Abstract

The scintillation measured over close-to-ground retro-reflector links can be substantially enhanced due to the correlations experienced by both the direct and reflected echo beams. Experiments were carried out at China Lake, California, over a variety of ranges. The emphasis in this paper is on presenting the data from the 1.1 km retro-reflecting link that was operated for four consecutive days. The dependence of the measured irradiance flux variance on the solar fluence and on the temperature gradient above the ground is presented. The data are consistent with scintillation minima near sunrise and sunset, rising rapidly during the day and saturating at irradiance flux variances of 10. Measured irradiance probability distributions of the retro-reflected beam are compared with standard probability density functions. The ratio of the irradiance flux variances on the retro-reflected to the direct, single-pass case is investigated with two data sets, one from a monostatic system and the other using an off-axis receiver system.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

2011 (5)

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6476–6483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment I: direct link ranges of 2 to 24 km” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, H. R. Burris, and L. M. Thomas, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment II: Retro-reflector links,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816209 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. van Iersel and A. M. J. van Eijk, “Scintillation measurements over False Bay, South Africa,” Proc. SPIE 8161, 81610B(2011).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Felton and R. J. Alliss, “Improved climatological characterization of optical turbulence for free-space optical turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

W. P. Cole, W. D. Zacherl, and J. S. Delong, “Measured statistics of retroreflected 1064 nm laser light in atmospheric turbulence,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 2054–2059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47, 045001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, and J. Recolons, “Aperture averaging effects on the probability density of irradiance fluctuations in moderate-to-strong turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2099–2108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Frederickson, S. Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, “Improving bulk Cn2 models for over-ocean applications through new determinations of the dimensionless temperature structure parameter,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

G. J. Kunz, A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, and S. M. Hammel, “Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long range IR imaging in the marine surface layer,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 5891A1 (2005).

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, “Monostatic lidar in weak-to-strong turbulence,” Waves Random Media 11, 233–245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. A. Banakh, V. M. Sazanovich, and R. Sh. Tsvyk, “Propagation of a laser beam reflected from a mirror in the turbulent medium,” Proc. SPIE 4338, 75–88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. N. Bogaturov, A. A. D. Canas, J. C. Dainty, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Myakinin, C. J. Solomon, and N. J. Wooder, “Observation of the enhancement of coherence by backscattering through turbulence,” Opt. Commun. 87, 1–4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, “Enhanced backscatter of a reflected beam in atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2643–2646 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Fred Holmes, “Enhancement of backscattered intensity for a bistatic lidar operating in atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2643–2646 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Allard, L.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alliss, R. J.

B. D. Felton and R. J. Alliss, “Improved climatological characterization of optical turbulence for free-space optical turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L.

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, “Monostatic lidar in weak-to-strong turbulence,” Waves Random Media 11, 233–245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Propagation Scintillation with Applications (SPIE Press, 2001) and Chap. 9, pp. 295–303 within.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Philips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE Press, 2005).

Banakh, V. A.

V. A. Banakh, V. M. Sazanovich, and R. Sh. Tsvyk, “Propagation of a laser beam reflected from a mirror in the turbulent medium,” Proc. SPIE 4338, 75–88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Banakh and V. L. Miranov, Lidar in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Artech House, 1987) and Chap. 2, pp. 25–56 within.

Bendersky, S.

Berglund, F.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Binari, S.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blaunstein, N.

Bogaturov, A. N.

A. N. Bogaturov, A. A. D. Canas, J. C. Dainty, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Myakinin, C. J. Solomon, and N. J. Wooder, “Observation of the enhancement of coherence by backscattering through turbulence,” Opt. Commun. 87, 1–4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bolander, G.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bovais, C. S.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Burris, H. R.

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6476–6483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, H. R. Burris, and L. M. Thomas, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment II: Retro-reflector links,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816209 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Stell, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “An analysis of long-term measurements of laser propagation over the Chesapeake Bay,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2388–2400 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Canas, A. A. D.

A. N. Bogaturov, A. A. D. Canas, J. C. Dainty, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Myakinin, C. J. Solomon, and N. J. Wooder, “Observation of the enhancement of coherence by backscattering through turbulence,” Opt. Commun. 87, 1–4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, S. L.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Chang, H.-F.

