Abstract

We develop an analytical approach to refractive, blazed diffractive, and achromatic x-ray lenses of scalable dimensions for energies from 1 to 20 keV. Based on the parabolic wave equation, their wideband imaging properties are compared and optimized for a given spectral range. Low-Z lens materials for massive cores and rugged alternatives, such as polycarbonate or Si for flat Fresnel components, are investigated with respect to their suitability for diffraction-limited high-energy astronomy. Properly designed “hybrid” combinations can serve as an approach to x-ray telescopes with an enhanced efficiency throughout the whole considered band, nearly regardless of their inherent absorption.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210–1213 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384, 49–51 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D 38, A218–A222(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 1999).
  5. C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, “Focusing hard x-rays to nanometer dimensions by adiabatically focusing lenses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 054802 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 110801 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. K. Skinner, “Diffractive-refractive optics for high energy astronomy—II. Variations on the theme,” Astron. Astrophys. 383, 352–359 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. K. Skinner, “Design and imaging performance of achromatic diffractive-refractive x-ray and gamma-ray Fresnel lenses,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4845–4852 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Braig and P. Predehl, “Large-scale diffractive x-ray telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 21, 101–123 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Braig and P. Predehl, “Efficient Fresnel x-ray optics made simple,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2586–2599 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. K. Skinner, “Diffractive x-ray telescopes,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 743485 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Gorenstein, “Focusing x-ray optics for astronomy,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 109740 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000  eV, Z=1–92,” Atomic Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. X. Yang, “Fresnel and refractive lenses for x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 328, 578–587 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Braig, P. Predehl, and E.-B. Kley, “Efficient extreme ultraviolet transmission gratings for plasma diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 50, 066501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. V. Kopylov, A. V. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Application of the parabolic wave equation to x-ray diffraction optics,” Opt. Commun. 118, 619–636 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).
  19. C. Braig, and P. Predehl, “Advanced Fresnel x-ray telescopes for spectroscopic imaging,” Exp. Astron. 27, 131–155(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. T. Grubb, “Radiation damage and electron microscopy of organic polymers,” J. Mater. Sci. 9, 1715–1736 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. Barkusky, A. Bayer, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 014906 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Lengeler, J. Tümmler, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and C. Raven, “Transmission and gain of singly and doubly focusing refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5855–5861 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Krizmanic, G. Skinner, and N. Gehrels, “Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission,” Exp. Astron. 20, 497–503 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 1153–1167 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Krizmanic, B. Morgan, R. Streitmatter, N. Gehrels, K. Gendreau, Z. Arzoumanian, R. Ghodssi, and G. Skinner, “Development of ground-testable phase Fresnel lenses in silicon,” Exp. Astron. 20, 299–306 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

C. Braig, P. Predehl, and E.-B. Kley, “Efficient extreme ultraviolet transmission gratings for plasma diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 50, 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

G. K. Skinner, “Diffractive x-ray telescopes,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 743485 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Gorenstein, “Focusing x-ray optics for astronomy,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 109740 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

C. Braig, and P. Predehl, “Advanced Fresnel x-ray telescopes for spectroscopic imaging,” Exp. Astron. 27, 131–155(2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Barkusky, A. Bayer, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 014906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

C. Braig and P. Predehl, “Large-scale diffractive x-ray telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 21, 101–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

J. Krizmanic, G. Skinner, and N. Gehrels, “Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission,” Exp. Astron. 20, 497–503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Krizmanic, B. Morgan, R. Streitmatter, N. Gehrels, K. Gendreau, Z. Arzoumanian, R. Ghodssi, and G. Skinner, “Development of ground-testable phase Fresnel lenses in silicon,” Exp. Astron. 20, 299–306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D 38, A218–A222(2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, “Focusing hard x-rays to nanometer dimensions by adiabatically focusing lenses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 054802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

G. K. Skinner, “Diffractive-refractive optics for high energy astronomy—II. Variations on the theme,” Astron. Astrophys. 383, 352–359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Lengeler, J. Tümmler, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and C. Raven, “Transmission and gain of singly and doubly focusing refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5855–5861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384, 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. V. Kopylov, A. V. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Application of the parabolic wave equation to x-ray diffraction optics,” Opt. Commun. 118, 619–636 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000  eV, Z=1–92,” Atomic Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. X. Yang, “Fresnel and refractive lenses for x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 328, 578–587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. T. Grubb, “Radiation damage and electron microscopy of organic polymers,” J. Mater. Sci. 9, 1715–1736 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arzoumanian, Z.

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Krizmanic, B. Morgan, R. Streitmatter, N. Gehrels, K. Gendreau, Z. Arzoumanian, R. Ghodssi, and G. Skinner, “Development of ground-testable phase Fresnel lenses in silicon,” Exp. Astron. 20, 299–306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 1999).

