Abstract

In this paper different SiO2-TiO2 mixtures are prepared by metallic mode reactive sputtering. The samples were sputtered from cylindrical targets in a sputter-up configuration using an additional plasma source for oxidization. The different ratios of SiO2 and TiO2 in the mixtures are prepared by a target sputtering power variation. Optical film properties of the mixtures such as refractive index, which is determined by ellipsometric measurements, and optical bandgap, which is measured by photometric (transmission) measurements, are investigated. The thin-film structure is investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis and the stress of the films is presented. It is shown that the metallic mode reactive sputtering in the present configuration is applicable to continuously tune optical and mechanical properties. Finally the sputtered mixed materials are compared with other optical standard materials such as Nb2O5, Ta2O5, HfO2, and Al2O3.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Scobey, R. I. Seddon, J. W. Seeser, R. R. Austin, P. M. LeFebvre, and B. Manley, “Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process,” U.S. patent 4,851,095 (25July1989).
  2. J. W. Seeser, P. M. LeFebvre, B. P. Hichwa, J. P. Lehan, S. F. Rowlands, and T. H. Allen, “Metal-mode reactive sputtering: a new way to make thin film products,” in Proceedings of Society of Vacuum Coaters—35th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (1992), Vol. 505, pp. 229–235.
  3. D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
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  5. W. R. Tinga, W. A. G. Voss, and D. F. Blossey, “Generalized approach to multiphase dielectric mixture theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3897–3902 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. C. Chan and J. P. Marton, “Generalized Maxwell Garnett equations for rough surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5004–5007 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthe, and U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Kubart, J. Jensen, T. Nyberg, L. Liljeholm, D. Depla, and S. Berg, “Influence of the target composition on reactively sputtered titanium oxide films,” Vacuum 83, 1295–1298 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Frach, D. Gloess, K. Goedicke, M. Fahland, and W.-M. Gnehr, “High rate deposition of insulating TiO2 and conducting ITO films for optical and display applications,” Thin Solid Films 445, 251–258 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Scherer, J. Pistner, and W. Lehnert, “Innovative production of high quality optical coatings for applications in optics and optoelectronics,” Soc. Vacuum Coaters 47, 179–182 (2004).
  13. F. Gracia, F. Yubero, J. P. Holgado, J. P. Espinos, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, and T. Girardeau, “SiO2-TiO2 thin films with variable refractive index prepared by ion beam induced and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 500, 19–26 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Srio, M. E. Melo Jorge, M. J. P. Maneira, and Y. Nunes, “Influence of O2 partial pressure on the growth of nanostructured anatase phase TiO2 thin films prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126, 73–81 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, and A. Ritz, “Investigation of TiO2 based thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering for use at high temperatures,” Thin Solid Films 502, 188–192 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhaeuser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Mathe, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, and T. Wallendorf, “High rate deposition of mixed oxides by controlled reactive magnetron-sputtering from metallic targets,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4122–4126 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Szczyrbowski, G. Braeuer, M. Ruske, J. Bartella, J. Schroeder, and A. Zmelty, “Some properties of TiO2 layers prepared by medium frequency reactive sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 112, 261–266 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Rademacher, B. Fritz, and M. Vergöhl, “Origin of particles during reactive sputtering of oxides using planar and cylindrical magnetrons,” Appl. Opt. 51, 927–935 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Schintlmeister and P. Wilhartitz, “Optical coatings (Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and WO3) for LAC-applications obtained by DC quasireactive magnetron sputtering of ceramic sputtering targets,” in Proceedings of Society of Vacuum Coaters—46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (2003), pp. 296–301.
  22. M. Sernyi, T. Lohner, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, Z. E. Horvth, and N. Q. Khnh, “Characterization of sputtered and annealed niobium oxide films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 516, 8096–8100 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Babeva, E. Atanassova, and J. Koprinarova, “Optical characteristics of thin rf sputtered Ta2O5 layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 202, 330–336 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, “Reactive sputtered Ta2O5 antireflection coatings,” Solar Cells 8, 263–268 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  25. V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “Hafnium oxide thin films deposited by reactive middle-frequency dual-magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7984–7989 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, and P. M. Martin, “High band gap oxide optical coatings for 0.25 and 1.06 μm fusion lasers,” Thin Solid Films 73, 169–175 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Belkind, A. Freilicha, G. Song, Z. Zhao, R. Scholl, and E. Bixon, “Mid-frequency reactive sputtering of dielectrics: Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 88–93 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, and T. Wallendorf, “High rate deposition of mixed oxides by controlled reactive magnetron-sputtering from metallic targets,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4122–4126 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, B. Fritz, and M. Vergöhl, “Origin of particles during reactive sputtering of oxides using planar and cylindrical magnetrons,” Appl. Opt. 51, 927–935 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

