Abstract

The optical constants of sapphire crystal (α-Al2O3) and amorphous Al2O3 in the soft x-ray region (67–85 eV) around the aluminum LII,III absorption edge (73.1 eV) are determined by angle-dependent x-ray reflectivity. The differences between the optical constant values of both the samples are discussed. The fine structures obtained in the absorption of crystalline sapphire are explained. An absorption feature at 70.2 eV is observed for the first time for crystalline alumina. Both datasets are compared to the tabulated values of Henke et al. [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993)], Weaver et al. [Physik Daten, Physics Data: Optical Properties of Metals (Fach-information zentrum, 1981), Vols. 18-1 and 18-2], and [Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, 1991)].

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Als-Nielsen and D. McMorrow, Elements of Modern X-Ray Physics (Wiley, 2011).
  2. D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 1999).
  3. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000  eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, 1994).
  5. M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al O films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413, 186–197 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. K. Kim and C. S. Hwang, “Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films with thin SiO2 layers grown by in situO3 oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2323–2329 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. H. French, “Electronic structure of α-Al2O3, with comparison to ALON and ALNs,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 477–489 (1990).
  10. M. L. Bortz, R. H. French, D. J. Jones, R. V. Kasowsky, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of Al2O3, MgAl2O4 and MgO,” Phys. Scr. 41, 537–541 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. H. French, R. L. Coble, R. V. Kasowski, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Vacuum ultra-violet, photo emission and theoretical studies of the electronic structure of Al2O3 up to 1000°C,” Physica B 150, 47–49 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. H. French, D. J. Jones, and S. Laughni, “Interband electronic structure of α-Al2O3 up to 2167 K,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 412–422 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. H. French, H. Mullejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminum oxide: determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2549–2557 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. K. Harman, S. Ninomia, and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of sapphire (α-Al2O3) single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 8032–8036 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, “Optical constants for Al2O3, taken from: Hagemann, et al.,” in Physik Daten, Physics Data: Optical Properties of Metals (Fach-information zentrum, 1981), Vols. 18-1 and 18-2.
  17. F. Gervice, “Aluminum oxide (Al2O3),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 761–775.
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    [CrossRef]
  19. I. P. Batra, “Electronic structure of α-Al2O3,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 15, 5299–5410 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y.-N. Xu, and W. Y. Ching, “Self-consistent band structures, charge distributions, and optical-absorption spectra in MgO, α-Al2O3, and MgAl2O4,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4461–4472 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. M. Fang and R. A. de Groot, “The nature of electron states in AlN and α -Al2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 386223 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence x-ray reflection. Application to the polishing study of several silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, A. K. Sinha, R. V. Nandedkar, and S. A. Shivashankar, “Determination of interlayer composition at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181920 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).
  26. L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, T. T. Prasad, P. Nageswararao, and A. K. Sinha, “Probing porosity at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023529 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. Soufli and E. M. Gullikson, “Reflectance measurements on clean surfaces for the determination of optical constants of silicon in the extreme ultraviolet-soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5499–5507 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. Gupta, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modia, S. M. Gupta, P. K. Gupta, and S. K. Deb, “Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity as a sensitive probe to investigate polished zinc sulphide surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 210–214 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. Codling and R. P. Madden, “Structure in LII,III absorption of aluminum and its oxides,” Phys. Rev. 167, 587–591 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  32. I. Costinaa and R. Franchy, “Band gap of amorphous and well-ordered Al2O3 on Ni3Al(100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4139–4141 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. L. Bortz and R. H. French, “Optical reflectivity measurements using a laser plasma light source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1955–1957 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. Momida, T. Hamada, and Y. Takagi, “Theoretical study on dielectric response of amorphous alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 054108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. Tahir, H. L. Kwon, H. C. Shin, S. K. Oh, H. J. Kang, S. Heo, J. G. Chung, J. C. Lee, and S. Tougaard, “Electronic and optical properties of Al2O3/SiO2 thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43, 255301 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. K. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. Y. Park, Y. S. Yi, and C. W. Ahn, “Structure of amorphous aluminum oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 095501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  37. C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. Tahir, H. L. Kwon, H. C. Shin, S. K. Oh, H. J. Kang, S. Heo, J. G. Chung, J. C. Lee, and S. Tougaard, “Electronic and optical properties of Al2O3/SiO2 thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43, 255301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, T. T. Prasad, P. Nageswararao, and A. K. Sinha, “Probing porosity at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Gupta, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modia, S. M. Gupta, P. K. Gupta, and S. K. Deb, “Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity as a sensitive probe to investigate polished zinc sulphide surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 210–214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. K. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. Y. Park, Y. S. Yi, and C. W. Ahn, “Structure of amorphous aluminum oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 095501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. M. Fang and R. A. de Groot, “The nature of electron states in AlN and α -Al2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 386223 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Momida, T. Hamada, and Y. Takagi, “Theoretical study on dielectric response of amorphous alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 054108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, A. K. Sinha, R. V. Nandedkar, and S. A. Shivashankar, “Determination of interlayer composition at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. K. Kim and C. S. Hwang, “Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films with thin SiO2 layers grown by in situO3 oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2323–2329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al O films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413, 186–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