B.-K. Ma, L.-X. Guo, and H.-F. Chang, “Research on scintillation characteristic of laser beam reflect by target in atmospheric turbulence under strong fluctuation,” in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Microwave Technology and Computational Electromagnetics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 342–345.

Churnside, J. H.

J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, “Enhanced backscatter of a reflected beam in atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2643–2646 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Colbert, M.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Cole, W. P.

W. P. Cole, W. D. Zacherl, and J. S. Delong, “Measured statistics of retroreflected 1064 nm laser light in atmospheric turbulence,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 2054–2059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cowley, W.

Dainty, J. C.

A. N. Bogaturov, A. A. D. Canas, J. C. Dainty, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Myakinin, C. J. Solomon, and N. J. Wooder, “Observation of the enhancement of coherence by backscattering through turbulence,” Opt. Commun. 87, 1–4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Delong, J. S.

W. P. Cole, W. D. Zacherl, and J. S. Delong, “Measured statistics of retroreflected 1064 nm laser light in atmospheric turbulence,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 2054–2059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Felton, B. D.

B. D. Felton and R. J. Alliss, “Improved climatological characterization of optical turbulence for free-space optical turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, M.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Ferraro, M. S.

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment I: direct link ranges of 2 to 24 km” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6476–6483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, H. R. Burris, and L. M. Thomas, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment II: Retro-reflector links,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816209 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47, 045001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frawley, S.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Fred Holmes, J.

Frederickson, P. A.

P. A. Frederickson, S. Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, “Improving bulk Cn2 models for over-ocean applications through new determinations of the dimensionless temperature structure parameter,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, W.

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47, 045001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, W. T.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Giggenbach, D.

Gilbreath, G. C.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, P. G.

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47, 045001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Grant, K.

Guo, L.-X.

B.-K. Ma, L.-X. Guo, and H.-F. Chang, “Research on scintillation characteristic of laser beam reflect by target in atmospheric turbulence under strong fluctuation,” in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Microwave Technology and Computational Electromagnetics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 342–345.

Gurvich, A. S.

A. N. Bogaturov, A. A. D. Canas, J. C. Dainty, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Myakinin, C. J. Solomon, and N. J. Wooder, “Observation of the enhancement of coherence by backscattering through turbulence,” Opt. Commun. 87, 1–4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, O.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gustavsson, F.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hacker, K.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Hammel, S.

P. A. Frederickson, S. Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, “Improving bulk Cn2 models for over-ocean applications through new determinations of the dimensionless temperature structure parameter,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hammel, S. M.

G. J. Kunz, A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, and S. M. Hammel, “Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long range IR imaging in the marine surface layer,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 5891A1 (2005).

Hopen, C. Y.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Propagation Scintillation with Applications (SPIE Press, 2001) and Chap. 9, pp. 295–303 within.

Karlsson, K.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klotzkin, D.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kopeika, N. S.

Koplow, J.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, G. J.

G. J. Kunz, A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, and S. M. Hammel, “Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long range IR imaging in the marine surface layer,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 5891A1 (2005).

Larsson, T.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lyke, S. D.

Ma, B.-K.

B.-K. Ma, L.-X. Guo, and H.-F. Chang, “Research on scintillation characteristic of laser beam reflect by target in atmospheric turbulence under strong fluctuation,” in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Microwave Technology and Computational Electromagnetics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 342–345.

Mahon, R.

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6476–6483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, H. R. Burris, and L. M. Thomas, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment II: Retro-reflector links,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816209 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment I: direct link ranges of 2 to 24 km” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Stell, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “An analysis of long-term measurements of laser propagation over the Chesapeake Bay,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2388–2400 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47, 045001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Mathieu, B.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Miranov, V. L.

V. A. Banakh and V. L. Miranov, Lidar in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Artech House, 1987) and Chap. 2, pp. 25–56 within.

Moore, C. I.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, H. R. Burris, and L. M. Thomas, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment II: Retro-reflector links,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816209 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6476–6483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment I: direct link ranges of 2 to 24 km” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Stell, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “An analysis of long-term measurements of laser propagation over the Chesapeake Bay,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2388–2400 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47, 045001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Murphy, J.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J. L.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Myakinin, V. A.

