Abstract

We investigated the near-field enhancement of a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) structure based on gold nanograting pairs with a nanosized gap. The results calculated by finite-difference time-domain and rigorous coupled-wave analysis methods presented that the nanogap enclosed by two neighboring nanogratings produced significant confinement and enhancement of electromagnetic fields and allowed a sensitive detection in sensing of surface binding events. Gold gratings with a narrow gap distance less than 10 nm showed enhanced refractive index sensitivity due to the intensified optical field at the nanogap, outperforming the LSPR structure with noninteracting nanogratings. Also, we analyzed the effectiveness of using an overlap integral (OI) between analyte and local plasmon field to estimate the detection sensitivity. We found a strong correlation of field–analyte OI with far-field sensor sensitivity.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

N.-H. Kim, W. K. Jung, and K. M. Byun, “Correlation analysis between plasmon field distribution and sensitivity enhancement in reflection- and transmission-type localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4982–4988 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Lee, K.-S. Lee, J. Ahn, J.-J. Lee, M.-G. Kim, and Y.-B. Shin, “Highly sensitive biosensing using arrays of plasmonic Au nanodisks realized by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 5, 897–904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Chung, S.-Y. Lee, E. Y. Song, H. Chun, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic nanostructures for nano-scale bio-sensing,” Sensors 11, 10907–10929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

V. Scognamiglio, G. Pezzotti, I. Pezzotti, J. Cano, K. Buonasera, D. Giannini, and M. T. Giardi, “Biosensors for effective environmental and agrifood protection and commercialization: from research to market,” Microchim. Acta 170, 215–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, “Electromagnetic fields distribution in multilayer thin film structures and the origin of sensitivity enhancement in surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators A 159, 24–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

A. Boltasseva, “Plasmonic components fabrication via nanoimprint,” J. Opt. A 11, 114001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Byun, S. M. Jang, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, “Effect of target localization on the sensitivity of a localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on subwavelength nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1027–1034 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Jung, J. Wuenschell, H. K. Kim, P. Kaur, and D. H. Waldeck, “Blue-shift of surface plasmon resonance in a metal nanoslit array structure,” Opt. Express 17, 16081–16091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Ligler, “Perspective on optical biosensors and integrated sensor systems,” Anal. Chem. 81, 519–526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. Moon, D. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of layered biointeractions on metallic subwavelength nanogratings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, “Experimental observation of narrow surface plasmon resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181108(2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, K. J. Morton, R. H. Austin, and S. Y. Chou, “Single sub-20 nm wide, centimeter-long nanofluidic channel fabricated by novel nanoimprint mold fabrication and direct imprinting,” Nano Lett. 7, 3774–3780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7, 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors,” Anal. Chem. 77, 3904–3907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interaction gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142(2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Abdulhalim, I.

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, “Electromagnetic fields distribution in multilayer thin film structures and the origin of sensitivity enhancement in surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators A 159, 24–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.

S.-W. Lee, K.-S. Lee, J. Ahn, J.-J. Lee, M.-G. Kim, and Y.-B. Shin, “Highly sensitive biosensing using arrays of plasmonic Au nanodisks realized by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 5, 897–904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interaction gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141(2003).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. H.

X. Liang, K. J. Morton, R. H. Austin, and S. Y. Chou, “Single sub-20 nm wide, centimeter-long nanofluidic channel fabricated by novel nanoimprint mold fabrication and direct imprinting,” Nano Lett. 7, 3774–3780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

A. Boltasseva, “Plasmonic components fabrication via nanoimprint,” J. Opt. A 11, 114001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buonasera, K.

V. Scognamiglio, G. Pezzotti, I. Pezzotti, J. Cano, K. Buonasera, D. Giannini, and M. T. Giardi, “Biosensors for effective environmental and agrifood protection and commercialization: from research to market,” Microchim. Acta 170, 215–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Byun, K. M.

Cano, J.

V. Scognamiglio, G. Pezzotti, I. Pezzotti, J. Cano, K. Buonasera, D. Giannini, and M. T. Giardi, “Biosensors for effective environmental and agrifood protection and commercialization: from research to market,” Microchim. Acta 170, 215–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, R.

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

X. Liang, K. J. Morton, R. H. Austin, and S. Y. Chou, “Single sub-20 nm wide, centimeter-long nanofluidic channel fabricated by novel nanoimprint mold fabrication and direct imprinting,” Nano Lett. 7, 3774–3780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y.

Y. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, “Experimental observation of narrow surface plasmon resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181108(2008).
[CrossRef]

Chun, H.