I. Costinaa and R. Franchy, “Band gap of amorphous and well-ordered Al2O3 on Ni3Al(100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4139–4141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. H. French, H. Mullejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminum oxide: determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2549–2557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

A. K. Harman, S. Ninomia, and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of sapphire (α-Al2O3) single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 8032–8036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. French, D. J. Jones, and S. Laughni, “Interband electronic structure of α-Al2O3 up to 2167 K,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 412–422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000  eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

Y.-N. Xu, and W. Y. Ching, “Self-consistent band structures, charge distributions, and optical-absorption spectra in MgO, α-Al2O3, and MgAl2O4,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4461–4472 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. H. French, “Electronic structure of α-Al2O3, with comparison to ALON and ALNs,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 477–489 (1990).

M. L. Bortz, R. H. French, D. J. Jones, R. V. Kasowsky, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of Al2O3, MgAl2O4 and MgO,” Phys. Scr. 41, 537–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. H. French, “Electronic structure of α-Al2O3, with comparison to AlON and AlN,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 477–489 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. L. Bortz and R. H. French, “Optical reflectivity measurements using a laser plasma light source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1955–1957 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. H. French, R. L. Coble, R. V. Kasowski, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Vacuum ultra-violet, photo emission and theoretical studies of the electronic structure of Al2O3 up to 1000°C,” Physica B 150, 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982

I. P. Batra, “Electronic structure of α-Al2O3,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 15, 5299–5410 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence x-ray reflection. Application to the polishing study of several silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1968

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, “Structure in LII,III absorption of aluminum and its oxides,” Phys. Rev. 167, 587–591 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1954

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Aarik, J.

S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

A. K. Harman, S. Ninomia, and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of sapphire (α-Al2O3) single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 8032–8036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, C. W.

S. K. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. Y. Park, Y. S. Yi, and C. W. Ahn, “Structure of amorphous aluminum oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 095501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ahuja, R.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aidla, A.

S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aiura, Y.

T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Als-Nielsen, J.

J. Als-Nielsen and D. McMorrow, Elements of Modern X-Ray Physics (Wiley, 2011).

Amerioun, S.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Araujo, C. M.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Århammar, C.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 1999).

Bailón, L.

S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Batra, I. P.

I. P. Batra, “Electronic structure of α-Al2O3,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 15, 5299–5410 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Baumvol, I. J. R.

M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bock, N.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bortz, M. L.

M. L. Bortz, R. H. French, D. J. Jones, R. V. Kasowsky, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of Al2O3, MgAl2O4 and MgO,” Phys. Scr. 41, 537–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz and R. H. French, “Optical reflectivity measurements using a laser plasma light source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1955–1957 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brijs, B.

M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Castán, H.

S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chabal, Y. J.

M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ching, W. Y.

Y.-N. Xu, and W. Y. Ching, “Self-consistent band structures, charge distributions, and optical-absorption spectra in MgO, α-Al2O3, and MgAl2O4,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4461–4472 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chung, J. G.

D. Tahir, H. L. Kwon, H. C. Shin, S. K. Oh, H. J. Kang, S. Heo, J. G. Chung, J. C. Lee, and S. Tougaard, “Electronic and optical properties of Al2O3/SiO2 thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43, 255301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coble, R. L.