S. Srio, M. E. Melo Jorge, M. J. P. Maneira, and Y. Nunes, “Influence of O2 partial pressure on the growth of nanostructured anatase phase TiO2 thin films prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126, 73–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

T. Kubart, J. Jensen, T. Nyberg, L. Liljeholm, D. Depla, and S. Berg, “Influence of the target composition on reactively sputtered titanium oxide films,” Vacuum 83, 1295–1298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohsaki, Y. Shibayama, N. Yoshida, T. Watanabe, and S. Kanemaru, “Room-temperature crystallization of amorphous films by RF plasma treatment,” Thin Solid Films 517, 3092–3095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Sernyi, T. Lohner, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, Z. E. Horvth, and N. Q. Khnh, “Characterization of sputtered and annealed niobium oxide films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 516, 8096–8100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “Hafnium oxide thin films deposited by reactive middle-frequency dual-magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7984–7989 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, and A. Ritz, “Investigation of TiO2 based thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering for use at high temperatures,” Thin Solid Films 502, 188–192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Gracia, F. Yubero, J. P. Holgado, J. P. Espinos, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, and T. Girardeau, “SiO2-TiO2 thin films with variable refractive index prepared by ion beam induced and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 500, 19–26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Babeva, E. Atanassova, and J. Koprinarova, “Optical characteristics of thin rf sputtered Ta2O5 layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 202, 330–336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Scherer, J. Pistner, and W. Lehnert, “Innovative production of high quality optical coatings for applications in optics and optoelectronics,” Soc. Vacuum Coaters 47, 179–182 (2004).

2003 (2)

P. Frach, D. Gloess, K. Goedicke, M. Fahland, and W.-M. Gnehr, “High rate deposition of insulating TiO2 and conducting ITO films for optical and display applications,” Thin Solid Films 445, 251–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Belkind, A. Freilicha, G. Song, Z. Zhao, R. Scholl, and E. Bixon, “Mid-frequency reactive sputtering of dielectrics: Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 88–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhaeuser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Mathe, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Szczyrbowski, G. Braeuer, M. Ruske, J. Bartella, J. Schroeder, and A. Zmelty, “Some properties of TiO2 layers prepared by medium frequency reactive sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 112, 261–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthe, and U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, “Reactive sputtered Ta2O5 antireflection coatings,” Solar Cells 8, 263–268 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, and P. M. Martin, “High band gap oxide optical coatings for 0.25 and 1.06 μm fusion lasers,” Thin Solid Films 73, 169–175 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

E. C. Chan and J. P. Marton, “Generalized Maxwell Garnett equations for rough surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5004–5007 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

W. R. Tinga, W. A. G. Voss, and D. F. Blossey, “Generalized approach to multiphase dielectric mixture theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3897–3902 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Albella, J. M.

F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, “Reactive sputtered Ta2O5 antireflection coatings,” Solar Cells 8, 263–268 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Allen, T. H.

J. W. Seeser, P. M. LeFebvre, B. P. Hichwa, J. P. Lehan, S. F. Rowlands, and T. H. Allen, “Metal-mode reactive sputtering: a new way to make thin film products,” in Proceedings of Society of Vacuum Coaters—35th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (1992), Vol. 505, pp. 229–235.

Apolonski, A.

V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “Hafnium oxide thin films deposited by reactive middle-frequency dual-magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7984–7989 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atanassova, E.

T. Babeva, E. Atanassova, and J. Koprinarova, “Optical characteristics of thin rf sputtered Ta2O5 layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 202, 330–336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. R.

M. A. Scobey, R. I. Seddon, J. W. Seeser, R. R. Austin, P. M. LeFebvre, and B. Manley, “Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process,” U.S. patent 4,851,095 (25July1989).

Babeva, T.