T. Chung, S.-Y. Lee, E. Y. Song, H. Chun, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic nanostructures for nano-scale bio-sensing,” Sensors 11, 10907–10929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chung, T.

T. Chung, S.-Y. Lee, E. Y. Song, H. Chun, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic nanostructures for nano-scale bio-sensing,” Sensors 11, 10907–10929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Corn, R. M.

A. W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors,” Anal. Chem. 77, 3904–3907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

Y. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, “Experimental observation of narrow surface plasmon resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181108(2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7, 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Giannini, D.

V. Scognamiglio, G. Pezzotti, I. Pezzotti, J. Cano, K. Buonasera, D. Giannini, and M. T. Giardi, “Biosensors for effective environmental and agrifood protection and commercialization: from research to market,” Microchim. Acta 170, 215–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giardi, M. T.

V. Scognamiglio, G. Pezzotti, I. Pezzotti, J. Cano, K. Buonasera, D. Giannini, and M. T. Giardi, “Biosensors for effective environmental and agrifood protection and commercialization: from research to market,” Microchim. Acta 170, 215–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haggans, C. W.

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142(2001).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interaction gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141(2003).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7, 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7, 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. M.

Jung, W. K.

Jung, Y. S.

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142(2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaur, P.

Kim, D.

Kim, D. J.

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. Moon, D. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of layered biointeractions on metallic subwavelength nanogratings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Kim, K.

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. Moon, D. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of layered biointeractions on metallic subwavelength nanogratings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-G.

S.-W. Lee, K.-S. Lee, J. Ahn, J.-J. Lee, M.-G. Kim, and Y.-B. Shin, “Highly sensitive biosensing using arrays of plasmonic Au nanodisks realized by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 5, 897–904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N.-H.

Kim, S. J.

Krenn, J. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interaction gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141(2003).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interaction gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141(2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

T. Chung, S.-Y. Lee, E. Y. Song, H. Chun, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic nanostructures for nano-scale bio-sensing,” Sensors 11, 10907–10929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

A. W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors,” Anal. Chem. 77, 3904–3907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-J.

S.-W. Lee, K.-S. Lee, J. Ahn, J.-J. Lee, M.-G. Kim, and Y.-B. Shin, “Highly sensitive biosensing using arrays of plasmonic Au nanodisks realized by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 5, 897–904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-S.

S.-W. Lee, K.-S. Lee, J. Ahn, J.-J. Lee, M.-G. Kim, and Y.-B. Shin, “Highly sensitive biosensing using arrays of plasmonic Au nanodisks realized by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 5, 897–904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-W.

S.-W. Lee, K.-S. Lee, J. Ahn, J.-J. Lee, M.-G. Kim, and Y.-B. Shin, “Highly sensitive biosensing using arrays of plasmonic Au nanodisks realized by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 5, 897–904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-Y.

T. Chung, S.-Y. Lee, E. Y. Song, H. Chun, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic nanostructures for nano-scale bio-sensing,” Sensors 11, 10907–10929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

Leitner, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interaction gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141(2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Liang, X.

X. Liang, K. J. Morton, R. H. Austin, and S. Y. Chou, “Single sub-20 nm wide, centimeter-long nanofluidic channel fabricated by novel nanoimprint mold fabrication and direct imprinting,” Nano Lett. 7, 3774–3780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ligler, F. S.

F. S. Ligler, “Perspective on optical biosensors and integrated sensor systems,” Anal. Chem. 81, 519–526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lunstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maria, J.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Moon, S.

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. Moon, D. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of layered biointeractions on metallic subwavelength nanogratings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morton, K. J.

X. Liang, K. J. Morton, R. H. Austin, and S. Y. Chou, “Single sub-20 nm wide, centimeter-long nanofluidic channel fabricated by novel nanoimprint mold fabrication and direct imprinting,” Nano Lett. 7, 3774–3780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

Pezzotti, G.

V. Scognamiglio, G. Pezzotti, I. Pezzotti, J. Cano, K. Buonasera, D. Giannini, and M. T. Giardi, “Biosensors for effective environmental and agrifood protection and commercialization: from research to market,” Microchim. Acta 170, 215–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pezzotti, I.

V. Scognamiglio, G. Pezzotti, I. Pezzotti, J. Cano, K. Buonasera, D. Giannini, and M. T. Giardi, “Biosensors for effective environmental and agrifood protection and commercialization: from research to market,” Microchim. Acta 170, 215–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rechberger, W.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interaction gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141(2003).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sai, H.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142(2001).
[CrossRef]

Schonbrun, E.