R. H. French, R. L. Coble, R. V. Kasowski, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Vacuum ultra-violet, photo emission and theoretical studies of the electronic structure of Al2O3 up to 1000°C,” Physica B 150, 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Codling, K.

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, “Structure in LII,III absorption of aluminum and its oxides,” Phys. Rev. 167, 587–591 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Costinaa, I.

I. Costinaa and R. Franchy, “Band gap of amorphous and well-ordered Al2O3 on Ni3Al(100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4139–4141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Croce, P.

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence x-ray reflection. Application to the polishing study of several silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

da Rosa, E. B. O.

M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000  eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
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S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
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C. M. Fang and R. A. de Groot, “The nature of electron states in AlN and α -Al2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 386223 (2007).
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P. Gupta, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modia, S. M. Gupta, P. K. Gupta, and S. K. Deb, “Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity as a sensitive probe to investigate polished zinc sulphide surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 210–214 (2010).
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M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
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S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
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M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al O films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413, 186–197 (2002).
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M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al O films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413, 186–197 (2002).
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C. M. Fang and R. A. de Groot, “The nature of electron states in AlN and α -Al2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 386223 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
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M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

French, R. H.

R. H. French, H. Mullejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminum oxide: determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2549–2557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. H. French, D. J. Jones, and S. Laughni, “Interband electronic structure of α-Al2O3 up to 2167 K,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 412–422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz, R. H. French, D. J. Jones, R. V. Kasowsky, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of Al2O3, MgAl2O4 and MgO,” Phys. Scr. 41, 537–541 (1990).
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T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
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T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
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T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
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S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, S. M.

M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al O films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413, 186–197 (2002).
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F. Gervice, “Aluminum oxide (Al2O3),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 761–775.

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C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
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M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Green, S.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
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Groner, M. D.

M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al O films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413, 186–197 (2002).
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[CrossRef]

Gupta, P.

P. Gupta, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modia, S. M. Gupta, P. K. Gupta, and S. K. Deb, “Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity as a sensitive probe to investigate polished zinc sulphide surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 210–214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P. K.

P. Gupta, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modia, S. M. Gupta, P. K. Gupta, and S. K. Deb, “Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity as a sensitive probe to investigate polished zinc sulphide surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 210–214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S. M.

P. Gupta, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modia, S. M. Gupta, P. K. Gupta, and S. K. Deb, “Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity as a sensitive probe to investigate polished zinc sulphide surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 210–214 (2010).
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H. Momida, T. Hamada, and Y. Takagi, “Theoretical study on dielectric response of amorphous alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 054108 (2006).
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A. K. Harman, S. Ninomia, and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of sapphire (α-Al2O3) single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 8032–8036 (1994).
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S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000  eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hennies, F.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
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D. Tahir, H. L. Kwon, H. C. Shin, S. K. Oh, H. J. Kang, S. Heo, J. G. Chung, J. C. Lee, and S. Tougaard, “Electronic and optical properties of Al2O3/SiO2 thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43, 255301 (2010).
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Ho, M.-Y.

M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holmström, E.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, C. S.

S. K. Kim and C. S. Hwang, “Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films with thin SiO2 layers grown by in situO3 oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2323–2329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, B.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
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Jones, D. J.

R. H. French, H. Mullejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminum oxide: determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2549–2557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. H. French, D. J. Jones, and S. Laughni, “Interband electronic structure of α-Al2O3 up to 2167 K,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 412–422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz, R. H. French, D. J. Jones, R. V. Kasowsky, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of Al2O3, MgAl2O4 and MgO,” Phys. Scr. 41, 537–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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D. Tahir, H. L. Kwon, H. C. Shin, S. K. Oh, H. J. Kang, S. Heo, J. G. Chung, J. C. Lee, and S. Tougaard, “Electronic and optical properties of Al2O3/SiO2 thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43, 255301 (2010).
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R. H. French, R. L. Coble, R. V. Kasowski, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Vacuum ultra-violet, photo emission and theoretical studies of the electronic structure of Al2O3 up to 1000°C,” Physica B 150, 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kasowsky, R. V.