A. N. Bogaturov, A. A. D. Canas, J. C. Dainty, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Myakinin, C. J. Solomon, and N. J. Wooder, “Observation of the enhancement of coherence by backscattering through turbulence,” Opt. Commun. 87, 1–4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Oh, E.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parenti, R. R.

R. R. Parenti, J. M. Roth, J. H. Shapiro, and F. G. Walther, “Observations of channel reciprocity in optical free-space communications experiments,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications, OSA Technical Digest, (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper LTuD3.

Perlot, N.

Petersson, M.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Philips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Philips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE Press, 2005).

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, “Monostatic lidar in weak-to-strong turbulence,” Waves Random Media 11, 233–245 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Propagation Scintillation with Applications (SPIE Press, 2001) and Chap. 9, pp. 295–303 within.

Plett, M.

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47, 045001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rabinovich, W. S.

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment I: direct link ranges of 2 to 24 km” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6476–6483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, H. R. Burris, and L. M. Thomas, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment II: Retro-reflector links,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816209 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Stell, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “An analysis of long-term measurements of laser propagation over the Chesapeake Bay,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2388–2400 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47, 045001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Recolons, J.

Reese, S.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Roggemann, M. C.

Roth, J. M.

R. R. Parenti, J. M. Roth, J. H. Shapiro, and F. G. Walther, “Observations of channel reciprocity in optical free-space communications experiments,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications, OSA Technical Digest, (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper LTuD3.

Sazanovich, V. M.

V. A. Banakh, V. M. Sazanovich, and R. Sh. Tsvyk, “Propagation of a laser beam reflected from a mirror in the turbulent medium,” Proc. SPIE 4338, 75–88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, W.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Shapiro, J. H.

R. R. Parenti, J. M. Roth, J. H. Shapiro, and F. G. Walther, “Observations of channel reciprocity in optical free-space communications experiments,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications, OSA Technical Digest, (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper LTuD3.

Smith, W. R.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Solomon, C. J.

A. N. Bogaturov, A. A. D. Canas, J. C. Dainty, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Myakinin, C. J. Solomon, and N. J. Wooder, “Observation of the enhancement of coherence by backscattering through turbulence,” Opt. Commun. 87, 1–4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Steinvali, O.

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stell, M.

Stell, M. F.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suite, M.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suite, M. R.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, H. R. Burris, and L. M. Thomas, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment II: Retro-reflector links,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816209 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6476–6483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment I: direct link ranges of 2 to 24 km” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Stell, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “An analysis of long-term measurements of laser propagation over the Chesapeake Bay,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2388–2400 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Swingen, L.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, L. M.

Tsintikidis, D.

P. A. Frederickson, S. Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, “Improving bulk Cn2 models for over-ocean applications through new determinations of the dimensionless temperature structure parameter,” Proc. SPIE 6708, 670807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kunz, A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, and S. M. Hammel, “Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long range IR imaging in the marine surface layer,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 5891A1 (2005).

Tsvyk, R. Sh.

V. A. Banakh, V. M. Sazanovich, and R. Sh. Tsvyk, “Propagation of a laser beam reflected from a mirror in the turbulent medium,” Proc. SPIE 4338, 75–88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Eijk, A. M. J.

M. van Iersel and A. M. J. van Eijk, “Scintillation measurements over False Bay, South Africa,” Proc. SPIE 8161, 81610B(2011).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kunz, A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, and S. M. Hammel, “Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long range IR imaging in the marine surface layer,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 5891A1 (2005).

van Iersel, M.

M. van Iersel and A. M. J. van Eijk, “Scintillation measurements over False Bay, South Africa,” Proc. SPIE 8161, 81610B(2011).
[CrossRef]

Vetelino, F. S.

Vilcheck, M. J.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Voelz, D. G.

Walther, F. G.

R. R. Parenti, J. M. Roth, J. H. Shapiro, and F. G. Walther, “Observations of channel reciprocity in optical free-space communications experiments,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications, OSA Technical Digest, (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper LTuD3.

Wilson, J. J.

J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, “Enhanced backscatter of a reflected beam in atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2643–2646 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Witkowsky, J. L.