T. Babeva, E. Atanassova, and J. Koprinarova, “Optical characteristics of thin rf sputtered Ta2O5 layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 202, 330–336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartella, J.

J. Szczyrbowski, G. Braeuer, M. Ruske, J. Bartella, J. Schroeder, and A. Zmelty, “Some properties of TiO2 layers prepared by medium frequency reactive sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 112, 261–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Belkind, A.

A. Belkind, A. Freilicha, G. Song, Z. Zhao, R. Scholl, and E. Bixon, “Mid-frequency reactive sputtering of dielectrics: Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 88–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berg, S.

T. Kubart, J. Jensen, T. Nyberg, L. Liljeholm, D. Depla, and S. Berg, “Influence of the target composition on reactively sputtered titanium oxide films,” Vacuum 83, 1295–1298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, M.

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bitzer, M.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bixon, E.

A. Belkind, A. Freilicha, G. Song, Z. Zhao, R. Scholl, and E. Bixon, “Mid-frequency reactive sputtering of dielectrics: Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 88–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blossey, D. F.

W. R. Tinga, W. A. G. Voss, and D. F. Blossey, “Generalized approach to multiphase dielectric mixture theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3897–3902 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Braeuer, G.

J. Szczyrbowski, G. Braeuer, M. Ruske, J. Bartella, J. Schroeder, and A. Zmelty, “Some properties of TiO2 layers prepared by medium frequency reactive sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 112, 261–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, G.

D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, S.

S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, and T. Wallendorf, “High rate deposition of mixed oxides by controlled reactive magnetron-sputtering from metallic targets,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4122–4126 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, E. C.

E. C. Chan and J. P. Marton, “Generalized Maxwell Garnett equations for rough surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5004–5007 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chuvilin, A.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Denis, J.

F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, “Reactive sputtered Ta2O5 antireflection coatings,” Solar Cells 8, 263–268 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Depla, D.

T. Kubart, J. Jensen, T. Nyberg, L. Liljeholm, D. Depla, and S. Berg, “Influence of the target composition on reactively sputtered titanium oxide films,” Vacuum 83, 1295–1298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, J.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ehlers, H.

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Espinos, J. P.

F. Gracia, F. Yubero, J. P. Holgado, J. P. Espinos, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, and T. Girardeau, “SiO2-TiO2 thin films with variable refractive index prepared by ion beam induced and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 500, 19–26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fahland, M.

P. Frach, D. Gloess, K. Goedicke, M. Fahland, and W.-M. Gnehr, “High rate deposition of insulating TiO2 and conducting ITO films for optical and display applications,” Thin Solid Films 445, 251–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frach, P.

P. Frach, D. Gloess, K. Goedicke, M. Fahland, and W.-M. Gnehr, “High rate deposition of insulating TiO2 and conducting ITO films for optical and display applications,” Thin Solid Films 445, 251–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freilicha, A.

A. Belkind, A. Freilicha, G. Song, Z. Zhao, R. Scholl, and E. Bixon, “Mid-frequency reactive sputtering of dielectrics: Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 88–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, B.

D. Rademacher, B. Fritz, and M. Vergöhl, “Origin of particles during reactive sputtering of oxides using planar and cylindrical magnetrons,” Appl. Opt. 51, 927–935 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
[CrossRef]

Girardeau, T.

F. Gracia, F. Yubero, J. P. Holgado, J. P. Espinos, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, and T. Girardeau, “SiO2-TiO2 thin films with variable refractive index prepared by ion beam induced and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 500, 19–26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gloess, D.

P. Frach, D. Gloess, K. Goedicke, M. Fahland, and W.-M. Gnehr, “High rate deposition of insulating TiO2 and conducting ITO films for optical and display applications,” Thin Solid Films 445, 251–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gnehr, W.-M.

P. Frach, D. Gloess, K. Goedicke, M. Fahland, and W.-M. Gnehr, “High rate deposition of insulating TiO2 and conducting ITO films for optical and display applications,” Thin Solid Films 445, 251–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goedicke, K.

P. Frach, D. Gloess, K. Goedicke, M. Fahland, and W.-M. Gnehr, “High rate deposition of insulating TiO2 and conducting ITO films for optical and display applications,” Thin Solid Films 445, 251–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.

F. Gracia, F. Yubero, J. P. Holgado, J. P. Espinos, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, and T. Girardeau, “SiO2-TiO2 thin films with variable refractive index prepared by ion beam induced and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 500, 19–26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gracia, F.