M. L. Bortz, R. H. French, D. J. Jones, R. V. Kasowsky, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of Al2O3, MgAl2O4 and MgO,” Phys. Scr. 41, 537–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

S. K. Kim and C. S. Hwang, “Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films with thin SiO2 layers grown by in situO3 oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2323–2329 (2004).
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J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, “Optical constants for Al2O3, taken from: Hagemann, et al.,” in Physik Daten, Physics Data: Optical Properties of Metals (Fach-information zentrum, 1981), Vols. 18-1 and 18-2.

Krafka, C.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, “Optical constants for Al2O3, taken from: Hagemann, et al.,” in Physik Daten, Physics Data: Optical Properties of Metals (Fach-information zentrum, 1981), Vols. 18-1 and 18-2.

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S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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D. Tahir, H. L. Kwon, H. C. Shin, S. K. Oh, H. J. Kang, S. Heo, J. G. Chung, J. C. Lee, and S. Tougaard, “Electronic and optical properties of Al2O3/SiO2 thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43, 255301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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R. H. French, D. J. Jones, and S. Laughni, “Interband electronic structure of α-Al2O3 up to 2167 K,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 412–422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. C.

D. Tahir, H. L. Kwon, H. C. Shin, S. K. Oh, H. J. Kang, S. Heo, J. G. Chung, J. C. Lee, and S. Tougaard, “Electronic and optical properties of Al2O3/SiO2 thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43, 255301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, T. T. Prasad, P. Nageswararao, and A. K. Sinha, “Probing porosity at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, A. K. Sinha, R. V. Nandedkar, and S. A. Shivashankar, “Determination of interlayer composition at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D. W.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, “Optical constants for Al2O3, taken from: Hagemann, et al.,” in Physik Daten, Physics Data: Optical Properties of Metals (Fach-information zentrum, 1981), Vols. 18-1 and 18-2.

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S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
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T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Modi, M. H.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Modia, M. H.

P. Gupta, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modia, S. M. Gupta, P. K. Gupta, and S. K. Deb, “Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity as a sensitive probe to investigate polished zinc sulphide surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 210–214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Momida, H.

H. Momida, T. Hamada, and Y. Takagi, “Theoretical study on dielectric response of amorphous alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 054108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mullejans, H.

R. H. French, H. Mullejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminum oxide: determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2549–2557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nageswararao, P.

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, T. T. Prasad, P. Nageswararao, and A. K. Sinha, “Probing porosity at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nandedkar, R. V.

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, A. K. Sinha, R. V. Nandedkar, and S. A. Shivashankar, “Determination of interlayer composition at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, M.

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, T. T. Prasad, P. Nageswararao, and A. K. Sinha, “Probing porosity at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, A. K. Sinha, R. V. Nandedkar, and S. A. Shivashankar, “Determination of interlayer composition at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Nevot, L.

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence x-ray reflection. Application to the polishing study of several silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Niklasson, G. A.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ninomia, S.

A. K. Harman, S. Ninomia, and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of sapphire (α-Al2O3) single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 8032–8036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. K.

D. Tahir, H. L. Kwon, H. C. Shin, S. K. Oh, H. J. Kang, S. Heo, J. G. Chung, J. C. Lee, and S. Tougaard, “Electronic and optical properties of Al2O3/SiO2 thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43, 255301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ohuchi, F. S.

M. L. Bortz, R. H. French, D. J. Jones, R. V. Kasowsky, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of Al2O3, MgAl2O4 and MgO,” Phys. Scr. 41, 537–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. H. French, R. L. Coble, R. V. Kasowski, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Vacuum ultra-violet, photo emission and theoretical studies of the electronic structure of Al2O3 up to 1000°C,” Physica B 150, 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. Y.

S. K. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. Y. Park, Y. S. Yi, and C. W. Ahn, “Structure of amorphous aluminum oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 095501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parratt, L. G.

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Peery, T.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pietzsch, A.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, T. T.

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, T. T. Prasad, P. Nageswararao, and A. K. Sinha, “Probing porosity at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raghuvanshi, V. K.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Rubensson, J.-E.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sawhney, K. J. S.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Schlappa, J.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, T.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shikenbaru, T.