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[CrossRef]

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A. N. Bogaturov, A. A. D. Canas, J. C. Dainty, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Myakinin, C. J. Solomon, and N. J. Wooder, “Observation of the enhancement of coherence by backscattering through turbulence,” Opt. Commun. 87, 1–4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Young, C.

Zacherl, W. D.

W. P. Cole, W. D. Zacherl, and J. S. Delong, “Measured statistics of retroreflected 1064 nm laser light in atmospheric turbulence,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 2054–2059 (2010).
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Appl. Opt. (9)

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, and J. Recolons, “Aperture averaging effects on the probability density of irradiance fluctuations in moderate-to-strong turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2099–2108 (2007).
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S. D. Lyke, D. G. Voelz, and M. C. Roggemann, “Probability density of aperture-averaged irradiance fluctuations for long range free space optical communication links,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6511–6527 (2009).
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R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “Probability density of irradiance fluctuations observed over terrestrial ranges,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6476–6483 (2011).
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J. Fred Holmes, “Enhancement of backscattered intensity for a bistatic lidar operating in atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2643–2646 (1991).
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J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, “Enhanced backscatter of a reflected beam in atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2643–2646 (1991).
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N. Perlot and D. Giggenbach, “Scintillation correlation between forward and return spherical waves,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2888–2893 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Giggenbach, W. Cowley, K. Grant, and N. Perlot, “Experimental verification of the limits of optical channel intensity reciprocity,” Appl. Opt. 51, 3145–3152 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Bendersky, N. S. Kopeika, and N. Blaunstein, “Atmospheric optical turbulence over land in middle east coastal environments: prediction modeling and measurements,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4070–4079 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, W. S. Rabinovich, M. Stell, M. R. Suite, and L. M. Thomas, “An analysis of long-term measurements of laser propagation over the Chesapeake Bay,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2388–2400 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. P. Cole, W. D. Zacherl, and J. S. Delong, “Measured statistics of retroreflected 1064 nm laser light in atmospheric turbulence,” J. Mod. Opt. 57, 2054–2059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. N. Bogaturov, A. A. D. Canas, J. C. Dainty, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Myakinin, C. J. Solomon, and N. J. Wooder, “Observation of the enhancement of coherence by backscattering through turbulence,” Opt. Commun. 87, 1–4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (4)

O. Steinvali, G. Bolander, M. Petersson, O. Gustafsson, F. Berglund, L. Allard, K. Karlsson, T. Larsson, and F. Gustavsson, “Single- and double-path 10.6 μm laser link measurements over sea water,” Opt. Eng. 46, 036001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well modulating retro-reflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. S. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, S. Binari, and D. Klotzkin, “45  Mbit/s cat’s eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Eng. 46, 104001 (2007).
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M. Plett, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, M. S. Ferraro, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, and W. Freeman, “Free-space optical communication link across 16 km over the Chesapeake Bay to a modulated retro-reflector-array,” Opt. Eng. 47, 045001 (2008).
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R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, W. S. Rabinovich, and M. R. Suite, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment I: direct link ranges of 2 to 24 km” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, C. I. Moore, M. S. Ferraro, M. R. Suite, H. R. Burris, and L. M. Thomas, “Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment II: Retro-reflector links,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816209 (2011).
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B.-K. Ma, L.-X. Guo, and H.-F. Chang, “Research on scintillation characteristic of laser beam reflect by target in atmospheric turbulence under strong fluctuation,” in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Microwave Technology and Computational Electromagnetics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 342–345.

R. R. Parenti, J. M. Roth, J. H. Shapiro, and F. G. Walther, “Observations of channel reciprocity in optical free-space communications experiments,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications, OSA Technical Digest, (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper LTuD3.