F. Gracia, F. Yubero, J. P. Holgado, J. P. Espinos, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, and T. Girardeau, “SiO2-TiO2 thin films with variable refractive index prepared by ion beam induced and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 500, 19–26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Groesslm, M.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hays, D. D.

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, and P. M. Martin, “High band gap oxide optical coatings for 0.25 and 1.06 μm fusion lasers,” Thin Solid Films 73, 169–175 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Held, M.

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hichwa, B. P.

J. W. Seeser, P. M. LeFebvre, B. P. Hichwa, J. P. Lehan, S. F. Rowlands, and T. H. Allen, “Metal-mode reactive sputtering: a new way to make thin film products,” in Proceedings of Society of Vacuum Coaters—35th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (1992), Vol. 505, pp. 229–235.

Holgado, J. P.

F. Gracia, F. Yubero, J. P. Holgado, J. P. Espinos, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, and T. Girardeau, “SiO2-TiO2 thin films with variable refractive index prepared by ion beam induced and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 500, 19–26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horvth, Z. E.

M. Sernyi, T. Lohner, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, Z. E. Horvth, and N. Q. Khnh, “Characterization of sputtered and annealed niobium oxide films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 516, 8096–8100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, B.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, and A. Ritz, “Investigation of TiO2 based thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering for use at high temperatures,” Thin Solid Films 502, 188–192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhaeuser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Mathe, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jakobs, S.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J.

T. Kubart, J. Jensen, T. Nyberg, L. Liljeholm, D. Depla, and S. Berg, “Influence of the target composition on reactively sputtered titanium oxide films,” Vacuum 83, 1295–1298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, U.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaless, A.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kanemaru, S.

H. Ohsaki, Y. Shibayama, N. Yoshida, T. Watanabe, and S. Kanemaru, “Room-temperature crystallization of amorphous films by RF plasma treatment,” Thin Solid Films 517, 3092–3095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khnh, N. Q.

M. Sernyi, T. Lohner, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, Z. E. Horvth, and N. Q. Khnh, “Characterization of sputtered and annealed niobium oxide films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 516, 8096–8100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klose, F.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhaeuser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Mathe, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kolitsch, A.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koprinarova, J.

T. Babeva, E. Atanassova, and J. Koprinarova, “Optical characteristics of thin rf sputtered Ta2O5 layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 202, 330–336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “Hafnium oxide thin films deposited by reactive middle-frequency dual-magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7984–7989 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kreher, S.

D. Rademacher, S. Kreher, M. Rudin, M. Vergöhl, and T. Zickenrott, “Manufacturing of high-precision optical coatings using a novel sputtering system,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters—55th Annual Technical Conference, Santa Clara, California, USA, 28 April–5 May 2012.

Kubart, T.

T. Kubart, J. Jensen, T. Nyberg, L. Liljeholm, D. Depla, and S. Berg, “Influence of the target composition on reactively sputtered titanium oxide films,” Vacuum 83, 1295–1298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

LeFebvre, P. M.

M. A. Scobey, R. I. Seddon, J. W. Seeser, R. R. Austin, P. M. LeFebvre, and B. Manley, “Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process,” U.S. patent 4,851,095 (25July1989).

J. W. Seeser, P. M. LeFebvre, B. P. Hichwa, J. P. Lehan, S. F. Rowlands, and T. H. Allen, “Metal-mode reactive sputtering: a new way to make thin film products,” in Proceedings of Society of Vacuum Coaters—35th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (1992), Vol. 505, pp. 229–235.

Lehan, J. P.

J. W. Seeser, P. M. LeFebvre, B. P. Hichwa, J. P. Lehan, S. F. Rowlands, and T. H. Allen, “Metal-mode reactive sputtering: a new way to make thin film products,” in Proceedings of Society of Vacuum Coaters—35th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (1992), Vol. 505, pp. 229–235.

Lehnert, W.

M. Scherer, J. Pistner, and W. Lehnert, “Innovative production of high quality optical coatings for applications in optics and optoelectronics,” Soc. Vacuum Coaters 47, 179–182 (2004).

Liljeholm, L.