T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shimabukuro, R.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. C.

D. Tahir, H. L. Kwon, H. C. Shin, S. K. Oh, H. J. Kang, S. Heo, J. G. Chung, J. C. Lee, and S. Tougaard, “Electronic and optical properties of Al2O3/SiO2 thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43, 255301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shivashankar, S. A.

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, A. K. Sinha, R. V. Nandedkar, and S. A. Shivashankar, “Determination of interlayer composition at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, A. K.

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, T. T. Prasad, P. Nageswararao, and A. K. Sinha, “Probing porosity at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Gupta, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modia, S. M. Gupta, P. K. Gupta, and S. K. Deb, “Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity as a sensitive probe to investigate polished zinc sulphide surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 210–214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, A. K. Sinha, R. V. Nandedkar, and S. A. Shivashankar, “Determination of interlayer composition at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, 1994).

Stedile, F. C.

M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Strocov, V. N.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tahir, D.

D. Tahir, H. L. Kwon, H. C. Shin, S. K. Oh, H. J. Kang, S. Heo, J. G. Chung, J. C. Lee, and S. Tougaard, “Electronic and optical properties of Al2O3/SiO2 thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43, 255301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, Y.

H. Momida, T. Hamada, and Y. Takagi, “Theoretical study on dielectric response of amorphous alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 054108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tamashiro, J.

T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, J.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tomiki, T.

T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tougaard, S.

D. Tahir, H. L. Kwon, H. C. Shin, S. K. Oh, H. J. Kang, S. Heo, J. G. Chung, J. C. Lee, and S. Tougaard, “Electronic and optical properties of Al2O3/SiO2 thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43, 255301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, P.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uustare, T.

S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verma, A.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Wallace, D. C.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, J. H.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, “Optical constants for Al2O3, taken from: Hagemann, et al.,” in Physik Daten, Physics Data: Optical Properties of Metals (Fach-information zentrum, 1981), Vols. 18-1 and 18-2.

Wilk, G. D.

M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.-N.

Y.-N. Xu, and W. Y. Ching, “Self-consistent band structures, charge distributions, and optical-absorption spectra in MgO, α-Al2O3, and MgAl2O4,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4461–4472 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yi, Y. S.

S. K. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. Y. Park, Y. S. Yi, and C. W. Ahn, “Structure of amorphous aluminum oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 095501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yonesu, A.

T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yuri, M.

T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. Costinaa and R. Franchy, “Band gap of amorphous and well-ordered Al2O3 on Ni3Al(100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4139–4141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz and R. H. French, “Optical reflectivity measurements using a laser plasma light source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1955–1957 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, A. K. Sinha, R. V. Nandedkar, and S. A. Shivashankar, “Determination of interlayer composition at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Frank, Y. J. Chabal, M. L. Green, A. Delabie, B. Brijs, G. D. Wilk, M.-Y. Ho, E. B. O. da Rosa, I. J. R. Baumvol, and F. C. Stedile, “Enhanced initial growth of atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 740–742 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

P. Gupta, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modia, S. M. Gupta, P. K. Gupta, and S. K. Deb, “Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity as a sensitive probe to investigate polished zinc sulphide surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 210–214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000  eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Sci.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

R. H. French, H. Mullejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminum oxide: determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2549–2557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. H. French, D. J. Jones, and S. Laughni, “Interband electronic structure of α-Al2O3 up to 2167 K,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 412–422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. French, “Electronic structure of α-Al2O3, with comparison to AlON and AlN,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 477–489 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

R. H. French, “Electronic structure of α-Al2O3, with comparison to ALON and ALNs,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 477–489 (1990).

J. Appl. Phys.

S. K. Kim and C. S. Hwang, “Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films with thin SiO2 layers grown by in situO3 oxidation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2323–2329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Dueñas, H. Castán, H. García, A. de Castro, L. Bailón, K. Kukli, A. Aidla, J. Aarik, H. Mändar, T. Uustare, J. Lu, and A. Hårsta, “Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 054902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Harman, S. Ninomia, and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of sapphire (α-Al2O3) single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 8032–8036 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, T. T. Prasad, P. Nageswararao, and A. K. Sinha, “Probing porosity at buried interfaces using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 023529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.

