Abstract

An axial scanning laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) with directional discrimination not requiring any moving mechanism in its probe is proposed. The proposed LDV utilizes frequency shift induced by acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) for discriminating the direction of velocity. The measurement position is axially scanned by changing the wavelength of the light input to the probe. The experimental result reveals that both the axial scan and the directional discrimination can be realized by using the proposed method without any moving element in the probe.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. R. Grant and K. L. Orloff, “Two-color dual-beam backscatter laser Doppler velocimeter,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2913–2916 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Durst, B. Lehmann, and C. Tropea, “Laser-Doppler system for rapid scanning of flow fields,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1676–1681 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Sriram, S. Hanagud, J. Craig, and N. M. Komerath, “Scanning laser Doppler technique for velocity profile sensing on a moving surface,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2409–2417 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in 1981 Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence, pp. 380–389.
  5. E. B. Li, A. K. Tieu, and W. Y. D. Yuen, “Measurements of velocity distributions in the deformation zone in cold rolling by a scanning LDV,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35, 41–49 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Tirabassi and S. J. Rothberg, “Scanning LDV using wedge prisms,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 454–460 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, M. Hironaga, and M. Kano, “Optical-fiber laser Doppler velocimeter for high-resolution measurement of pulsatile blood flows,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1785–1790 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Stiegimeier and C. Tropea, “Mobile fiber-optic laser Doppler anemometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4096–4105 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, and J. G. Aarnoudse, “Laser Doppler blood flowmetry using two wavelengths: Monte Carlo simulations and measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3549–3558 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 7.3.
  11. K. Maru, “Axial scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using wavelength change without moving mechanism in sensor probe,” Opt. Express 19, 5960–5969 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Maru, T. Fujiwara, and R. Ikeuchi, “Nonmechanical transverse scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using wavelength change,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6121–6127 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Maru, “Non-mechanical dual-axis scanning laser Doppler velocimeter,” IEEE Sens. J.12, 24482452 (2012).
  14. J. Knuhtsen, E. Olldag, and P. Buchhave, “Fibre-optic laser Doppler anemometer with Bragg frequency shift utilising polarization-preserving single-mode fibre,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 15, 1188–1191 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, J. Ohtsubo, K. Honma, and K. Shimizu, “A frequency shifting of LDV for blood velocity measurement by a moving wedged glass,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3833–3837 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Shen, J. Zhang, Z. Wang, and H. Yu, “Two component LDV system with dual-differential acousto-optical frequency shift and its applications,” Acta Mech. Sin. 2, 81–92 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Hasegawa, S. Kato, and H. Itoh, “Two-dimensional fiber laser Doppler velocimeter by integrated optical frequency shifter,” Proc. SPIE 3740, 294–297 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 7.2.3.
  19. E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002), Section 10.2.8.
  20. H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 2.1.

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

M. Tirabassi and S. J. Rothberg, “Scanning LDV using wedge prisms,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. B. Li, A. K. Tieu, and W. Y. D. Yuen, “Measurements of velocity distributions in the deformation zone in cold rolling by a scanning LDV,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35, 41–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Hasegawa, S. Kato, and H. Itoh, “Two-dimensional fiber laser Doppler velocimeter by integrated optical frequency shifter,” Proc. SPIE 3740, 294–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

X. Shen, J. Zhang, Z. Wang, and H. Yu, “Two component LDV system with dual-differential acousto-optical frequency shift and its applications,” Acta Mech. Sin. 2, 81–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. Knuhtsen, E. Olldag, and P. Buchhave, “Fibre-optic laser Doppler anemometer with Bragg frequency shift utilising polarization-preserving single-mode fibre,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 15, 1188–1191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, M. Hironaga, and M. Kano, “Optical-fiber laser Doppler velocimeter for high-resolution measurement of pulsatile blood flows,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1785–1790 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

F. Durst, B. Lehmann, and C. Tropea, “Laser-Doppler system for rapid scanning of flow fields,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1676–1681 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, J. Ohtsubo, K. Honma, and K. Shimizu, “A frequency shifting of LDV for blood velocity measurement by a moving wedged glass,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3833–3837 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Albrecht, H.-E.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 7.3.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 7.2.3.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 2.1.

Borys, M.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 2.1.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 7.2.3.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 7.3.

Buchhave, P.

J. Knuhtsen, E. Olldag, and P. Buchhave, “Fibre-optic laser Doppler anemometer with Bragg frequency shift utilising polarization-preserving single-mode fibre,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 15, 1188–1191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Craig, J.

Damaschke, N.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 7.3.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 7.2.3.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 2.1.

Dassel, A. C. M.

de Mul, F. F. M.

Durst, F.

F. Durst, B. Lehmann, and C. Tropea, “Laser-Doppler system for rapid scanning of flow fields,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1676–1681 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Eiju, T.

Fujiwara, T.

Graaff, R.

Grant, G. R.

Greve, J.

Hanagud, S.

Hasegawa, K.

K. Hasegawa, S. Kato, and H. Itoh, “Two-dimensional fiber laser Doppler velocimeter by integrated optical frequency shifter,” Proc. SPIE 3740, 294–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002), Section 10.2.8.

Hironaga, M.

Hoki, N.

Honma, K.

Ikeuchi, R.

Itoh, H.

K. Hasegawa, S. Kato, and H. Itoh, “Two-dimensional fiber laser Doppler velocimeter by integrated optical frequency shifter,” Proc. SPIE 3740, 294–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kajiya, F.