T. Kubart, J. Jensen, T. Nyberg, L. Liljeholm, D. Depla, and S. Berg, “Influence of the target composition on reactively sputtered titanium oxide films,” Vacuum 83, 1295–1298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lohner, T.

M. Sernyi, T. Lohner, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, Z. E. Horvth, and N. Q. Khnh, “Characterization of sputtered and annealed niobium oxide films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 516, 8096–8100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malkomes, N.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthe, and U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maneira, M. J. P.

S. Srio, M. E. Melo Jorge, M. J. P. Maneira, and Y. Nunes, “Influence of O2 partial pressure on the growth of nanostructured anatase phase TiO2 thin films prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126, 73–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Manley, B.

M. A. Scobey, R. I. Seddon, J. W. Seeser, R. R. Austin, P. M. LeFebvre, and B. Manley, “Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process,” U.S. patent 4,851,095 (25July1989).

Martin, P. M.

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, and P. M. Martin, “High band gap oxide optical coatings for 0.25 and 1.06 μm fusion lasers,” Thin Solid Films 73, 169–175 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Duart, J. M.

F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, “Reactive sputtered Ta2O5 antireflection coatings,” Solar Cells 8, 263–268 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Marton, J. P.

E. C. Chan and J. P. Marton, “Generalized Maxwell Garnett equations for rough surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5004–5007 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mathe, T.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhaeuser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Mathe, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matthe, T.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthe, and U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Melo Jorge, M. E.

S. Srio, M. E. Melo Jorge, M. J. P. Maneira, and Y. Nunes, “Influence of O2 partial pressure on the growth of nanostructured anatase phase TiO2 thin films prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126, 73–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mende, M.

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Munnik, F.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neuhaeuser, H.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhaeuser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Mathe, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nunes, Y.

S. Srio, M. E. Melo Jorge, M. J. P. Maneira, and Y. Nunes, “Influence of O2 partial pressure on the growth of nanostructured anatase phase TiO2 thin films prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126, 73–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nyberg, T.

T. Kubart, J. Jensen, T. Nyberg, L. Liljeholm, D. Depla, and S. Berg, “Influence of the target composition on reactively sputtered titanium oxide films,” Vacuum 83, 1295–1298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohsaki, H.

H. Ohsaki, Y. Shibayama, N. Yoshida, T. Watanabe, and S. Kanemaru, “Room-temperature crystallization of amorphous films by RF plasma treatment,” Thin Solid Films 517, 3092–3095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pawlewicz, W. T.

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, and P. M. Martin, “High band gap oxide optical coatings for 0.25 and 1.06 μm fusion lasers,” Thin Solid Films 73, 169–175 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pervak, V.

V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “Hafnium oxide thin films deposited by reactive middle-frequency dual-magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7984–7989 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petrik, P.

M. Sernyi, T. Lohner, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, Z. E. Horvth, and N. Q. Khnh, “Characterization of sputtered and annealed niobium oxide films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 516, 8096–8100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pistner, J.

M. Scherer, J. Pistner, and W. Lehnert, “Innovative production of high quality optical coatings for applications in optics and optoelectronics,” Soc. Vacuum Coaters 47, 179–182 (2004).

Rademacher, D.

D. Rademacher, B. Fritz, and M. Vergöhl, “Origin of particles during reactive sputtering of oxides using planar and cylindrical magnetrons,” Appl. Opt. 51, 927–935 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, S. Kreher, M. Rudin, M. Vergöhl, and T. Zickenrott, “Manufacturing of high-precision optical coatings using a novel sputtering system,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters—55th Annual Technical Conference, Santa Clara, California, USA, 28 April–5 May 2012.

Richter, U.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthe, and U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riggers, W.

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ritz, A.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, and A. Ritz, “Investigation of TiO2 based thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering for use at high temperatures,” Thin Solid Films 502, 188–192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rowlands, S. F.

J. W. Seeser, P. M. LeFebvre, B. P. Hichwa, J. P. Lehan, S. F. Rowlands, and T. H. Allen, “Metal-mode reactive sputtering: a new way to make thin film products,” in Proceedings of Society of Vacuum Coaters—35th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (1992), Vol. 505, pp. 229–235.

Rubio, F.

F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, “Reactive sputtered Ta2O5 antireflection coatings,” Solar Cells 8, 263–268 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rudin, M.