I. P. Batra, “Electronic structure of α-Al2O3,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 15, 5299–5410 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

C. M. Fang and R. A. de Groot, “The nature of electron states in AlN and α -Al2O3,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 386223 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

D. Tahir, H. L. Kwon, H. C. Shin, S. K. Oh, H. J. Kang, S. Heo, J. G. Chung, J. C. Lee, and S. Tougaard, “Electronic and optical properties of Al2O3/SiO2 thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43, 255301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

T. Tomiki, Y. Ganaha, T. Shikenbaru, T. Futemma, M. Yuri, Y. Aiura, S. Sato, H. Fukutani, H. Kato, T. Miyahara, A. Yonesu, and J. Tamashiro, “Anisotropic optical spectra of α-Al2O3 single crystal in vacuum ultraviolet region. I. Spectra of absorption tail and reflectivity,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, “Structure in LII,III absorption of aluminum and its oxides,” Phys. Rev. 167, 587–591 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

H. Momida, T. Hamada, and Y. Takagi, “Theoretical study on dielectric response of amorphous alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 054108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-N. Xu, and W. Y. Ching, “Self-consistent band structures, charge distributions, and optical-absorption spectra in MgO, α-Al2O3, and MgAl2O4,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4461–4472 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. K. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. Y. Park, Y. S. Yi, and C. W. Ahn, “Structure of amorphous aluminum oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 095501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr.

M. L. Bortz, R. H. French, D. J. Jones, R. V. Kasowsky, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of Al2O3, MgAl2O4 and MgO,” Phys. Scr. 41, 537–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Physica B

R. H. French, R. L. Coble, R. V. Kasowski, and F. S. Ohuchi, “Vacuum ultra-violet, photo emission and theoretical studies of the electronic structure of Al2O3 up to 1000°C,” Physica B 150, 47–49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

C. Århammar, A. Pietzsch, N. Bock, E. Holmström, C. M. Araujo, J. Gråsjö, S. Zhao, S. Green, T. Peery, F. Hennies, S. Amerioun, A. Föhlisch, J. Schlappa, T. Schmitt, V. N. Strocov, G. A. Niklasson, D. C. Wallace, J.-E. Rubensson, B. Johansson, and R. Ahuja, “Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6355–6360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl.

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence x-ray reflection. Application to the polishing study of several silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al O films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413, 186–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, 1994).

J. Als-Nielsen and D. McMorrow, Elements of Modern X-Ray Physics (Wiley, 2011).

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 1999).

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, “Optical constants for Al2O3, taken from: Hagemann, et al.,” in Physik Daten, Physics Data: Optical Properties of Metals (Fach-information zentrum, 1981), Vols. 18-1 and 18-2.

F. Gervice, “Aluminum oxide (Al2O3),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 761–775.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Hard x-ray reflectivity of sapphire wafer. The fitting model is shown in the inset.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Hard x-ray reflectivity of amorphous alumina on GaAs substrate with best fit. The fitting model is shown in the inset.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Soft x-ray reflectivity with best fit for crystalline alumina.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Soft x-ray reflectivity of amorphous alumina with best fit.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

δ and β of sapphire crystal calculated from resonant soft x-ray reflectivity in the energy range 67–85 eV.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

δ and β of amorphous alumina calculated from resonant soft x-ray reflectivity in the energy range 67–85 eV.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fine structure in refractive index of crystalline and amorphous alumina. The inset shows the difference in absorption index of both types of alumina.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison of imaginary part of refractive index with available literature.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of real part of refractive index with available literature.

Equations (7)

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fo(ω)=sgsω2ω2ωs2+iγω,
fo(ω)=f(1)(ω)if(2)(ω).
n(ω)=1Nareλ22πfo(ω)=1δ(ω)+iβ(ω),
δ=Nareλ22πf(1)(ω),β=Nareλ22πf(2)(ω).
ncompound=1reλ22πjpj(fj1ifj2).
rfresnel=sinθn2cos2θsinθ+n2cos2θ.
r=rfresnel×eq2σ2/2,

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