Y. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, “Experimental observation of narrow surface plasmon resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181108(2008).
[CrossRef]

Scognamiglio, V.

V. Scognamiglio, G. Pezzotti, I. Pezzotti, J. Cano, K. Buonasera, D. Giannini, and M. T. Giardi, “Biosensors for effective environmental and agrifood protection and commercialization: from research to market,” Microchim. Acta 170, 215–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shalabney, A.

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, “Electromagnetic fields distribution in multilayer thin film structures and the origin of sensitivity enhancement in surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators A 159, 24–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, Y.-B.

S.-W. Lee, K.-S. Lee, J. Ahn, J.-J. Lee, M.-G. Kim, and Y.-B. Shin, “Highly sensitive biosensing using arrays of plasmonic Au nanodisks realized by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 5, 897–904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, E. Y.

T. Chung, S.-Y. Lee, E. Y. Song, H. Chun, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic nanostructures for nano-scale bio-sensing,” Sensors 11, 10907–10929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Waldeck, D. H.

Wang, S.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors,” Anal. Chem. 77, 3904–3907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wuenschell, J.

Yang, T.

Y. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, “Experimental observation of narrow surface plasmon resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181108(2008).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, H.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142(2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

S.-W. Lee, K.-S. Lee, J. Ahn, J.-J. Lee, M.-G. Kim, and Y.-B. Shin, “Highly sensitive biosensing using arrays of plasmonic Au nanodisks realized by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 5, 897–904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

A. W. Wark, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors,” Anal. Chem. 77, 3904–3907 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Ligler, “Perspective on optical biosensors and integrated sensor systems,” Anal. Chem. 81, 519–526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, “Experimental observation of narrow surface plasmon resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181108(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 142(2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

A. Boltasseva, “Plasmonic components fabrication via nanoimprint,” J. Opt. A 11, 114001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Microchim. Acta (1)

V. Scognamiglio, G. Pezzotti, I. Pezzotti, J. Cano, K. Buonasera, D. Giannini, and M. T. Giardi, “Biosensors for effective environmental and agrifood protection and commercialization: from research to market,” Microchim. Acta 170, 215–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7, 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, K. J. Morton, R. H. Austin, and S. Y. Chou, “Single sub-20 nm wide, centimeter-long nanofluidic channel fabricated by novel nanoimprint mold fabrication and direct imprinting,” Nano Lett. 7, 3774–3780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. Moon, D. Kim, and K. M. Byun, “Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of layered biointeractions on metallic subwavelength nanogratings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Liu, R. Cheng, L. Liao, H. Zhou, J. Bai, G. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interaction gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137–141(2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lunstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

A. Shalabney and I. Abdulhalim, “Electromagnetic fields distribution in multilayer thin film structures and the origin of sensitivity enhancement in surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators A 159, 24–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

T. Chung, S.-Y. Lee, E. Y. Song, H. Chun, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic nanostructures for nano-scale bio-sensing,” Sensors 11, 10907–10929 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the proposed LSPR configuration. One-dimensional gold nanograting pairs with a nanogap g and a period Λ are regularly patterned on a SF10 glass substrate. The white light source of TM polarization is normally incident to the glass substrate. An individual gold grating is presumed to have a height of h=20nm and a width of w=20nm. Binding analytes are modeled as a 1 nm thick dielectric monolayer that uniformly covers the gold nanogratings in PBS solution.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

RCWA results of extinction spectra when a gap distance varies from 5 to 30 nm. The refractive index of a binding layer is 1.33.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Shift in the plasmon wavelength of gold nanograting pair as a function of the gap distance. The red curve is the least-squares fit to the first-order exponential function.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

FDTD results of the LSPR structure with a gap of g=30nm. (a) The near-field distribution image is normalized by the field amplitude of 5. (b) Horizontal field distributions of EX show individual LSPR modes and the field profiles at the nanogap region.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

FDTD results of the LSPR structure with a gap of g=5nm. (a) The near-field distribution image is normalized by the field amplitude of 5. (b) Horizontal field distributions of EX show enhanced field amplitudes at the nanogap, compared with the results in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Extinction spectra of the gold nanograting pairs with g=10nm as the refractive index of a binding layer increases from 1.33 to 1.60.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Correlation analysis between the sensor sensitivity and the OI as a function of gap distance. The sensitivity and OI are normalized by the maximum values of 20.7nm/RIU and 2071, respectively.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Linear sensing performance of the proposed LSPR structure at a gap of g=5nm.

Equations (1)

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OI=1Λx=0x=Λz=0z=Δn(x,z)·|EX(x,z)|2dzdx,

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