D. Rademacher, S. Kreher, M. Rudin, M. Vergöhl, and T. Zickenrott, “Manufacturing of high-precision optical coatings using a novel sputtering system,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters—55th Annual Technical Conference, Santa Clara, California, USA, 28 April–5 May 2012.

Ruske, M.

J. Szczyrbowski, G. Braeuer, M. Ruske, J. Bartella, J. Schroeder, and A. Zmelty, “Some properties of TiO2 layers prepared by medium frequency reactive sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 112, 261–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, M.

M. Scherer, J. Pistner, and W. Lehnert, “Innovative production of high quality optical coatings for applications in optics and optoelectronics,” Soc. Vacuum Coaters 47, 179–182 (2004).

Schintlmeister, A.

A. Schintlmeister and P. Wilhartitz, “Optical coatings (Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and WO3) for LAC-applications obtained by DC quasireactive magnetron sputtering of ceramic sputtering targets,” in Proceedings of Society of Vacuum Coaters—46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (2003), pp. 296–301.

Scholl, R.

A. Belkind, A. Freilicha, G. Song, Z. Zhao, R. Scholl, and E. Bixon, “Mid-frequency reactive sputtering of dielectrics: Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 88–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

J. Szczyrbowski, G. Braeuer, M. Ruske, J. Bartella, J. Schroeder, and A. Zmelty, “Some properties of TiO2 layers prepared by medium frequency reactive sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 112, 261–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schuermann, M.

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scobey, M. A.

M. A. Scobey, R. I. Seddon, J. W. Seeser, R. R. Austin, P. M. LeFebvre, and B. Manley, “Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process,” U.S. patent 4,851,095 (25July1989).

Seddon, R. I.

M. A. Scobey, R. I. Seddon, J. W. Seeser, R. R. Austin, P. M. LeFebvre, and B. Manley, “Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process,” U.S. patent 4,851,095 (25July1989).

Seeser, J. W.

M. A. Scobey, R. I. Seddon, J. W. Seeser, R. R. Austin, P. M. LeFebvre, and B. Manley, “Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process,” U.S. patent 4,851,095 (25July1989).

J. W. Seeser, P. M. LeFebvre, B. P. Hichwa, J. P. Lehan, S. F. Rowlands, and T. H. Allen, “Metal-mode reactive sputtering: a new way to make thin film products,” in Proceedings of Society of Vacuum Coaters—35th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (1992), Vol. 505, pp. 229–235.

Sernyi, M.

M. Sernyi, T. Lohner, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, Z. E. Horvth, and N. Q. Khnh, “Characterization of sputtered and annealed niobium oxide films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 516, 8096–8100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shibayama, Y.

H. Ohsaki, Y. Shibayama, N. Yoshida, T. Watanabe, and S. Kanemaru, “Room-temperature crystallization of amorphous films by RF plasma treatment,” Thin Solid Films 517, 3092–3095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, G.

A. Belkind, A. Freilicha, G. Song, Z. Zhao, R. Scholl, and E. Bixon, “Mid-frequency reactive sputtering of dielectrics: Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 88–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Srio, S.

S. Srio, M. E. Melo Jorge, M. J. P. Maneira, and Y. Nunes, “Influence of O2 partial pressure on the growth of nanostructured anatase phase TiO2 thin films prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126, 73–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Staedler, T.

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthe, and U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, O.

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Szczyrbowski, J.

J. Szczyrbowski, G. Braeuer, M. Ruske, J. Bartella, J. Schroeder, and A. Zmelty, “Some properties of TiO2 layers prepared by medium frequency reactive sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 112, 261–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Szyszka, B.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhaeuser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Mathe, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tinga, W. R.

W. R. Tinga, W. A. G. Voss, and D. F. Blossey, “Generalized approach to multiphase dielectric mixture theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3897–3902 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Treichel, O.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vergöhl, M.

S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, and T. Wallendorf, “High rate deposition of mixed oxides by controlled reactive magnetron-sputtering from metallic targets,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4122–4126 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, B. Fritz, and M. Vergöhl, “Origin of particles during reactive sputtering of oxides using planar and cylindrical magnetrons,” Appl. Opt. 51, 927–935 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, and A. Ritz, “Investigation of TiO2 based thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering for use at high temperatures,” Thin Solid Films 502, 188–192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhaeuser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Mathe, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthe, and U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, S. Kreher, M. Rudin, M. Vergöhl, and T. Zickenrott, “Manufacturing of high-precision optical coatings using a novel sputtering system,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters—55th Annual Technical Conference, Santa Clara, California, USA, 28 April–5 May 2012.