Kano, M.

Kato, S.

K. Hasegawa, S. Kato, and H. Itoh, “Two-dimensional fiber laser Doppler velocimeter by integrated optical frequency shifter,” Proc. SPIE 3740, 294–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knuhtsen, J.

J. Knuhtsen, E. Olldag, and P. Buchhave, “Fibre-optic laser Doppler anemometer with Bragg frequency shift utilising polarization-preserving single-mode fibre,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 15, 1188–1191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Koelink, M. H.

Komerath, N. M.

Koyama, J.

Lehmann, B.

F. Durst, B. Lehmann, and C. Tropea, “Laser-Doppler system for rapid scanning of flow fields,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1676–1681 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. B.

E. B. Li, A. K. Tieu, and W. Y. D. Yuen, “Measurements of velocity distributions in the deformation zone in cold rolling by a scanning LDV,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35, 41–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maru, K.

Matsuda, K.

Nakano, Y.

N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in 1981 Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence, pp. 380–389.

Nakatani, N.

N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in 1981 Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence, pp. 380–389.

Nishihara, H.

Nishikawa, T.

N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in 1981 Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence, pp. 380–389.

Ohtsubo, J.

Olldag, E.

J. Knuhtsen, E. Olldag, and P. Buchhave, “Fibre-optic laser Doppler anemometer with Bragg frequency shift utilising polarization-preserving single-mode fibre,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 15, 1188–1191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Orloff, K. L.

Rothberg, S. J.

M. Tirabassi and S. J. Rothberg, “Scanning LDV using wedge prisms,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

X. Shen, J. Zhang, Z. Wang, and H. Yu, “Two component LDV system with dual-differential acousto-optical frequency shift and its applications,” Acta Mech. Sin. 2, 81–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

Sriram, P.

Stiegimeier, M.

Tieu, A. K.

E. B. Li, A. K. Tieu, and W. Y. D. Yuen, “Measurements of velocity distributions in the deformation zone in cold rolling by a scanning LDV,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35, 41–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tirabassi, M.

M. Tirabassi and S. J. Rothberg, “Scanning LDV using wedge prisms,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tropea, C.

M. Stiegimeier and C. Tropea, “Mobile fiber-optic laser Doppler anemometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4096–4105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Durst, B. Lehmann, and C. Tropea, “Laser-Doppler system for rapid scanning of flow fields,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1676–1681 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 7.3.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 7.2.3.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 2.1.

Wang, Z.

X. Shen, J. Zhang, Z. Wang, and H. Yu, “Two component LDV system with dual-differential acousto-optical frequency shift and its applications,” Acta Mech. Sin. 2, 81–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in 1981 Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence, pp. 380–389.

Yoneda, Y.

N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in 1981 Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence, pp. 380–389.

Yu, H.

X. Shen, J. Zhang, Z. Wang, and H. Yu, “Two component LDV system with dual-differential acousto-optical frequency shift and its applications,” Acta Mech. Sin. 2, 81–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, W. Y. D.

E. B. Li, A. K. Tieu, and W. Y. D. Yuen, “Measurements of velocity distributions in the deformation zone in cold rolling by a scanning LDV,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35, 41–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

X. Shen, J. Zhang, Z. Wang, and H. Yu, “Two component LDV system with dual-differential acousto-optical frequency shift and its applications,” Acta Mech. Sin. 2, 81–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Acta Mech. Sin. (1)

X. Shen, J. Zhang, Z. Wang, and H. Yu, “Two component LDV system with dual-differential acousto-optical frequency shift and its applications,” Acta Mech. Sin. 2, 81–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Knuhtsen, E. Olldag, and P. Buchhave, “Fibre-optic laser Doppler anemometer with Bragg frequency shift utilising polarization-preserving single-mode fibre,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 15, 1188–1191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

E. B. Li, A. K. Tieu, and W. Y. D. Yuen, “Measurements of velocity distributions in the deformation zone in cold rolling by a scanning LDV,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35, 41–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Tirabassi and S. J. Rothberg, “Scanning LDV using wedge prisms,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Hasegawa, S. Kato, and H. Itoh, “Two-dimensional fiber laser Doppler velocimeter by integrated optical frequency shifter,” Proc. SPIE 3740, 294–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Durst, B. Lehmann, and C. Tropea, “Laser-Doppler system for rapid scanning of flow fields,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1676–1681 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 7.3.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 7.2.3.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002), Section 10.2.8.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003), Section 2.1.

K. Maru, “Non-mechanical dual-axis scanning laser Doppler velocimeter,” IEEE Sens. J.12, 24482452 (2012).

N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in 1981 Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence, pp. 380–389.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Concept of proposed scanning LDV.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Model of transmitting optics in probe.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured spectra of beat signals. (a) λ=1530nm. (b) λ=1545nm. (c) λ=1560nm. The rotational speeds were set to 6.0, 0, and 6.0s1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured values of axial measurement positions as function of wavelength. Theoretical values are also plotted.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured beat frequency as function of wavelength for various rotational speeds. Theoretical values are also plotted.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured beat frequency as function of velocity for λ=1530, 1545, and 1560 nm. Theoretical values are also plotted.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕm(λ)=sin1(mλdsinϕi),
Lz(λ)=Lxtan(αϕm(λ)),
fD=2vsinθ(λ)λ,

Metrics