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barkusky, F.

F. Barkusky, A. Bayer, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 014906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, A.

F. Barkusky, A. Bayer, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 014906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benner, B.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D 38, A218–A222(2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Braig, C.

C. Braig, P. Predehl, and E.-B. Kley, “Efficient extreme ultraviolet transmission gratings for plasma diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 50, 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Braig, and P. Predehl, “Advanced Fresnel x-ray telescopes for spectroscopic imaging,” Exp. Astron. 27, 131–155(2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Braig and P. Predehl, “Efficient Fresnel x-ray optics made simple,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2586–2599 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Braig and P. Predehl, “Large-scale diffractive x-ray telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 21, 101–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cash, W. C.

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000  eV, Z=1–92,” Atomic Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Drakopoulos, M.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gehrels, N.

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Krizmanic, G. Skinner, and N. Gehrels, “Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission,” Exp. Astron. 20, 497–503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Krizmanic, B. Morgan, R. Streitmatter, N. Gehrels, K. Gendreau, Z. Arzoumanian, R. Ghodssi, and G. Skinner, “Development of ground-testable phase Fresnel lenses in silicon,” Exp. Astron. 20, 299–306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gendreau, K.

J. Krizmanic, B. Morgan, R. Streitmatter, N. Gehrels, K. Gendreau, Z. Arzoumanian, R. Ghodssi, and G. Skinner, “Development of ground-testable phase Fresnel lenses in silicon,” Exp. Astron. 20, 299–306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gendreau, K. C.

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghodssi, R.

J. Krizmanic, B. Morgan, R. Streitmatter, N. Gehrels, K. Gendreau, Z. Arzoumanian, R. Ghodssi, and G. Skinner, “Development of ground-testable phase Fresnel lenses in silicon,” Exp. Astron. 20, 299–306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

P. Gorenstein, “Focusing x-ray optics for astronomy,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 109740 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, D. T.

D. T. Grubb, “Radiation damage and electron microscopy of organic polymers,” J. Mater. Sci. 9, 1715–1736 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000  eV, Z=1–92,” Atomic Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Günzler, T. F.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D 38, A218–A222(2005).
[CrossRef]

Guttmann, P.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harteneck, B. D.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heim, S.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000  eV, Z=1–92,” Atomic Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

C. Braig, P. Predehl, and E.-B. Kley, “Efficient extreme ultraviolet transmission gratings for plasma diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 50, 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kohn, V.

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384, 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kopylov, Y. V.

Y. V. Kopylov, A. V. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Application of the parabolic wave equation to x-ray diffraction optics,” Opt. Commun. 118, 619–636 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krizmanic, J.

J. Krizmanic, B. Morgan, R. Streitmatter, N. Gehrels, K. Gendreau, Z. Arzoumanian, R. Ghodssi, and G. Skinner, “Development of ground-testable phase Fresnel lenses in silicon,” Exp. Astron. 20, 299–306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Krizmanic, G. Skinner, and N. Gehrels, “Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission,” Exp. Astron. 20, 497–503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krizmanic, J. F.

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmann, M.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D 38, A218–A222(2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurapova, O.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D 38, A218–A222(2005).
[CrossRef]

Lengeler, B.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D 38, A218–A222(2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, “Focusing hard x-rays to nanometer dimensions by adiabatically focusing lenses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 054802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, J. Tümmler, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and C. Raven, “Transmission and gain of singly and doubly focusing refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5855–5861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384, 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mann, K.

F. Barkusky, A. Bayer, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 014906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M. C.

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, B.

J. Krizmanic, B. Morgan, R. Streitmatter, N. Gehrels, K. Gendreau, Z. Arzoumanian, R. Ghodssi, and G. Skinner, “Development of ground-testable phase Fresnel lenses in silicon,” Exp. Astron. 20, 299–306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peth, C.

F. Barkusky, A. Bayer, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 014906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. D.

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Popov, A. V.

Y. V. Kopylov, A. V. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Application of the parabolic wave equation to x-ray diffraction optics,” Opt. Commun. 118, 619–636 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Predehl, P.

C. Braig, P. Predehl, and E.-B. Kley, “Efficient extreme ultraviolet transmission gratings for plasma diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 50, 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Braig, and P. Predehl, “Advanced Fresnel x-ray telescopes for spectroscopic imaging,” Exp. Astron. 27, 131–155(2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Braig and P. Predehl, “Efficient Fresnel x-ray optics made simple,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2586–2599 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Braig and P. Predehl, “Large-scale diffractive x-ray telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 21, 101–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raven, C.