Vinnichenko, M.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Voss, W. A. G.

W. R. Tinga, W. A. G. Voss, and D. F. Blossey, “Generalized approach to multiphase dielectric mixture theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3897–3902 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wallendorf, T.

S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, and T. Wallendorf, “High rate deposition of mixed oxides by controlled reactive magnetron-sputtering from metallic targets,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4122–4126 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

H. Ohsaki, Y. Shibayama, N. Yoshida, T. Watanabe, and S. Kanemaru, “Room-temperature crystallization of amorphous films by RF plasma treatment,” Thin Solid Films 517, 3092–3095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Werner, O.

S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, and T. Wallendorf, “High rate deposition of mixed oxides by controlled reactive magnetron-sputtering from metallic targets,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4122–4126 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wilbrandt, S.

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilhartitz, P.

A. Schintlmeister and P. Wilhartitz, “Optical coatings (Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and WO3) for LAC-applications obtained by DC quasireactive magnetron sputtering of ceramic sputtering targets,” in Proceedings of Society of Vacuum Coaters—46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (2003), pp. 296–301.

Wuethrich, S.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wunderlich, B.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, N.

H. Ohsaki, Y. Shibayama, N. Yoshida, T. Watanabe, and S. Kanemaru, “Room-temperature crystallization of amorphous films by RF plasma treatment,” Thin Solid Films 517, 3092–3095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yubero, F.

F. Gracia, F. Yubero, J. P. Holgado, J. P. Espinos, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, and T. Girardeau, “SiO2-TiO2 thin films with variable refractive index prepared by ion beam induced and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 500, 19–26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

A. Belkind, A. Freilicha, G. Song, Z. Zhao, R. Scholl, and E. Bixon, “Mid-frequency reactive sputtering of dielectrics: Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 88–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zickenrott, T.

D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, S. Kreher, M. Rudin, M. Vergöhl, and T. Zickenrott, “Manufacturing of high-precision optical coatings using a novel sputtering system,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters—55th Annual Technical Conference, Santa Clara, California, USA, 28 April–5 May 2012.

Zmelty, A.

J. Szczyrbowski, G. Braeuer, M. Ruske, J. Bartella, J. Schroeder, and A. Zmelty, “Some properties of TiO2 layers prepared by medium frequency reactive sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 112, 261–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zolnai, Z.

M. Sernyi, T. Lohner, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, Z. E. Horvth, and N. Q. Khnh, “Characterization of sputtered and annealed niobium oxide films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 516, 8096–8100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

W. R. Tinga, W. A. G. Voss, and D. F. Blossey, “Generalized approach to multiphase dielectric mixture theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3897–3902 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Chan and J. P. Marton, “Generalized Maxwell Garnett equations for rough surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5004–5007 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Srio, M. E. Melo Jorge, M. J. P. Maneira, and Y. Nunes, “Influence of O2 partial pressure on the growth of nanostructured anatase phase TiO2 thin films prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 126, 73–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

T. Babeva, E. Atanassova, and J. Koprinarova, “Optical characteristics of thin rf sputtered Ta2O5 layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 202, 330–336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

O. Stenzel, M. Schuermann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tuennermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soc. Vacuum Coaters (1)

M. Scherer, J. Pistner, and W. Lehnert, “Innovative production of high quality optical coatings for applications in optics and optoelectronics,” Soc. Vacuum Coaters 47, 179–182 (2004).

Solar Cells (1)

F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, “Reactive sputtered Ta2O5 antireflection coatings,” Solar Cells 8, 263–268 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (2)

J. Szczyrbowski, G. Braeuer, M. Ruske, J. Bartella, J. Schroeder, and A. Zmelty, “Some properties of TiO2 layers prepared by medium frequency reactive sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 112, 261–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Belkind, A. Freilicha, G. Song, Z. Zhao, R. Scholl, and E. Bixon, “Mid-frequency reactive sputtering of dielectrics: Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 88–93 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (11)