P. G. Goetz, J. L. Murphy, M. R. Suite, R. Mahon, M. Ferraro, W. R. Smith, B. B. Xu, S. L. Carruthers, C. S. Bovais, W. S. Rabinovich, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, W. Schultz, W. T. Freeman, S. Frawley, M. Colbert, B. Mathieu, K. Hacker, and S. Reese, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

V. A. Banakh and V. L. Miranov, Lidar in a Turbulent Atmosphere (Artech House, 1987) and Chap. 2, pp. 25–56 within.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Physical layout of the 1.1 km retro-reflecting link is shown in relation to the direct links that operated over a variable range. The direct links receiver at the TATS trailer measured the irradiance variance over a 22 mm diam receiver as well as angle-of-arrival variance and high-speed images. The terrain over which the 1.1 km retro-reflecting link operated is shown in the lower image. This link to the 25 mm retro-reflector used a monostatic laser interrogator with a 28 mm diam irradiance receiver.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized irradiance flux variance σI2(D) as measured on 7 December 2010 on a retro-reflecting link of range 1.1 km is compared with the (a) incident solar fluence and with the (b) air–ground temperature difference as measured between a height of 4.5 m and 0.1 m above the ground. (c) Temperature and wind speed are plotted, while the (d) humidity and dew point are given.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized irradiance flux variance σI2(D) as measured on 8 December 2010, on a retro-reflecting link of range 1.1 km is compared with the (a) incident solar fluence and with the (b) air–ground temperature difference as measured between a height of 4.5 m and 0.1 m above the ground. (c) Temperature and wind speed are plotted, while the (d) humidity and dew point are given.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized irradiance flux variance σI2(D) as measured on 9 December 2010, on a retro-reflecting link of range 1.1 km is compared with the (a) incident solar fluence and with the (b) air–ground temperature difference (b) as measured between a height of 4.5 m and 0.1 m above the ground. (c) Temperature and wind speed are plotted, while the (d) humidity and dew point are given.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized irradiance flux variance σI2(D) as measured on 10 December 2010, on a retro-reflecting link of range 1.1 km is compared with the (a) incident solar fluence and with the (b) air–ground temperature difference as measured between a height of 4.5 m and 0.1 m above the ground. (c) Temperature and wind speed are plotted, while the (d) humidity and dew point are given.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalized irradiance flux variance σI2(D) is plotted as a function of temperature difference as measured between a height of 4.5 m and 0.1 m above the ground for the 1.1 km retro-reflecting link recorded at China Lake for (a) 7 December, (b) 8 December, (c) 9 December, and (d) 10 December, 2010.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The normalized irradiance flux variance σI2(D) as evaluated every 10 s, is plotted for a 1.1 km link to a 25 mm diam retro-reflector and a receiver of diam D=28mm, over the daylight hours of 9 December 2010, at China Lake, California.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The scintillation index, as evaluated in the strong fluctuation case, for a range of 1.1 km for both a direct path and a retro-reflected path is plotted as a function of the spherical Rytov variance β0 under the assumption of a point target retro-reflector and for a collimated beam. The ratio of the double-pass to single-pass scintillation index is also shown.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Normalized irradiance flux variance measured over a 1.1 km retro-reflecting link and measured simultaneously over a 2 km direct link. (b) Atmospheric structure coefficient Cn2 evaluated from angle-of-arrival variance measurements on the direct 2 km link. (c) The ratio of the σI2(D) measured on the 1.1 km retro-reflected link to that on the direct 2 km link. (d) Results of a spherical wave model, assuming a collimated beam and a point target, for the double 1.1 km passage link as well as the direct 2 km link, together with the ratio of the respective scintillation indices as a function of Cn2.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Normalized irradiance flux variance measured over a 2 km retro-reflecting link (4 km double path) and measured simultaneously over a 2 km direct link. The receiver on the double path link was a 100 mm diam aperture offset from the outgoing beam axis by 115 mm. The receiver on the direct path was 22 mm diam. (b) The ratio of the σI2(D) measured on the 2 km retro-reflected link to that measured on the 2 km direct link. (c) The results of a Gaussian beam wave model for a point target for the double-pass 2 km link (4 km total path) as well as the direct 2 km link, together with the ratio of the respective scintillation indices as a function of the spherical Rytov parameter β0.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Sample irradiance data, recorded on a retro-reflecting link to a 25 mm diam retro-reflector at a range of 1.1 km on 10 December 2010, are compared with a log-normal probability density function (dashed curve) and with a gamma-gamma probability density function (continuous curve). The scintillation index for the particular data set is given on each legend as σI2.

Equations (1)

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σI2(r,2L)=σI,i2(r,L)+σI,beam2(r,L)+2CIiR(r,L)

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