B. Lengeler, J. Tümmler, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and C. Raven, “Transmission and gain of singly and doubly focusing refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5855–5861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reasenberg, R. D.

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, S.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, C. S.

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richwin, M.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sambruna, R. M.

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C. G.

C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, “Focusing hard x-rays to nanometer dimensions by adiabatically focusing lenses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 054802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D 38, A218–A222(2005).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, G.

J. Krizmanic, G. Skinner, and N. Gehrels, “Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission,” Exp. Astron. 20, 497–503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Krizmanic, B. Morgan, R. Streitmatter, N. Gehrels, K. Gendreau, Z. Arzoumanian, R. Ghodssi, and G. Skinner, “Development of ground-testable phase Fresnel lenses in silicon,” Exp. Astron. 20, 299–306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, G. K.

G. K. Skinner, “Diffractive x-ray telescopes,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 743485 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Skinner, “Design and imaging performance of achromatic diffractive-refractive x-ray and gamma-ray Fresnel lenses,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4845–4852 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Skinner, “Diffractive-refractive optics for high energy astronomy—II. Variations on the theme,” Astron. Astrophys. 383, 352–359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Snigirev, A.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D 38, A218–A222(2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, J. Tümmler, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and C. Raven, “Transmission and gain of singly and doubly focusing refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5855–5861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384, 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D 38, A218–A222(2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, J. Tümmler, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and C. Raven, “Transmission and gain of singly and doubly focusing refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5855–5861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384, 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Streitmatter, R.

J. Krizmanic, B. Morgan, R. Streitmatter, N. Gehrels, K. Gendreau, Z. Arzoumanian, R. Ghodssi, and G. Skinner, “Development of ground-testable phase Fresnel lenses in silicon,” Exp. Astron. 20, 299–306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Streitmatter, R. E.

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tümmler, J.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, J. Tümmler, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and C. Raven, “Transmission and gain of singly and doubly focusing refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5855–5861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. V.

Y. V. Kopylov, A. V. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Application of the parabolic wave equation to x-ray diffraction optics,” Opt. Commun. 118, 619–636 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Werner, S.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Yang, B. X.

B. X. Yang, “Fresnel and refractive lenses for x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 328, 578–587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zontone, F.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D 38, A218–A222(2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

G. K. Skinner, “Diffractive-refractive optics for high energy astronomy—II. Variations on the theme,” Astron. Astrophys. 383, 352–359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atomic Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000  eV, Z=1–92,” Atomic Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Astron. (4)

C. Braig and P. Predehl, “Large-scale diffractive x-ray telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 21, 101–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Krizmanic, B. Morgan, R. Streitmatter, N. Gehrels, K. Gendreau, Z. Arzoumanian, R. Ghodssi, and G. Skinner, “Development of ground-testable phase Fresnel lenses in silicon,” Exp. Astron. 20, 299–306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Krizmanic, G. Skinner, and N. Gehrels, “Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission,” Exp. Astron. 20, 497–503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Braig, and P. Predehl, “Advanced Fresnel x-ray telescopes for spectroscopic imaging,” Exp. Astron. 27, 131–155(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

F. Barkusky, A. Bayer, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 014906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, J. Tümmler, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and C. Raven, “Transmission and gain of singly and doubly focusing refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5855–5861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

D. T. Grubb, “Radiation damage and electron microscopy of organic polymers,” J. Mater. Sci. 9, 1715–1736 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, O. Kurapova, F. Zontone, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Refractive x-ray lenses,” J. Phys. D 38, A218–A222(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Rad. (1)

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard x-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384, 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

B. X. Yang, “Fresnel and refractive lenses for x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 328, 578–587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. V. Kopylov, A. V. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Application of the parabolic wave equation to x-ray diffraction optics,” Opt. Commun. 118, 619–636 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Braig, P. Predehl, and E.-B. Kley, “Efficient extreme ultraviolet transmission gratings for plasma diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 50, 066501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, “Focusing hard x-rays to nanometer dimensions by adiabatically focusing lenses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 054802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft x-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. K. Skinner, Z. Arzoumanian, W. C. Cash, N. Gehrels, K. C. Gendreau, P. Gorenstein, J. F. Krizmanic, M. C. Miller, J. D. Phillips, R. D. Reasenberg, C. S. Reynolds, R. M. Sambruna, R. E. Streitmatter, and D. L. Windt, “The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: a new concept for a high angular resolution x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70110T (2008).
[CrossRef]

X-Ray Opt. Instrum. (2)

G. K. Skinner, “Diffractive x-ray telescopes,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 743485 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Gorenstein, “Focusing x-ray optics for astronomy,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 109740 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 1999).

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