M. Sernyi, T. Lohner, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, Z. E. Horvth, and N. Q. Khnh, “Characterization of sputtered and annealed niobium oxide films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 516, 8096–8100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “Hafnium oxide thin films deposited by reactive middle-frequency dual-magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7984–7989 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, and P. M. Martin, “High band gap oxide optical coatings for 0.25 and 1.06 μm fusion lasers,” Thin Solid Films 73, 169–175 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. Gracia, F. Yubero, J. P. Holgado, J. P. Espinos, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, and T. Girardeau, “SiO2-TiO2 thin films with variable refractive index prepared by ion beam induced and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 500, 19–26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Frach, D. Gloess, K. Goedicke, M. Fahland, and W.-M. Gnehr, “High rate deposition of insulating TiO2 and conducting ITO films for optical and display applications,” Thin Solid Films 445, 251–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wuethrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Groesslm, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohsaki, Y. Shibayama, N. Yoshida, T. Watanabe, and S. Kanemaru, “Room-temperature crystallization of amorphous films by RF plasma treatment,” Thin Solid Films 517, 3092–3095 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, and A. Ritz, “Investigation of TiO2 based thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering for use at high temperatures,” Thin Solid Films 502, 188–192 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhaeuser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Mathe, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of MF- and DC-sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, and T. Wallendorf, “High rate deposition of mixed oxides by controlled reactive magnetron-sputtering from metallic targets,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4122–4126 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Vergöhl, N. Malkomes, T. Staedler, T. Matthe, and U. Richter, “Ex situ and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry of MF and DC-sputtered TiO2 and SiO2 films for process control,” Thin Solid Films 351, 42–47 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

T. Kubart, J. Jensen, T. Nyberg, L. Liljeholm, D. Depla, and S. Berg, “Influence of the target composition on reactively sputtered titanium oxide films,” Vacuum 83, 1295–1298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. Rademacher, S. Kreher, M. Rudin, M. Vergöhl, and T. Zickenrott, “Manufacturing of high-precision optical coatings using a novel sputtering system,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters—55th Annual Technical Conference, Santa Clara, California, USA, 28 April–5 May 2012.

M. A. Scobey, R. I. Seddon, J. W. Seeser, R. R. Austin, P. M. LeFebvre, and B. Manley, “Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process,” U.S. patent 4,851,095 (25July1989).

J. W. Seeser, P. M. LeFebvre, B. P. Hichwa, J. P. Lehan, S. F. Rowlands, and T. H. Allen, “Metal-mode reactive sputtering: a new way to make thin film products,” in Proceedings of Society of Vacuum Coaters—35th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (1992), Vol. 505, pp. 229–235.

A. Schintlmeister and P. Wilhartitz, “Optical coatings (Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and WO3) for LAC-applications obtained by DC quasireactive magnetron sputtering of ceramic sputtering targets,” in Proceedings of Society of Vacuum Coaters—46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (2003), pp. 296–301.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of determined fraction of SiO2 from fit and from rate. The deviation between both data is about 3%–5%.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Refractive index and optical bandgap of the mixed oxides as a function of the fraction of SiO2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission of the mixed oxides. Absorption edge shifts toward lower wavelengths with increasing fraction of SiO2. The transmission of 100% SiO2 matches the transmission of the used substrate, which indicates that the sputtered SiO2 is pure and bulklike.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

XRD analysis of different samples with a film thickness of 200 nm. The crystalline TiO2 layer is sputtered at a deposition rate of 0.034nm/s. The analysis revealed mixed crystalline phases that exist of 10% rutile and 90% anatase. The x-ray amorphous TiO2 layer is sputtered at a deposition rate of 0.3nm/s, which is typical for sputtered TiO2 above a deposition rate of 0.1nm/s at the EOSS coater. The mixed oxides with a fraction of 13.7% and 96.0% SiO2 show an x-ray amorphous behavior as well.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Thin-film stress of the mixed oxides as a function of the fraction of SiO2. Stress varies in between the typical stress values for the pure materials.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical bandgap of prepared layers with different SiO2-TiO2 mixture ratios plotted over their refractive index. In order to compare these values with properties that can be found in literature [3,2,7,11,17,2027]. The error bars represent the ranges of values found for these materials. The investigated mixture shows less absorption compared to Nb2O5 at the same refractive index. However, the investigated mixtures cannot compare to Ta2O5, HfO2, or Al2O3.

Equations (1)

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E=hλc.

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