϕ)Δϕ+δdd,

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